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                                 TECHNICAL NOTE
                                    NO. 92-2

                      IN THE COLD:
                   Environmental Medicine Guidance for
                         Cold-Weather Operations.

                                    Prepared by

                         A.J. Young, D.E. Roberts, D.P. Scott,
                        J.E. Cook, M.Z. Mays and E.W. Askew

                                      July 1992

                US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine
                       Natick, Massachusetts 01760-50007
                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUSTAINING HEALTH DURING COLD WEATHER........................................................ 2
     Cold   2
     Sun, Wind, Rain, Snow and Low Humidity............................................................ 11
     Food and Water During Cold-Weather Operations ............................................... 13
     Wounds, Disease and Nonbattle Injuries .............................................................. 17

SUSTAINING PERFORMANCE DURING COLD WEATHER.........................................                                             22
     Soldier Tasks .........................................................................................................    22
     NBC Operations.....................................................................................................        24
     Leadership .............................................................................................................   29

PREPARATION FOR COLD-WEATHER OPERATIONS ................................................ 32

KEY POINTS DURING COLD-WEATHER OPERATIONS.............................................. 34

APPENDICES...................................................................................................................   36
     A. Wind Chill Chart................................................................................................        37
     B. Cold-Weather Training Guidelines ...................................................................                    38
     C. Individual Cold-Weather Survival Kit................................................................                    39
     D. Further Reading ..............................................................................................          40

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST........................................................................................... 41

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................. 60
                       ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
        History is filled with examples of the significant impact of cold on military
operations. Among U.S. Army and Army Air Force troops, there were over 90,000 cold
injuries requiring medical treatment during World War II, and another 10,000 during the
Korean War, accounting for 10% of all casualties experienced during these conflicts.
German casualties due to cold injury during World War II were comparable or greater
than experienced by the U.S. Army. Given that the average air temperature recorded
when cold injuries were experienced during World War II was 30 oF, and that
temperatures       this   low    are
experienced over about 60% of
the earth’s surface, leaders must
                                         COLD-WEATHER STRESSORS
appreciate cold-weather effects on
soldier health and performance.
                                         DIRECT EFFECTS:
Prevention of cold injuries is the
                                         1. COLD TEMPERATURES
responsibility of commanders at all
                                         2. WIND, RAIN, SNOW, ICE, HUMIDITY
                                           INDIRECT EFFECTS:
        During cold weather, the
                                           3. FOOD AND WATER PROBLEMS
environment can directly affect an
                                           4. DISEASE AND NONBATTLE INJURY
individual’s         health      and
                                           5. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS
performance.        Cold can lower
body temperature, resulting in cold
injuries and impaired performance.
 Moreover, cold weather is often accompanied by wind, rain, snow and ice, which can
worsen the effects of cold, as well as contribute to injury and performance impairments in
and of themselves. Cold-weather conditions impair many aspects of normal military
functioning in the field, which can in turn influence soldier health and performance. Food
and water problems are common during cold weather, since requirements are high and
supply is difficult. Cold weather contributes to increased disease and nonbattle injury,
since maintaining proper field sanitation and personal hygiene is difficult, sick and injured
individuals are susceptible to cold injuries, and the use of indoor stoves may lead to burns
or suffocation. Operational problems often arise in cold weather. Heavy clothing
restricts movements, equipment often malfunctions, travel can be difficult, cold-weather
clothing and NBC protective clothing and equipment are difficult to integrate, and fogging
and freezing of eyepieces and windows occur frequently.

      While cold makes military tasks more difficult, it does not make them impossible.
Viewing cold as a challenge to be overcome is the key to the positive attitude required to
successfully complete the mission. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe how

the environmental conditions stress soldier health and performance during cold weather
operations, and to explain ways of overcoming that stress.



       Heat flows from places with high temperature to those with lower temperature.
When a person is surrounded by air or water having a lower temperature than body
temperature, the body will lose heat. If heat escapes faster than the body produces heat,
body temperature will fall. Normal body temperature is 98.6o F, and if body temperature
falls much below this, performance decrements and cold injuries can result.

How Cold Affects the Body:

1.     The colder the surrounding temperature is, the greater the potential for body heat
to escape. When the skin is exposed to cold, the brain signals the blood vessels in the
skin to tighten, and blood flow to the skin decreases. This is the body’s attempt to
prevent heat inside the body from being carried to the skin where it will be lost. However,
due to reduced blood flow to the skin , the skin temperature falls.

2.     When cold exposure lasts for more than an hour, cooling of the skin and reduced
blood flow to the hands leads to blunted sensations of touch and pain and loss of
dexterity and agility. This can impair ability to perform manual tasks and lead to more
severe cold injuries, since symptoms may go unnoticed.

3.     Nonfreezing cold injuries
can occur when conditions are
cold and wet (air temperatures          FIRST  AID FOR             CHILBLAIN       AND
            o         o
between 32 and 55 F) and the            TRENCHFOOT
hands and feet cannot be kept
warm and dry.           The most        1.       PREVENT FURTHER EXPOSURE
prominent nonfreezing cold injuries
are chilblain and trenchfoot.           2.       REMOVE   WET,         CONSTRICTIVE
       a.     Chilblain     is   a
nonfreezing cold injury which,          3.       WASH AND DRY INJURY GENTLY
while painful, causes little or no
permanent impairment. It appears        4.       ELEVATE, COVER WITH LAYERS OF
as red, swollen skin which is                    LOOSE, WARM CLOTHING AND
tender, hot to the touch and may                 ALLOW TO REWARM (PAIN AND
itch.   This can worsen to an                    BLISTERS MAY DEVELOP)
aching,    prickly    ("pins   and
needles") sensation and then            5.       DO NOT     POP BLISTERS, APPLY
numbness. It can develop in only                 LOTIONS   OR CREAMS, MASSAGE,
                                                 EXPOSE    TO EXTREME HEAT OR
                                                 ALLOW     VICTIM TO WALK ON
                                        5.       REFER FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT
a few hours in skin exposed to cold.

        b.     Trenchfoot is a very serious nonfreezing cold injury which develops when
skin of the feet is exposed to moisture and cold for prolonged periods (12 hours or
longer). The combination of cold and moisture softens skin, causing tissue loss and,
often, infection. Untreated, trenchfoot can eventually require amputation. Often, the first
sign of trenchfoot is itching, numbness or tingling pain. Later the feet may appear
swollen, and the skin mildly red, blue or black. Commonly, trenchfoot shows a distinct
"water-line" coinciding with the water level in the boot. Red or bluish blotches appear on
the skin, sometimes with open weeping or bleeding. The risk of this potentially crippling
injury is high during wet weather or when troops are deployed in wet areas. Soldiers
wearing rubberized or tight-fitting boots are at risk for trenchfoot regardless of weather
conditions, since sweat accumulates inside these boots and keeps the feet wet.
5.    Freezing cold injuries can occur whenever air temperature is below freezing (32
F). Freezing limited to the skin surface is frostnip. When freezing extends deeper
through the skin and flesh, the injury is frostbite.

