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					                                                                                           CAEP/8-WP/35
                      International Civil Aviation Organization                            2/12/09


                      WORKING PAPER



      COMMITTEE ON AVIATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (CAEP)
                                          EIGHTH MEETING

                                    Montréal, 1 to 12 February 2010

Agenda Item 4: Review of proposals relating to aircraft noise

       REPORT OF SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT TASK GROUP OF WORKING GROUP 1

                                       (Presented by the Secretary)



                                               SUMMARY
              This working paper contains the report of Working Group 1’s Supersonic
              Transport Task Group. The report describes the organization of the work and
              gives an overview of the work progressed related to Supersonic Transport
              noise tasks (N.06 – N.10).

              Action by the CAEP is in paragraph 3.



1.      INTRODUCTION

1.1     Introduction

1.1.1            The purpose of the Supersonic Transport Group (SSTG) of Working Group 1 (WG1) is to
progress the work items (N.06 through N.10 as defined in Appendix B) that are related to supersonic
transport noise issues, as defined at CAEP/7. The task group is composed of subject area experts from
certificating authorities, manufacturers, airlines, airport operators, and supersonic noise research experts
from Europe, the United States and Japan. Those experts include the three supersonic noise Research
Focal Points appointed at the CAEP/7 meeting to provide support to WG1, to the CAEP Steering Group
and to the CAEP. The focal point for the SSTG is Mr K. Orth (ICCAIA).

1.2     Meetings

1.2.1            SSTG has met six times within the CAEP/8 cycle. Locations and attendance are listed in
Appendix A.




(11 pages)
 CAEP.8.WP.035.4.2en.doc
CAEP/8-WP/35                                      -2-


2.      WORK PROGRAMME

2.1     Background

2.1.1          Detailed information about the organisation of the work programme of WG1 is provided
in CAEP/8-WP/32. The work items (Projects N.06 – N.10) that pertain to supersonic transport noise are
included in Appendix B of this working paper.

2.1.2            This report provides information on each of the five supersonic transport work items
describing the task and giving information on the successful completion or progress, as appropriate. The
supersonic noise Research Focal Points in CAEP/8-IP/15 provide details of the supersonic noise and
sonic boom research progress and status as provided to SSTG under work item N.08.

2.2     WG1 CAEP/8 Work Items

2.2.1           N.06: SST Standards: The work item called for investigation of the possibility of
adopting subsonic noise certification for supersonic aeroplanes. Annex 16, Volume I currently contains
in Chapter 12 a recommendation that the standards of Chapter 3 be used as guidelines for new supersonic
aeroplanes. The more stringent standards of Chapter 4 are currently applicable to new subsonic aeroplane
types. After considerable discussion, it was agreed in SSTG that there was insufficient detailed
information about the configurations and associated technologies that would be used for future supersonic
aeroplanes to permit definition of appropriate detailed noise certification standards for such aeroplanes.

2.2.1.1         A drafting group was formed which resulted in the proposal detailed to the last Steering
Group meeting in CAEP-SG/20093-WP/27. That proposed change to Chapter 12 is included in the
overall amendments to Annex 16, Volume I, provided in “Report of WG1”, CAEP/8-WP/32, following
the Steering Group recommendations.

2.2.2            N.07: SST Monitoring: This work Item calls for monitoring and reporting on SST
projects, including their prospects for operation. Little new project information has been forthcoming
since the last report at CAEP/7. At CAEP/7 it was reported that there were at least three major projects
under development, Aerion, Gulfstream, and Supersonic Aerospace International. The Russian
manufacturer Sukhoi has also provided information on their project to SSTG.

2.2.2.1           Most of the information provided related to these projects are about the technologies
being considered, without much specificity as to hard schedules for their development and possible entry
into service. Because of the large development costs, complicated by technical uncertainties and by the
tenuous state of economies, worldwide, introduction schedules are not yet evident. There remain
possibilities for consortiums to be developed from amongst the manufacturers or groups of manufacturers.

2.2.2.2         Much work continues on developing tools that will help define configurations to produce
target sonic boom characteristics, once community acceptable sonic boom characteristics are defined.