       a.     Frostnip involves freezing of water on the skin surface. The skin will
become reddened and possibly swollen. Although painful, there is usually no further
damage after rewarming. Repeated frostnip in the same spot can dry the skin, causing it
to crack and become very sensitive. It is difficult to tell the difference between frostnip
and frostbite. Frostnip should be taken seriously since it may be the first sign of
impending frostbite.

        b.     Skin freezes at about    FIRST AID FOR FROSTBITE
28 F. As frostbite develops, skin
will become numb and turn to a          1.     PREVENT FURTHER EXPOSURE
grey or waxy-white color. The
area will be cold to the touch and      2.     REMOVE   WET,           CONSTRICTIVE
may feel stiff or woody. With                  CLOTHING
frostbite, ice crystal formation and
lack of blood flow to the frozen        3.     REWARM GRADUALLY BY DIRECT
area damages the tissues. After                SKIN-TO-SKIN CONTACT BETWEEN
thawing, swelling may occur,                   INJURED AREA AND NONINJURED
worsening the injury.                          SKIN OF THE VICTIM OR A BUDDY

                                        4.     EVACUATE    FOR     MEDICAL
                                               TREATMENT (FOOT INJURIES BY

                                        5.     DO NOT ALLOW INJURY TO
                                               REFREEZE DURING EVACUATION

                                        NOTE: 1) DO NOT REWARM A FROSTBITE INJURY IF IT
                                        COULD REFREEZE DURING EVACUATION; 2) DO NOT
                                        REWARM FROSTBITTEN FEET IF VICTIM MUST WALK
                                        FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT; 3) DO NOT REWARM
                                        INJURY OVER OPEN FLAME
6.     Body temperature falls when the body cannot produce heat as fast as it is being
lost. Hypothermia is a life threatening condition in which deep-body temperature falls
below 95 F.

       a.     Generally, deep-body temperature will not fall until after many hours of
continuous exposure to cold air, if the individual is healthy, physically active and
reasonably dressed. However, since
wet skin and wind accelerate body
heat loss, and the body produces less
heat during inactive periods, body      FIRST AID FOR HYPOTHERMIA
temperature can fall even when air
temperatures are above freezing if      1.     PREVENT         FURTHER        COLD
conditions are windy, clothing is wet,         EXPOSURE
and/or the individual is inactive.
                                        2.     REMOVE WET CLOTHING
       b.     Hypothermia can occur
rapidly during cold-water immersion         3.     INITIATE CPR,           ONLY       IF
(one hour or less when water                       REQUIRED
temperature is below 45 F). Because
water has a tremendous capacity to          4.     REWARM BY COVERING WITH
drain heat from the body, immersion                BLANKETS, SLEEPING BAGS
in water considered even slightly cool,            AND   WITH  BODY-TO-BODY
say 60o F, can cause hypothermia, if               CONTACT
the immersion is prolonged for several
hours.                                      5.     HANDLE   GENTLY    DURING
                                                   TREATMENT AND EVACUATION
          c.     Hypothermia       is    a
medical emergency. Untreated, it
results in death. Hypothermia may be difficult to recognize in its early stages of
development. Things to watch for include unusually withdrawn or bizarre behavior,
irritability, confusion, slowed or slurred speech, altered vision, uncoordinated movements
and unconsciousness. Even mild hypothermia can cause victims to make poor decisions
or act drunk (e.g., removing clothing when it is clearly inappropriate).

        d.    Hypothermia victims may show no heart beat, breathing or response
to touch or pain when in fact they are not really dead. Sometimes, the heart beat and
breathing of hypothermia victims will be so faint that it can go undetected. If hypothermia
has resulted from submersion in cold water, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should
be initiated without delay. However, when hypothermia victims are found on land, it is
important to take a little extra time searching for vital signs to determine whether CPR is
really required. Hypothermia victims should be treated as gently as possible during
treatment and evacuation, since the function of the heart can be seriously impaired in
hypothermia victims. Rough handling can cause life-threatening disruptions in heart rate.

 All hypothermia victims, even those who do not appear to be alive, must be evaluated by
trained medical personnel.

7.    Susceptibility to cold injury (non-freezing, freezing or hypothermia) is affected by
many factors.

       a.    Poorly conditioned soldiers are more susceptible to cold injury. They tire
more quickly and are unable to stay
active to keep warm as long as fit
soldiers.                                 COLD INJURY RISK FACTORS:
      b.        Dehydration     reduces    ENVIRONMENT RELATED:
skin blood flow.         This increases         COLD TEMPERATURES
susceptibility to cold injury.                  WIND
       c.     Fat is an excellent
insulator against heat loss. Therefore,    MISSION RELATED:
a very lean person may be                       SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
susceptible to the effects of cold, if          INADEQUATE SHELTER
clothing is inadequate or wet and/or            INACTIVITY (e.g. SENTRY)
the individual is relatively inactive           WETLAND OPERATIONS
such as during sentry duty.
       d.       Persons 45 years old or          INADEQUATE TRAINING
older may be less cold tolerant than             PRIOR COLD INJURY
younger persons, due to the decline in           POOR CLOTHING & EQUIPMENT
physical fitness that often occurs with          ILLNESS, INJURY, WOUNDS
aging.        This emphasizes the                FATIGUE
importance of physical fitness training,         DEHYDRATION
particularly for older soldiers.                 ALCOHOL
                                                 POOR NUTRITION
       e.     Alcohol, and to a lesser           LOW BODY FAT
extent caffeine, cause the blood                 CAMOUFLAGE PAINT ON SKIN
vessels in the skin to open which may
accelerate body heat loss.       Also,
alcohol and caffeine both increase
urine     formation,     leading    to
dehydration which can further degrade the body’s defenses against cold. Most
importantly, alcohol blunts the senses and impairs judgement, so the individual may
not feel the signs and symptoms of developing cold injury.

      f.     Nicotine decreases blood flow to the skin, therefore smoking or chewing
tobacco can increase susceptibility to frostbite.

        g.   Inadequate nutrition, illness and injury compromise the body’s responses to
cold and the ability to recognize and react appropriately to the symptoms of developing
cold injury.

      h.      In defensive fighting positions like foxholes or small vehicle crew
compartments, movement is very restricted and soldiers must often remain inactive inside
them for long periods of time, which can greatly increase risk of cold injury.

       i.      Individuals who have experienced a cold injury in the past are at greater risk
of experiencing a cold injury than other soldiers. These soldiers may be more sensitive to
the effects of cold, or they may not have learned how to properly protect themselves.

        j.        When the face and other exposed skin areas are covered by camouflage
paint, it is difficult to see the changes in skin color which signal the early development of

8.    For any given air temperature, the potential for body-heat loss, skin cooling and
decreased internal temperature is increased by wind.

        a.    Wind increases heat loss from skin exposed to cold air, in effect lowering
the temperature. The wind-chill index integrates windspeed and air temperature to
provide an estimate of the cooling power of the environment and the associated risk of
cold injury. The wind-chill is the equivalent still-air (i.e., no wind) temperature at which the
heat loss through bare skin would be the same as under the windy conditions. Appendix
A depicts the Equivalent Chill Temperature for different wind speeds and air
temperatures. To find the equivalent chill temperature in the table, find the row
corresponding to the windspeed, and read across until reaching the column
corresponding to the air temperature.

       b.      Wind-chill temperatures obtained from weather reports do not take into
account man-made wind. Man-made winds worsen the wind-chill effect of natural wind.
Individuals riding in open vehicles or exposed to propeller/rotor-generated wind can be
subject to dangerous windchill, even when natural winds are low.