2.2.3             N.08: Monitor Boom Quantification Research: The Research Focal Points will be
providing a detailed discussion of the sonic boom research in CAEP/8-IP/15. There has been an increase
in activity related to sonic boom impacts on structures and on acceptability criteria for people within a
variety of structures. Research programs for sonic boom impacts within structures are actively being
pursued in the United States, Japan and Europe.
                                                   -3-                                    CAEP/8-WP/35


2.2.3.1         The SSTG has been taking a more active role in helping to define and direct research that
is intended to define sonic boom acceptability criteria. The United States proposed that SSTG help
develop a roadmap for such research. SSTG chartered a second ad-hoc group to work towards drafting an
initial roadmap for a program to develop such acceptability criteria. The group worked in conjunction
with NASA and the FAA in the United States to produce a draft for the April, 2009 meeting of SSTG. In
September 2009, NASA held a supersonic workshop for the group to continue developing more details of
the draft roadmap.

2.2.4           N.09: Consider Boom Standards: With the help of the Research Focal Points, the SSTG
is continually monitoring the state of sonic boom knowledge. SSTG has come to the conclusion that the
state of such knowledge is not sufficient at this time to trigger development of standards for sonic booms.
It is intended that the roadmap and resulting research will focus research on defining sonic boom
acceptability criteria that would then permit the start of development of sonic boom standards.
Preliminary schedules from the roadmap project would indicate that it may be appropriate to begin
developing such standards sometime after the middle of the next decade.

2.2.5           N.10: Reassess SST Terms of Reference: Recommendations for changes to terms of
reference for Supersonic Transport Noise have been considered and will be included as part of the WG1
recommendations.


3.      ACTION BY THE CAEP

3.1.1           The CAEP is invited to note the progress achieved and, after consideration, to approve
the proposal for updating Chapter 12 of Annex 16, Volume 1, provided in the changes shown in the
“Report of WG1”.

                                         ————————
                                                                                                                                             CAEP/8-WP/35
                                                                                                                                             Appendix A
                                                                                                                                             English only

                                                                      APPENDIX A

                                                      SSTG MEETINGS AND ATTENDANCE

       First SSTG Meeting, 18 October 2007                  Second Meeting, 13 March 2008                      Third Meeting, 20 May 2008
              Seattle, Washington, US                             Bordeaux, France                                 Montréal, Canada
Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)                      Mr Stephen ARROWSMITH, EASA (EU)                    Ms Celia ALVES RODRIGUES, ICAO (ICAO)
Dr Joelle BONNET, Dassault Aviation (ICCAIA)     Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)                         Mr Stephen ARROWSMITH, EASA (EU)
Mr Dominique COLLIN, SNECMA (ICCAIA)             Dr Joelle BONNET, Dassault-Aviation (ICCAIA)        Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)
Mr Yves COUSINEAU, Transport Canada (Canada)     Mr Jean-Michel BOITEUX, SNECMA (ICCAIA)             Dr Joelle BONNET, Dassault Aviation (ICCAIA)
Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/DCS/NO/NS (France)        Mr Gilles BOURGEOIS, Transport Canada (Canada)      Mr Gilles BOURGEOIS, Transport Canada (Canada)
Mr Joe DIPARDO, FAA (FAA)                        Mr François CHAUVIN, Air France (IATA)              Mr John BRIEGER, Bell Helicopter Textron (ICCAIA)
Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)            Mr Taras CHAYKA, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (SCAC)       Mr Ray BROWN, Delta Air Lines (IATA)
Mrs Laurie FISHER, FAA/AEE-100 (US)              Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/SFACT.N (France)             Mr François CHAUVIN, Air France (IATA)
Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)                     Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)               Mr Yves COUSINEAU, Transport Canada (Canada)
Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)                       Mr Chris EYERS, QinetiQ (UK)                        Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/SFACT.N (France)
Mr Carlos Moacir GRANDI, Embraer (ICCAIA)        Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)                        Dr Mohamed EL-HAKIM, CAA Egypt (Egypt)
Mr Mark HUISING, Bombardier (ICCAIA)             Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)                          Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)
Mr Eric JACOBS, Sikorsky (ICCAIA)                Dr Andrew KEMPTON, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)             Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)
Dr Ebad JAHANGIR, P&W (ICCAIA)                   Mr Jean-Luc KITTERY, F-DGAC (France)                Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)
Dr Andrew KEMPTON, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)          Prof Leonardo LECCE, University of Naples (Italy)   Mr Carlos Moacir GRANDI, Embraer (ICCAIA)
Dr Michelle R. KIRBY, GA Tech (US)               Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)                Dr Ebad JAHANGIR, Pratt&Whitney (ICCAIA)
Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)             Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)       Dr Andrew KEMPTON, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)
Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)    Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)                  Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)
Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)               Mr Ken ORTH, Gulfstream consultant (ICCAIA)         Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)
Mr Xavier OH, ACI (ACI)                          Mr Benny PANG, Bombardier (ICCAIA)                  Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)
Mr Ken ORTH, Gulfstream consultant (ICCAIA)      Mr Jim SKALECKY, FAA/AEE-100 (US)                   Mr Xavier OH, ACI
Mr David READ, Volpe Center (US)                 Mr Michael THACKER, Cessna Aircraft (ICCAIA)        Mr Ken ORTH, Gulfstream consultant (ICCAIA)
Mr Guy READMAN, EASA (EU)                        Mr Don WEIR, Honeywell (ICCAIA)                     Mr Guy READMAN, EASA (EU)
Mr Jim SKALECKY,FAA/AEE-100 (US)                 Mr Sam WHITE, CAA (UK)                              Mr Robert SOLAIMANI, Boeing (ICCAIA)
Mr Bob SOLAIMANI, Boeing (ICCAIA)                Mr Jia YU, Goodrich Aerostructures (ICCAIA)         Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)
Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)         Dr Yoshikazu MAKINO, JAXA (RFP)                     Mr Don WEIR, Honeywell (ICCAIA)
Mr Scott TATRO, Los Angeles Worlds Apart (ACI)   Gerard SCHKOLNIK, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)               Mr Birger WESTPHAL, LBA (Germany)
Mr Don WEIR, Honeywell (ICCAIA)                  Mr Michael THACKER, Cessna (ICCAIA)                 Mr Jia YU, Goodrich Aerostructures (ICCAIA)
Mr Sam WHITE, CAA (UK)                           Dr Joe GAVIN, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)                   Dr Yoshikazu MAKINO, JAXA (RFP)
Mr Jia YU, Goodrich Aerostructures (ICCAIA)      Dr Joe SALAMONE, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)                Ms Laurie FISHER, FAA/AEE-100 (US)
Dr Yoshikazu MAKINO, JAXA (RFP)                  Dr John WHURR, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)
Dr Victor SPARROW, Penn State (RFP)              Dr Francois COULOUVRAT, CNRS (RFP)
 CAEP/8-WP/35
 Appendix A                                                         A-2

Dr Peter COEN, NASA (US)                   Dr Victor SPARROW, Penn State U. (RFP)
                                           Dr Peter RATLOFF, Boeing (ICCAIA)
                                           Dr. Nicholas HERON, Dassault (ICCAIA)
                                           Dr Philippe De SAINT MARTIN, Dassault (ICCAIA)
                                           Dr Yann DEREMAUX, Dassault (ICCAIA)
        Fourth Meeting, 13 November 2008               Fifth Meeting, 23 April 2009         Sixth Meeting, 9 September 2009
                  Rome, Italy                                 Paris, France                        Los Angeles, USA
                                                                                                                                           CAEP/8-WP/35
                                                                              A-3                                                          Appendix A

Mr Costas BALTAS, Pratt & Whitney (ICCAIA)          Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)                       Mr Costas BALTAS, Pratt & Whitney (ICCAIA)
Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)                         Dr Joelle BONNET, Dassault-Aviation (ICCAIA)      Dr Jan BOETTCHER, EASA (EU)
Dr Joelle BONNET, Dassault-Aviation (ICCAIA)        Mr Gilles BOURGEOIS, Transport Canada (Canada)    Mr Ray BROWN, Delta Airlines (IATA)
Mr Gilles BOURGEOIS, Transport Canada (Canada)      Mr François CHAUVIN, Air France (IATA)            Mr Bruce CONZE, FAA (US)
Mr François CHAUVIN, Air France (IATA)              Mr Dominique COLLIN, SNECMA (ICCAIA)              Mr Yves COUSINEAU, Transport Canada (Canada)
Mr Dominique COLLIN, SNECMA (ICCAIA)                Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/SFACT.N (France)           Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/SFACT.N (France)
Mr Yves COUSINEAU, Transport Canada (Canada)        Dr Mohamed ELHAKIM, CAEP (Egypt)                  Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)
Mr Alain DEPITRE, DGAC/SFACT.N (France)             Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)             Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)
Mr Charles ETTER, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)               Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)                      Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)
Ms Laurie FISHER, FAA/AEE-100 (US)                  Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)                        Mr Carlos GOMES, ANAC (Brazil)
Mr Willem FRANKEN, EASA (EU)                        Mr Carlos GOMES, ANAC (Brazil)                    Mr Norris HAIGHT, Boeing consultant (ICCAIA)
Dr Raquel GIRVIN, FAA (US)                          Mr Carlos GRANDI, Embraer (ICCAIA)                Mr Eric JACOBS, Sikorsky (ICCAIA)
Mr Eric JACOBS, Sikorsky (ICCAIA)                   Dr Ebad JAHANGIR, CAEP (ICAO)                     Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)
Dr Ebad JAHANGIR, CAEP (ICAO)                       Dr Andrew KEMPTON, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)           Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)
Prof Leonardo LECCE, University of Naples (Italy)   Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)              Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)
Mr Pierre LEMPEREUR, Airbus (ICCAIA)                Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)     Mr. Ken ORTH, Gulfstream consultant (ICCAIA)
Dr Muni MAJJIGI, GE Aircraft Engines (ICCAIA)       Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)                Mr Benny PANG, Bombardier (ICCAIA)
Dr Mehmet MARSAN, FAA/AEE-100 (US)                  Mr Benny PANG, Bombardier (ICCAIA)                Mr David READ, Volpe Center (US)
Mr Ken ORTH, Gulfstream consultant (ICCAIA)         Mr Dave READ, Volpe Center (US)                   Mr Guy READMAN, EASA (EU)
Mr Benny PANG, Bombardier (ICCAIA)                  Mr Guy READMAN, EASA (EU)                         Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)
Dr Antonio PAONESSA, Alena Aeronautica (Italy)      Mr Rino SCARSELLI, University of Naples (Italy)   Mr Marcelo VERSANI, ANAC (Brazil)
Mr David READ, Volpe Center (US)                    Mr Robert SOLAIMANI, Boeing (ICCAIA)              Mr Don WEIR, Honeywell (ICCAIA)
Mr Guy READMAN, EASA (EU)                           Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)          Mr Sam WHITE, CAA (UK)
Mr Frank SEPE, ENAC (Italy)                         Mr Sam WHITE, CAA (UK)                            Mr Jia YU, Goodrich Aerostructures (ICCAIA)
Mr Bob SOLAIMANI, Boeing (ICCAIA)                   Dr Yoshikazu MAKINO, JAXA (RFP)                   Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)
Mr Alberto Shiniti TAKEDA, ANAC (Brazil)            Dr Hirokazu ISHII, JAXA                           Dr Francois COULOUVRAT, CNRS (RFP)
Mr Don WEIR, Honeywell (ICCAIA)                     Dr Jason MATISCHECK, Aerion (ICCAIA)              Dr Philippe De SAINT MARTIN, Dassault (ICCAIA)
Mr Birger WESTPHAL, LBA (Germany)                   Dr Philippe De SAINT MARTIN, Dassault (ICCAIA)    Dr Taras CHAYKA, Sukhoi (ICCAIA)
Mr Sam WHITE, CAA (UK)                              Dr Nicholas HERON, Dassault (ICCAIA)              Dr Yoshikazu MAKINO, JAXA (ICCAIA)
Mr Jia YU, Goodrich Aerostructures (ICCAIA)         Ms Laurie FISHER, FAA (US)                        Dr John MORGENSTERN, Lockheed (ICCAIA)
Dr Joe GAVIN, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)                   Dr Victor SPARROW, Penn State (RFP)               Dr Peter RADLOFF, Boeing (ICCAIA)
Dr Francois COULOUVRAT, CNRS (RFP)                  Dr Francois COULOUVRAT, CNRS (RFP)                Mr Sandy LIU, FAA (US)
                                                    Dr Taras CHAYKA, Sukhoi (ICCAIA)
                                                    Dr Peter RADLOFF, Boeing (ICCAIA)
                                                    Mr Bruno HARON, DGAC (France)
                                                    Mr Robbie COWART, Gulfstream (ICCAIA)
                                                    Dr John WHURR, Rolls-Royce (ICCAIA)
                                                    Mr Ken ORTH, Gulfstream Consultant (ICCAIA)




                                                                   ————————
                                                                                                                                            CAEP/8-WP/35
                                                                                                                                            Appendix B
                                                                                                                                            English only