8.      When assessing weather conditions for troops operating in mountainous regions
or for flight personnel in aircraft, altitude may need to be considered, if weather
measurements are obtained from stations at low elevations. Temperatures, windchills
and the risk of cold injury at high altitudes can differ considerably from those at low
      a.     In general, it can be assumed that air temperature is 3.6 F lower with every
1000 feet above the site at which temperature was measured.

      b.     Winds are usually more severe at high altitude and there is less cover
above the tree line.

        c.    Individuals are more susceptible to frostbite and other cold injuries at
altitudes above 8,000 feet than at sea level, due to the lower temperatures, higher winds
and lack of oxygen.

9.    Water can conduct heat away from the body much faster than air of the same

      a.     When clothing becomes wet due to snow, rain, splashing water, or
accumulated sweat, the body’s loss of heat accelerates. For example, when air
temperature is 40 oF, heat loss in wet clothing is double what it is in dry clothing.

      b.      Swimmers and persons working or wading in water can lose a great deal of
body heat even when water temperatures are only mildly cool. Individuals working in cold
water should be closely watched while they enter the water, since sudden plunging into
cold water can produce irregular heart beats, gasping and hyperventilation which could
cause inhalation of water, heart failure and drowning.

10.    Metal objects and liquid fuels that have been left outdoors in the cold can pose a
serious hazard. Both can conduct heat away from the skin very rapidly. Fuels and
solvents remain liquid at very low temperatures. Skin contact with fuel or metal at below
freezing temperatures can result in nearly instantaneous freezing. Fuel handlers should
use great care not to allow exposed skin to come into contact with spilled fuel or the metal
nozzles and valves of fuel delivery systems.

Minimizing Effects of Cold on the Body:

1.     Cold-weather clothing systems are designed to change with the wearer’s needs.
Cold-weather clothing protection is based on the principles of insulation, layering and
ventilation. By understanding these principles, soldier can vary their clothing to regulate
protection and stay comfortable.

       a.     Insulation depends on
the clothing thickness, properties of
the garment material, and the             WHEN      USING   COLD-WEATHER
amount of air trapped within the          CLOTHING, REMEMBER C-O-L-D:
garment. When clothing is dirty, the
material tends to be packed down,
which compromises insulation.
                                          keep it-------Clean
       b.      Wearing         clothing       avoid-------Overheating
ensembles in multiple layers allows
the wearer to remove or add clothes          wear it-------Loose in layers
to adjust the insulation to changes in
                                             keep it-------Dry
environment or workload as well as
to the individual’s own needs and
preferences.       Wearing layered
clothing is especially important for soldiers whose duties require them to frequently move
in and out of heated shelters, or to periodically undertake vigorous physical activity.

       c.      Physically active people can sweat even in extremely cold weather. Sweat
will be able to evaporate if clothing allows ventilation. Proper clothing will be made of
material that water vapor can pass through, and will allow the wearer to unzip and open
the clothing periodically to increase ventilation. If sweat can not evaporate, it will
accumulate, wet the clothing, compromising insulation. Sweat evaporation will be
compromised when clothing is dirty.

2.     The US Army has two different clothing systems in the inventory for issue to troops
operating in cold-weather conditions: a Cold/Wet-Cold/Dry Clothing System (FM 31-70),
and an Extended Cold-Weather Clothing System (FM 21-15).

       a.     Soldiers deployed to cold-weather areas from stations in warm regions are
usually issued the combination Cold/Wet-Cold/Dry Clothing System which can be
configured into two ensembles. The cold/wet ensemble is worn above 14 F, and the
cold/dry ensemble is worn below 14o F. The cold/dry ensemble protects down to -60o F.
The cold/wet configuration differs from the cold/dry in the number of layers and the choice
of boots. The system uses layers of wool/cotton fabrics to trap air for insulation, and a
water-repellent outer garment to maintain dryness.

       b.     Soldiers regularly stationed in cold-weather regions are usually issued the
Extended Cold-Weather Clothing System (ECWCS) which protects from +40o F to -60o F.
ECWCS consists of 5 layers: polypropylene underwear, a polyester fiberpile shirt and bib
overalls, polyester coat liner and nylon/cotton field pants, nylon/GORE-TEX® laminate
parka and trousers, and white nylon/cotton overgarments (parka and trousers). The inner

layers are made of fabrics which draw perspiration away from the skin. The outer layer is
made of a material which repels outside water while allowing perspiration to be
evaporated. Either the cold-weather vapor barrier boot (Type I) or the extreme cold-
weather vapor barrier boot (Type II) can be worn with one pair of nylon/cotton/wool socks
(OG-106). The Combat Vehicle Crewman’s Hood (Balaclava) is worn under the PASGT
helmet. The polypropylene layer and the nylon/GORE-TEX Parka and trousers should
always be worn to prevent perspiration from building up inside the clothes. Wool or wool
blends should not be worn in the intermediate layers of the ECWCS because they retain

3.    Several varieties of handwear protection are available for issue.

        a.    Most soldiers receive the standard light-duty leather glove which is worn
with a 50% wool, 50% nylon liner inserted. This handwear ensemble provides inactive
persons with about 30 minutes of protection from frostbite when air temperature is 0o F. If
temperatures are warmer and/or soldiers are physically active, the handwear ensemble
will provide effective protection for longer periods. The light-duty leather glove is not

         b.    When the standard light-duty leather glove provides inadequate protection,
(i.e. air temperature below 0o F, or more than 30 minutes of inactive exposure anticipated)
trigger finger or Extreme Cold Weather mittens and liners can be worn.

4.    Because cold-weather clothing is heavy and cumbersome, it greatly increases the
energy required for physical activity.

       a.    The increased effort can result in overheating and sweating especially
during hard work, and can contribute to increased fatigue.

       b.     Perspiration buildup should be minimized by opening clothing and removing
layers during heavy work and scheduling frequent short rest breaks.

5.     Wind-chill temperatures are widely reported by television and radio meteorologists,
but they really only estimate the danger of cooling the exposed flesh of inactive persons.
 Windproof clothing greatly reduces windchill effects. Rather than cancel outdoor training
at some arbitrary temperature limit, training should be modified and safety surveillance
should be increased as the weather becomes more severe, and the danger of tissue
freezing increases, as indicated in Appendix B.

6.    The US Army has several heaters for use inside tents during cold weather.

      a.    The type of heater required depends on the size of the tent or shelter to be
heated. Usually, the Yukon stove is used to heat the Arctic 10 Man Squad Tent, 5 man

tents and GP small tents. The Squad stove M1950 is used in improvised shelters or
small tents housing 2 to 5 men. Larger capacity stoves are available for the bigger tents.
 All these stoves provide heat and can be used to melt ice and snow or to heat water.

       b.     Care must be used to prevent melting the frozen ground beneath or around
the stove. By using a tent liner, removing loose snow and ice from the ground before
setting up the tent, and preventing the tent from overheating melting can be minimized. If
available, plywood tent flooring and metal trays under the stove can be used to reduce

6.     Shelter from weather is critical. The standard shelter is the tent, but improvised
shelters (snow caves, snow trenches, lean-tos etc.) can be constructed from local

7.    The recommended sleeping system is the Extreme Cold-Weather Sleeping Bag
(NSN 8465-01-033-8057), on top of a polyfoam sleeping mat (NSN 8465-01-109-3367).

        a.     Layers of tree boughs or mats under the sleeping bag help prevent heat
loss to the ground. The sleeping bag should be shaken out before using to add air to the
lining, which improves its insulation.

        b.    In tents, soldiers should sleep in long underwear and socks with all other
clothing hung up to dry. In improvised shelters, only boots and the outermost clothing
layer should be removed. Place clothing under the sleeping bag where it can add
insulation without accumulation moisture from the body. Ice should be removed from
vapor barrier boots, and they should be wiped dry on the inside and, if possible allowed to
air out before putting them on again. In extreme cold, a balaclava or some other head
cover should be worn while sleeping to protect the ears, neck and face. The arctic
mittens can be worn on the feet while inside the sleeping bag to help keep the feet warm.
 The head should not be put inside the sleeping bag, since moisture from the breath will
accumulate in the bag.

      c.     Air out the sleeping bag as often as possible to evaporate moisture.

8.     Feet, hands and exposed skin must be kept dry. Feet are particularly vulnerable
and extra foot care is required for cold-weather operations. Feet should be washed,
dried and dusted with a dry, antifungal powder (NSN 6505-01-008-3054) daily. Socks
must be changed whenever they become wet from exposure to rain or snow, or from
excess sweat. This may require changing into dry socks at least 2-3 times daily. Extra
socks can be air dried and then carried under BDU’s to warm.

9.    Humans protect themselves from cold primarily by avoiding or reducing cold
exposure using clothing and shelter. When this protection proves inadequate, the body

has biological defense mechanisms to help maintain correct body temperature. The
body’s internal mechanisms to defend its temperature during cold exposure include
vasoconstriction and shivering. When these responses are triggered, it is a signal that
clothing and shelter are inadequate.

        a.     Vasoconstriction is the tightening of blood vessels in the skin when it is
exposed to cold. The reduced skin blood flow conserves body heat, but, as described
earlier, can lead to discomfort, numbness, loss of dexterity in hands and fingers, and
eventually cold injuries.

        b.     Cold triggers shivering. Shivering increases internal heat production which
helps to offset the heat being lost. Internal heat production is also increased by physical
activity, and the more vigorous the activity, the greater the heat production. In fact, heat
production during intense exercise or strenuous work is usually sufficient to completely
compensate for heat loss, even when it is extremely cold. However, high intensity
exercise and hard physical work are fatiguing, can cause sweating and cannot be
sustained indefinitely. Moreover, most military occupational activities are less vigorous
than high-intensity exercise, so internal heat production will probably not be adequate to
offset heat loss.

        c.      Susceptibility to cold injuries can be minimized by maintaining proper
hydration and nutrition, avoiding alcohol, caffeine and nicotine, minimizing periods of
inactivity in cold conditions. Minimize the risk of cold injuries in fighting positions, sentry
points and observation points by placing pads, sleeping bags, tree boughs, etc inside
these positions to allow occupants to insulate themselves from the ground or snow. High
levels of physical fitness are also beneficial for soldiers participating in cold-weather

10.    Humans do not acclimatize to cold weather nearly as well as they can acclimatize
to hot weather, although repeated cold exposure does produce what is referred to as
habituation. Proper training before deploying into cold-weather regions is more important
for prevention of cold injuries than repeatedly being exposed to cold temperatures.

       a.     Following habituation, shivering is much less vigorous.        This is
advantageous because shivering is inefficient, and most of the heat produced is lost.
Also, shivering can interfere with sleep causing fatigue.

       b.      With habituation to repeated cold exposure, humans adjust mentally and
emotionally. Training outdoors in cold weather before deployment will help build
confidence in soldiers’ ability to physically, mentally and emotionally contend with the
stress of cold-weather conditions.

Sun, Wind, Rain, Snow and Low Humidity
       Besides cold temperatures, other environmental stressors will be encountered
during cold-weather operations. For example, winter operations in the coastal regions of
the eastern United States (or even the Arabian Gulf of Southwest Asia) may be
conducted during periods of near-freezing temperatures, rain and wind. Heavy snow may
be encountered during winter operations in areas of northern Europe and America, and
throughout the year in mountainous regions. In desert, arctic and high altitude regions,
very low temperatures are often accompanied by high winds, low humidity, very bright
sun, or a combination of those conditions. The influence of wind and rain on the severity
of cold stress has been discussed in the last section. However, sun, wind, snow, rain and
low humidity each present environmental health threats in and of themselves.

Understanding the Problems:

1.    Exposure     of
unprotected skin and          FIRST AID FOR OVEREXPOSURE TO SUN AND
eyes to sunlight may          WIND:
cause sunburn and
snow blindness.               1.    PREVENT FURTHER EXPOSURE
       a.      The threat     2.    TREAT MILD SUNBURN, WINDBURN AND
of sunburn and snow                 CHAPPING WITH MOISTURIZING LOTIONS,
blindness depends on                AND ASPIRIN OR TYLENOL, BUT EVACUATE
the intensity of sunlight,          FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT IF LARGE AREAS
not the air temperature.            OF SKIN ARE INJURED OR BLISTERED
       b.       Snow, ice     3.    FOR SNOW BLINDNESS, HAVE VICTIM REST
and     lightly     colored         IN DARK AREA WITH EYES COVERED WITH
objects reflect the sun’s           COOL, WET BANDAGES UNTIL EVACUATED
rays, increasing the
potential for injury.

        c.    Sunburned skin will appear red, hot to the touch, possibly swollen and
blistered, and will be painful.

       d.      Solar radiation can "sunburn" unprotected eyes resulting in snow
blindness. Sunburned eyes are painful. There is often a gritty feeling, profuse tearing,
blurred vision and headache.

      e.     Sunburn and snow blindness can last hours to days and can cause
temporary incapacitation.

2.     Cold weather is often accompanied by winds and low humidity.

        a.   Wind blown debris entering the eyes can lead to eye irritation, injury and

       b.      Low humidity and windy conditions cause drying of the lining (mucous
membranes) of the nose, mouth and throat causing nosebleeds, sore throat and minor
respiratory difficulties. Low humidity and wind can dry and cause chapping of the skin,
increasing the sensitivity to sunburn and chaffing.

3.    Working in snow, ice or mud is very strenuous. Building fighting positions and
moving troops requires more time and physical effort. Digging may be very difficult or
impossible in frozen ground.