                                                                               APPENDIX B

                                                                  SSTG CAEP/8 WORK PROGRAMME
Project         Short Title                   Description                 ICAO     Deliverable WG1 Work                     Support       Target          %
 No.                                                                     Assembly               Method                      (names/       (date)       complete1
                                                                           Task                                           organization)
 N.06        SST standards       Investigate adoption of current           B.1 (SARPs      Progress        Task Group   ICCAIA,           Last SG          100
                                 subsonic noise rules for supersonic       and GM),        report to SG    (SSTG)       U.S.,              before
                                 standards and make                        G.1 (super-     or recom-                    EASA,             CAEP/8
                                 recommendations as appropriate            sonic)          mendation                    France
                                                                                           concerning
                                                                                           Annex 16
                                                                                           SARPS
 N.07        SST monitoring      Monitor, and report on, status of         G.1 (super-     Report to       Task Group   ICCAIA,           CAEP/8           100
                                 SST projects and expectations for         sonic)          CAEP            (SSTG)       RFPs,
                                 their operation (nature, frequency                                                     U.S.,
                                 etc.)                                                                                  France
 N.08        Monitor Boom        Monitor, and report on, research to       G.1 (super-     Technical       Task Group   ICCAIA,           CAEP/8           100
             Quantification      characterize, quantify and measure        sonic)          report to       (SSTG)       RFPs,
             Research            (including metric) sonic boom                             CAEP                         U.S.,
                                 signatures, and their acceptability                                                    France
 N.09        Consider Boom       Assess the extent of knowledge on         B.1 (SARPs      Recommen-       Task Group   All WG1 Members   Last SG          100
             Standards           sonic boom and decide if it is            and GM), G.1    dation to add   (SSTG)                          before
                                 appropriate to consider drafting          (super-sonic)   (or not add)                                   CAEP/8
                                 standards for sonic boom                                  task to ToR
                                                                                           to draft
                                                                                           standard


 1
     Steps are 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% indicating the completion for WG1.
  CAEP/8-WP/35
  Appendix B                                                             B-2

Project        Short Title              Description              ICAO          Deliverable     WG1 Work         Support       Target       %
 No.                                                            Assembly                        Method          (names/       (date)    complete1
                                                                  Task                                        organization)
 N.10     Reassess SST       Reassess Terms of Reference for   G.1 (super-     Proposal for    Task Group   All WG1 Members   Last SG     100
          ToR                work on supersonic task           sonic)          revised terms   (SSTG)                          before
                                                                               of reference                                   CAEP/8



                                                               ————————
                                                                                                                                         CAEP/8-WP/35
                                                                                                                                         Appendix C
                                                                                                                                         English only

                                                        APPENDIX C

                                     EXAMPLE ROADMAP SCHEDULE




DRAFTCommunity Response to Sonic Boom: Notional Roadmap for
                                  Research to Support Standards Development
                                           2009                 2010             2011            2012                  2013               2014               2015        2016
Standards Development
                                      SSTG                  CAEP/8        SSTG                SSTG                 CAEP/9                      SSTG                      CAEP/10
 • Approved methodology, test         • Begin draft of                                        • Update             • Endorsed                  • Standards               •   Draft Boom
                                                                          • Initial Metric
   protocols, and draft standards       Methodology and                   • Surrogate a/c       Methodology          Community                   based on                    Standards
   and cert. criteria derived from      Protocol Document                   based test          and Protocol         Response                    Flt Test                •   Draft
   research and development                                                 protocols           Document             Methods and                                             Certification
                                                                                                                     Test Protocols                                          Criteria
Metric Development &
Validation                                              •Initial Indoor    • Initial Metric    •Revised           •Revised                            •Metric for
 • Simulator studies                                     & Outdoor          Assessment          Metrics            Metric                              Draft
 • Structural test and analysis                          Metrics                                                   Assessment                          Standards
 • Whole house simulation

Effects of the Atmosphere &
Flight Operations
                                        •Initial Turb. • Secondary        •Secondary & •Focus boom                •Revised            • Integrated   • Models for
 • Temp, humidity, turbulence            Model           boom prediction cutoff boom prediction &                  Turbulence           atmospheric Draft Cert.
 • Seasonal, geographical &                            • Initial Climatic noise         placement                  Model                effect model Criteria
   climatic                                              Effects           assessment guidance
 • Focus boom
 • Secondary booms & cut off
Research Aircraft
Development
 • Develop requirements                      •Preliminary design &                  •Fab go-ahead              •Roll out   •First       •Signature
 • Design fab. & test aircraft                risk reduction                                                                Flight       Validation
 • Validate signature

Community Exposure Tests
 •   Public awareness process        •Community                   •Community •Initial test       •Validated test • Community
 •   Surrogate a/c Tests                                                                          protocols & best Selection                          •Test phase 1
                                      exposure test                exposure protocols
 •   Test planning                    on Edwards                   test off                       practices       • Test planning                      complete
 •   Test conduction                  AFB                          range                                            complete

Statistical Extrapolation to
General Population Exposure                                                                                                                           •Correlation &
                                            •Initial route & exposure •Revised route &     •Single event                   •Community
 • Single event levels                                                                                                                                 Assessment of
                                             assessment                exposure assessment level                            Response                   Model for Draft
 • Number of exposures                                                                                                      Model
 • Response model                                                                                                                                      Standards


                                                               — END —

				
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