Coping with the Problems:

1.     Prevent overexposing skin and eyes to solar radiation and wind.

       a.     Using sunscreen which contains para amino benzoic acid (PABA) or other
chemicals capable of blocking ultraviolet radiation (at least 15 Sun Protection Factor) and
covering exposed skin will prevent most sunburns. In cold weather, use alcohol-free
sunscreen lotion (Sunscreen Prep, NSN 6505-01-121-2336).

       b.    The use of protective eye-wear (Sunglasses, Polarized, NSN 8465-00-161-
9415) or goggles that block at least 90% of ultraviolet radiation helps to prevent snow
blindness. Not all commercially available sunglasses block enough solar radiation
to protect against snow blindness.

       c.     Chapped lips and skin can be prevented through the use of lip balm (Cold
Climate Lipstick, Antichap, NSN 6508-01-277-2903) and limiting exposure of skin to the
environment. Skin moisturizing lotion may help the skin retain water.

      d.    Covering the nose and mouth using a balaclava or scarf will limit the drying
of mucous membranes.

2.     Snowshoes or skis should be used for dismounted troop movement when loose
snow is deeper than 15 inches. Although easier than walking through deep snow,
snowshoeing and skiing are hard work and troops require proper equipment and training
to use these techniques.

3.     Building defenses in hard frozen ground may require engineer support in the form
of heavy equipment for digging and plowing.

Food and Water During Cold-Weather Operations
       Although warm clothing and proper shelter are the first line of defense in protecting
against the effects of cold weather, adequate food and water consumption are next in
importance. Food and water requirements of soldiers are high during cold-weather
operations and the effects of dehydration and inadequate diet are as serious as in hot

Understanding the Problems:

1.     Soldiers often become dehydrated during cold-weather operations.

       a.     Dehydration increases susceptibility to cold injuries.

       b.    Dehydration reduces work capacity, appetite, alertness, and can lead to
other medical problems such as constipation, kidney disorders and urinary infections.

2.     The body’s requirement for water is high during cold-weather operations.

       a.    Even in cold weather, sweating can contribute to body water losses. Heavy
clothing can cause overheating, especially during heavy work, which in turn leads to
sweating. In cold dry conditions, sweat may evaporate readily without the individual
sensing it.

       b.     Unless water intake exceeds body water losses, dehydration will result.

3.    Soldiers reduce their fluid intake during all field operations, but especially during
cold weather.

      a.      Because field rations contain less water than garrison food, soldiers take in
less water with the food they eat, and they usually do not drink enough to compensate.

      b.     Most people do not feel thirsty until they are already significantly
dehydrated, and thirst may even less noticeable in cold as in hot weather.

       c.    When weather is particularly cold and/or rainy, many soldiers purposely
allow themselves to become dehydrated to avoid having to leave comfortable shelter to
urinate outdoors.

       d.    When temperatures are extremely low, water in canteens and bulk supply
containers may freeze, restricting water availability.

4.     Water consumption requirements are more difficult to predict for cold-weather
operations than hot, because the effects of the environment are greatly modified by an
individual’s own bodily responses, the workload and the amount of clothing worn. This
individual variability affects the amount of water required to maintain proper hydration.

5.     Caloric requirements of soldiers are 25 to 50% higher during cold-weather
operations than in warm or hot weather.

        a.     Soldiers expend more energy during cold weather, due to wearing heavy
cold-weather gear and the increased effort required for working or walking in snow or mud
or for preparing positions in frozen ground.

      b.     The body uses more calories keeping itself warm when the weather is cold
which also contributes to the increased energy requirement.

6.     Ensuring that soldiers in the field receive adequate amounts of hot rations is a
major challenge for leaders during cold-weather operations, especially when soldiers are
not stationed close to field feeding facilities or kitchens where rations can be heated and
kept warm.

7.    Other field-feeding problems
often arise from freezing of rations         WATER     REQUIREMENTS     FOR
and a lack of readily available liquid       RECONSTITUTING       DIFFERENT
water to rehydrate dry ration                RATIONS:
                                             1.      MEAL-READY-TO-EAT - ABOUT
       a.     The     most     common                HALF A QUART FOR ALL
individual ration soldiers receive                   DEHYDRATED COMPONENTS
during cold-weather operations is the
Meal-Ready-To-Eat (MRE).           Four      2.      RATION, COLD WEATHER -
standard MREs per day must be
eaten to supply a soldier the                        A.     ABOUT HALF A QUART
necessary calories during cold                              FOR THE MAIN ENTREES
weather, if no other rations are                            ALONE
provided. The MREs include liquid-
containing components which can                      B.     ABOUT THREE QUARTS
freeze during cold-weather operations                       FOR   ALL    RATION
if these items are not kept warm by                         COMPONENTS
carrying them inside the clothing.
                                            3.     LONG-LIFE RATION PACKAGE -
       b.     Two other individual                 ABOUT ONE QUART FOR ALL
rations that U.S. soldiers may receive             COMPONENTS
during cold-weather operations are
the Ration, Cold Weather (RCW) and
the Long-Life Ration Packet (LLRP). Soldiers must eat one RCW per day or three LLRPs
per day to obtain the necessary calories during cold-weather operations.

       c.    Even when troops in the field are served hot rations, meal items which are
not normally heated (e.g. milk, juice, fruit cocktails, etc) can freeze making it difficult to
serve and consume these items.

Coping with Food and Water Problems

1.    Soldiers must drink even when they are not thirsty. Leaders should establish a
program of regularly scheduled enforced drinking.

       a.     Inactive persons in comfortable climates need a minimum of 2 quarts of
water a day to prevent dehydration.

       b.    Using this as a basis, a general recommendation for soldiers
participating in cold-weather operations is to consume about a half a quart (half a

canteen) of water with breakfast, lunch, dinner and before going to sleep at night, with an
additional half quart drunk every hour during the workday (more if the work is strenuous
enough to cause the individual to sweat) for a total of at least 5-6 quarts per day.

2.     Hydration status can be monitored by noting the color and volume of a soldier’s

      a.    Soldiers should be taught that the lighter the urine color, the better
hydrated; and that dark yellow urine is a sure indicator that fluid consumption
should be increased.

        b.    Squad leaders should attempt to monitor urine color of squad members.
This is easiest if the ground is snow covered or frozen and a specific site is designated for
squad members to urinate. The appearance of a dark yellow stain will be noticeable.
Even if the particular individual cannot be identified, the squad leader can intensify efforts
to encourage all squad members to increase fluid consumption.
3.    In extremely cold weather (below -10 F), standard issue canteens and the 5 gallon
metal water containers can freeze.

       a.     It may be possible to wear the canteen or a spare water bottle inside one’s
clothing, perhaps tied by a string around the neck. Spare canteens should be kept inside
heated vehicles or tents.

         b.    At least one full 5 gallon water container per squad should be kept thawed
at all times. When that container begins to be dispensed, another full container should be
brought inside for thawing. It can take several hours to thaw these containers in heated
vehicles or tents.

4.     Unmelted snow and ice should not be consumed for water.

     a.     Eating snow and ice irritates the mouth, wastes body heat, and if enough is
consumed, body temperature can be lowered.

        b.     When snow or ice is the only available source of water, it should be thawed
before being consumed. Melted snow and ice should not be considered as potable water
until appropriately purified.

5.       There may be no better investment for the health, strength and morale of
troops participating in cold-weather operations than to provide ample amounts of
hot palatable food supplemented with warm beverages. Proper prior planning is
critical to successfully ensure that food is still hot when received by the individual soldier.

      a.     When soldiers are cold, they will naturally consume more food and
beverages if served hot. Therefore, providing hot food and beverages offsets the usual
reduced consumption in the field, helps to warm the soldier and improves morale.

      b.    The 30-50% extra calories most individuals need per day during cold
weather can be obtained by eating a "normal" breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and then
supplementing with frequent snacks throughout the day.

      c.     It is a good idea to save food items issued with regular meals to be eaten
as between-meal snacks. Keep items such as MRE pouch bread, granola bars, candies,
cookies, crackers, cheese and peanut butter spreads in your pocket, handy for frequent

       d.    A good tip for soldiers participating in cold-weather operations is to eat a
large snack before bed at night. This will help keep the individual warmer during sleep
which prevents shivering and allows sounder, more restful sleep.

       e.     There are many "old soldier’s" tales concerning the best foods to eat during
cold weather, but most soldiers simply need to eat larger amounts of a balanced diet than
they do in garrison. Soldiers who must hike, ski or snowshoe for very long distances will
benefit by concentrating on eating more starchy foods such as crackers, potatoes,
cereals, bread and noodles.

6.      Whenever possible, latrines should be sheltered to protect users from the wind
and rain. Soldiers are less likely to restrict food and fluid intake, if they can use the
latrines without being overly exposed to the elements.

Wounds, Disease and Nonbattle Injuries

        Cold     weather       seriously
degrades medical operations in the         TREATMENT FOR SHOCK:
field. Combat casualties are more
susceptible to cold injuries, and at the   1.     KEEP WARM BY PLACING IN
same time the cold weather can                    SLEEPING BAG OR SUBSTITUTE
constrain field medical treatment and
evacuation.        Furthermore,      the   2.     RAISE LEGS ABOVE HEAD
incidence of disease and nonbattle                LEVEL,    UNLESS PATIENT’S
injuries is increased during cold-                HEAD IS INJURED
weather operations.
                                           3.     LOOSEN CLOTHING WITHOUT
Understanding the Problems:                       COMPROMISING  PROTECTION
                                                  FROM COLD
1.     Cold weather seriously affects
care of battle casualties.                 4.     IF CONSCIOUS, PROVIDE WARM
                                                  DRINKING FLUIDS
         a.     Medical     equipment,
medications         and     medication      5.     MINIMIZE DISCOMFORT AND
containers (e.g. IV containers, drug               PROVIDE REASSURANCE
ampules) may freeze. Administration
of intravenous medications or fluids is
difficult in subfreezing temperatures due to freezing of solutions in lines or containers.
Cold-weather clothing can make it more difficult to check the casualty for wounds and
initiate treatment.

        b.  Shock may develop more rapidly and more severely when casualties are
exposed to cold weather. Blood loss and shock increase susceptibility to frostbite and
hypothermia. Sick or injured persons are often unable to sense the development of

       c.     Evacuation procedures may require modification. Litter bearers fatigue
quickly in snow, ice or mud, slowing evacuation and putting the rescuers at risk of
overexertion and cold injury. Mobile ground transport may be limited by road conditions.
Air evacuation is limited by weather conditions. Open vehicles and aircraft can create
tremendous windchill requiring measures to protect patients from cold injury during

2.     The widespread use of stoves and heaters in tents, other types of shelters and
vehicles during cold-weather operations poses a risk of burns and injuries from
unventilated exhaust fumes.

       a.     Burns     result      from    IMMEDIATE FIRST AID FOR BURNS:
contacting hot surfaces, fires or
explosions of stoves and fuel sources.      1.     MOVE CASUALTY AWAY FROM
 Improper    fueling    and      lighting          FIRE, REMOVE BURNING OR
techniques, or inadequate ventilation              SMOLDERING CLOTHING
can result in the accumulation of
flammable fumes into the tent or            2.     CUT AWAY CLOTHING OVER
shelter. When ignited, these gases                 AND   AROUND    THE  BURN
may cause potentially fatal fires.                 UNLESS IT IS STUCK TO THE
        c.   "Tent     eye"     is   an
inflammation and irritation of the eyes     3.     COVER   BURN     WITH  DRY,
caused by exposure to fuel fumes                   STERILE DRESSING, TIED AT
which can accumulate in poorly                     EDGE, NOT OVER, THE BURN
ventilated shelters. Rubbing "itchy"
eyes can subsequently lead to eye           4.      DO NOT APPLY OINTMENTS,
infection.                                          SNOW OR ICE TO THE BURN,
                                                    AND DO NOT BREAK BLISTERS
       d.     Carbon monoxide (CO)               FIRST AID FOR TENT EYE AND
is a poisonous gas which cannot be               CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING:
seen or smelled, and is contained in
exhaust from stoves and vehicles. CO        1.         MOVE CASUALTY TO FRESH
can build up in closed spaces without                  AIR
being noticed. Soldiers seeking shelter
from the cold in poorly ventilated shelters 2.         ADMINISTER CPR IF NEEDED
or vehicles with the engine idling often
become victims of CO poisoning. Early       3.         REFER    TO     MEDICAL
signs of CO poisoning are headache,                    TREATMENT FACILITY FOR
confusion, dizziness or drowsiness.                    EVALUATION AND CARE
The lips and skin can become bright red.
Victims will loose consciousness, and
eventually die. Any person found unconscious in       a closed tent or vehicle should be
suspected of possible CO poisoning.

3.     Proper field sanitation is very difficult to maintain during cold-weather operations.
However, poor sanitation can lead to outbreaks of disease. Frequent close contact with
others in shelters, combined with increased individual susceptibility due to fatigue, also
contributes to the spread of disease.

      a.      Digging latrines and garbage pits can be difficult or impossible when the
ground is frozen and covered with snow and ice.

        b.     Soldiers are not inclined to walk far to use the latrine or garbage pit when it
is cold outside.

       c.     Improper food storage or garbage disposal will attract wildlife which can
destroy clothing and equipment and bring disease.

      d.     The limited availability of hot water and the discomforts associated with
undressing in the cold may discourage soldiers from maintaining proper personal

       e.      It is difficult to maintain dish or hand washing water hot enough to keep it
sanitary in cold weather, which can contribute to the spread of disease.

      f.      Untreated drinking water obtained by melting snow and ice can contain

4.    Accidents due to slipping, sliding, falling and vehicular accidents will be more
frequent during cold-weather operations.

       a.     Paths, walkways and roads are frequently muddy or frozen. Heat escaping
from the entrances of tents and buildings can cause cycles of thawing and freezing of the
ground surface which makes these areas particularly hazardous.

       b.    Fatigue, the hobbling effect of clothing, and the effect of hoods and hats on
vision and hearing will also contribute to accidents and falls.

Avoiding the Problems:

1.     Keep liquid medications and medical equipment from freezing.

       a.    Store medications and medical equipment in heated areas of vehicles and
shelters whenever possible to prevent freezing.

        b.      Some liquid medications can be carried inside the clothing of medical
personnel where body heat will prevent freezing. IV fluid bags (with required tubing
attached by tape) can be distributed to individual soldiers who can carry the bag inside
their clothing.

       c.    Extra clothing and blankets should be available for use by patients during
treatment and evacuation, especially when their clothing has become torn or soaked in
blood. Check patients awaiting treatment and evacuation for cold injuries frequently.

2. Proper precautions will prevent injuries associated with use of stoves and heaters.

      a.     Only properly trained soldiers should be permitted to set up, light, refuel and
maintain stoves.

       b.     When a stove is being used, a fire guard should be posted, horseplay in the
tent should be prohibited and the tent doorway should be kept clear to allow easy escape.

        c.      The stove pipe should be kept clean and be tall enough to draft properly.
Air intake to the stove should be unobstructed.

      d.      Shelters and tents should not be sealed so tightly that ventilation is
completely blocked.

      e.      Sleeping in running vehicles should not be permitted. When vehicles are
parked for long waits, occupants should ensure exhaust pipes are not blocked by snow
banks, and a window should be opened slightly.

3.     The principles of proper field sanitation are the same as in warm weather (FM 21-
10-1), but their application during cold weather may require some modification of

       a.     Locate latrines and garbage pits at minimum allowable distances from the
food service sites (100 yds, downwind) and unit water supply (100 feet), and clear snow
and ice from paths leading to these areas making them more accessible. Provide latrines
with as much shelter as possible. Commanders should prohibit indiscriminate waste
disposal, and insist that soldiers use only properly designated latrine and garbage areas.

        b.     Snow and ice covering the ground may disguise the natural slope, and
extra attention is required to ensure drainage from latrines and garbage pits is away from
living areas. Freshly fallen snow can hide ice patches or other hazards.

       c.     If the ground is too frozen to dig latrines and garbage pits, employ above
ground containers (such as an empty MRE box lined with a plastic bag) to collect refuse.
Ensure these containers are clearly marked to indicate the contents for proper disposal.
Urinals can be cut into snow walls outside the bivouac.

        d.       Leaders should provide warm water frequently to encourage personal
hygiene. Soldiers should wash hands, feet, face, and groin daily, whether or not heated
water is available. During training exercises lasting several weeks, commanders should
consider whether the health (and morale) benefits of arranging for troops to leave the field
briefly for a break at a heated shower site might outweigh the temporary suspension of a
realistic training scenario.

      e.     Food handlers should wash hands before serving and wear serving gloves
when serving rations. Maintain larger stocks of large sizes of food serving gloves for food
handlers to wear over glove liners when they are serving food outdoors.

       f.    Chlorine or iodine purification of cold water requires twice the usual amount
of chemical and an extra 15 minutes waiting period before the water is safe to drink.
Flavor enhancers should be added just before consuming the water.

4.    Snow should be removed from the ground before tents are set up. Slippery paths
and walkways should be marked with warning signs, and sand, salt, ashes or straw
should be spread to increase traction.


Soldier Tasks
       Clothing and equipment malfunctions occur more often during cold-weather.
Simply wearing bulky cold-weather clothing restricts peripheral vision, movement,
coordination and manual dexterity. In combination, these effects can adversely impact on
the ability of soldiers to satisfactorily perform various aspects of their tasks.

Appreciating the problems:

1.     The properties of materials used to make the clothing and equipment are altered
by low temperatures. Rubber, plastic, other manmade fabric and materials and even
metal can become brittle and break more easily when cold. Zippers will freeze and break
rendering garments unusable.

2.     Moisture condensation is a common source of problems during cold-weather

       a.    Moisture from sweat or breathing can become trapped in clothing or
sleeping bags, condense and degrade insulation.

       b.     Condensation accumulates inside tents when they are occupied. This adds
to the weight and makes it more difficult to pack and move them later.

3.    Restricted visibility during cold-weather operations hampers many soldier tasks
and, particularly compromises operation of vehicles or weapons systems.

        a.    Cold eyeglasses, goggles, and eyepiece sights fog over easily when warm
moist breath passes over them or when the wearer comes in from cold to warmed areas.
If this condensation freezes, it is difficult to remove.

       b.      Hoods, balaclavas and other cold-weather head gear can restrict vision,
particularly peripheral vision.

       c.     Depth perception is reduced when air temperature is below 0 oF and/or
windspeed is over 10 mph. Visual acuity is reduced when air temperature is below -20 oF
and/or windspeed is over 20 mph. These effects become particularly significant for
viewing distances greater than 20 feet.

       d.     Fog, rain, and blowing snow further restrict visibility. Ice fog is an unusual
condition which occurs when the air temperature is extremely low (usually -40° F), and
moisture arises from burning of fuels in engines, stoves, and firing weapon systems. The
fog is produced when the moisture is trapped under a layer of cold air and wind is not
present to disperse it.

4.     Weapon use in extreme cold creates problems that can affect the health and
performance of the operators.

       a.     Hangfires are more frequent, especially when the weapon has not recently
been fired, due to effect of cold temperatures on ammunition burning. The M72A2 Light
Antiassault Weapon (LAAW) is particularly susceptible to hangfires in the cold.

       b.     Backblast danger area is doubled for the LAAW and tripled for the Dragon.

5.    Metal can be dangerous to touch (contact frostbite) in extreme cold. Also,
moisture will condense on cold metal exposed to heat. Unless removed, it will freeze
upon being returned to the cold, and it can eventually lead to rusting. This is especially a
problem with individual weapons.

6.     Wearing gloves and mittens causes a significant loss of manual dexterity.

         a.     Conventionally-sized toggle switches, push-buttons, and control knobs, are
difficult to operate when wearing gloves or mittens.

       b.     The decreased dexterity might encourage individuals to remove these
protective items while working. However, removing the gloves will allow the fingers to
cool and reduce blood flow to the hands, which will, in turn, eventually degrade manual

       c.     Blowing warm breath into mittens or gloves can cause the hands to become
even colder. Air from the lungs contains moisture which will condense on the hands and
wet the inside of the handwear, contributing to further hand cooling.

Optimizing Ability to Perform Soldier Tasks:

1.     Whenever possible, avoid using clothing and equipment not specifically designed
or tested for use in cold weather. Do not force frozen or stuck parts to move when they
are cold. Lubricate zippers with wax.

2.     Problems resulting from moisture trapped in clothing can be avoided.

       a.    Minimize overdressing, and remove clothing layers upon entering heated
areas from the outside.

        b.     Dry clothing by hanging in the updraft of the tent to minimize condensation
within the tent.

     c.      Ensure tents and other shelters have adequate ventilation to prevent
accumulation of moisture.

3.    Compensate for decreased visibility by increasing vigilance and slowing down.
Avoid placing troops near traffic areas during periods of low visibility. Use antifogging
compounds on eyeglasses and goggles.

4.    Increase backblast areas and warm weapons by firing at a slow rate at first to
minimize the chance of a hangfire or other malfunction.

5.     To avoid condensation on small arms and ammunition, they should not be brought
inside warm areas, unless outside storage and security is not practical.

        a.     If weapons are brought inside, they should be covered and placed near the
floor to minimize condensation.

      b.     Clean and dry the weapon after it warms and before returning to cold.

6.     For tasks requiring manual dexterity, commercially-available light-weight
polypropylene glove liners can be worn beneath heavier gloves or mittens. The bulky
outer glove can be removed to perform a task. Periodically, the outer glove can be
replaced to allow the fingers to rewarm.

7.    Many tasks can be divided into shorter segments to allow rewarming breaks.

       a.    Brief rewarming periods in a heated shelter or even time spent with the
gloves replaced may maintain sufficient manual dexterity that the task can be completed.

      b.     It may be necessary to complete the task using a two team approach,
where one team works while the other rewarms.

       c.     Work should be planned to avoid extended periods of inactivity (e.g. in
formation or awaiting transportation) while troops are outside in the cold.

8.    With practice, soldiers will learn to compensate for the effects of gloves and other
cold-weather clothing on manual dexterity, movement and performance of various tasks.

NBC Operations
       Cold weather makes all facets of military operations more difficult than in
comfortable climates, but the impact on military functions during nuclear, biological or
chemical warfare operations can be particularly significant. Problems should be
anticipated and contingency plans should be developed before deploying.

Appreciating the Problems:

1.     Nuclear weapon effects may be different in cold-weather operations than under
other conditions. Troops operating in the open on frozen ground are especially
vulnerable since they will be unable to dig in rapidly.

        a.    Blast effects increase over frozen or ice-covered terrain due to the high
reflectivity. Therefore, the radius of nuclear blast is increased, and minimum safe
distances are increased.

       b.      Loose new fallen snow is a poor blast-reflecting surface, but a good thermal
and flash reflecting surface. Nuclear (and conventional) blasts can trigger avalanches.

      c.      Packed snow and ice as well as the frozen trunks and limbs of trees can be
converted into many small missiles from the blast of nuclear and conventional warheads.

       d.     Snow, frost and rain generally reduce thermal effects on combustible
materials on the ground surface, but subsurface fires may be ignited by nuclear
detonations in heavy tundra.

      e.    Fallout patterns are difficult to predict in cold, windy conditions, and
snowstorms can concentrate radioactive fallout.

2.    Chemical agents can be used in cold environments.
       a.     The high freezing point of some agents (HO mustard, 59 F; Hydrogen
Cyanide, 77oF) limits their effectiveness during cold weather. However, the freezing point
of certain nerve and choking agents is low (-40 to -77 oF), and some vaporize appreciably
at temperatures as low as -44 oF.

      b.     Frozen and unvaporized droplets of liquid chemical agents in snow will thaw
and vaporize when contacting warm skin or when carried into heated shelters on clothing
and equipment.

3.    Many biological agents are resistant to low temperatures and may retain their
potency for weeks or months, becoming active hazards during periods of warming and
thawing or when the agents are carried into shelter on an individual’s clothing.

4.     During thaws, radioactive fallout, chemical and biological agents can be spread far
from the areas of weapon deployment by natural run-off, and they can concentrate in
areas of poor drainage.

5.      The function of certain NBC protective clothing and equipment used to detect
radiation and chemical agents is degraded in the cold.

      a.      Eyepiece fogging is very common when protective masks are worn in cold

      b.     The material used in the chemical protective masks becomes stiff and brittle
as temperature falls below freezing, allowing them to be torn more easily than in warm
weather, and making it difficult to achieve a proper seal.

      c.     The drinking tube on the M17 series mask will become unusable when
temperatures are below freezing.

       d.     The batteries in the IM 27 used to check for radiation fail when the
instrument is not protected from below freezing temperatures.

       e.    The M8 chemical agent alarm requires the M253 winterization kit for use
below -18 F and has a 50 minute warm-up time.

       f.    Chemical agent detectors sense volatilized agent vapors. Agents do not
vaporize readily when it is cold, therefore the detectors respond more slowly to the
presence of agents.

       g.     The solution in the capsules of the M256/M256A1 chemical detection kit
can freeze, and once frozen, thawing may not restore their operability.

6.     Autoinjectors containing nerve agent antidote (atropine/pralidoxime) or
anticonvulsant (diazepam) freeze at temperatures below 29oF. Injection using the
autoinjector is more difficult when soldiers are wearing cold-weather clothing in addition to
the NBC protective clothing.

7.     Wearing NBC individual protective clothing and equipment during cold-weather
operations increases the risk of injuries due to cold, and even heat stress.

        a.     NBC protective clothing can restrict the blood flow to the fingers and areas
of the face, increasing the susceptibility of these areas to frostbite and limiting the ability
to visually inspect for signs of cold injury.

       b.    When mask carriers are worn outside the clothing at below freezing
temperatures, donning the cold mask can cause a contact freezing injury, especially at
the points where exposed rivet heads contact the face.

        c.   Wearing the impermeable NBC protective Battle Dress Overgarment (BDO)
over heavy cold-weather clothing creates the unexpected situation where heat exhaustion
becomes a real possibility for soldiers working hard, even in cold weather. The added
insulation and decreased ventilation of NBC protective clothing can result in heavy
sweating and wetting of the clothing during hard work, eventually degrading cold

8.     NBC decontamination procedures are extremely difficult under cold-weather

      a.    Water and decontamination solutions can freeze and may limit effective
decontamination of vehicles or equipment.

      b.    Skin decontamination with the M258A1 kit may result in frostbite during cold
weather. Use of the alcohol pads in the M258A1 kit will cool the skin.

Minimizing Effects of Cold on NBC Operations:

1.     Brush off or remove outer clothing before entering tents and heated shelters to
avoid bringing snow containing frozen contaminants inside to thaw and create an active
hazard. Whenever practical, shovel or plow away the top layer of snow on trails, roads
within occupied areas to limit the spread of contamination.

2.     When NBC weapons have been employed in a region during the winter, avoid low-
lying areas where run-off from rain or melting snow accumulates and concentrates toxic

3.    Practice integrating NBC protective clothing with cold-weather clothing.          Some
adjustments to procedure will be required.

      a.      Generally, the BDO is worn outside the cold-weather clothing, therefore, it
may be necessary to remove insulating clothing layers before putting the BDO on to
prevent overheating.

       b.     It may be necessary to add additional clothing layers over the BDO after it is
donned, if changes in weather or activity warrant additional warmth. However, any
garment worn over the BDO will become contaminated during chemical exposure and will
have to be discarded and replaced with new issue clothing (leaders should anticipate this
by having replacement clothing supplies on hand).

      c.     Vapor barrier boots or issue overboots are authorized replacements for
chemical protective boots.

       d.     Chemical protective gloves are worn underneath cold-weather gloves
and/or mittens. Individuals whose tasks require a high degree of manual dexterity may
be unable to wear cold-weather gloves or mittens over the rubber gloves. In this case,
polypropylene glove liners worn beneath the protective gloves may provide some
protection from the cold for brief periods.

4.     Using the protective mask during cold weather requires some additional procedural

        a.     Before deploying, rivet heads inside the mask should be covered with
adhesive tape to prevent contact frostbite. M3/M4 winterization kits should be installed
on chemical protective masks when temperatures are below 23 F. This kit contains an
ice particle prefilter fitted over inlet valves to prevent frost accumulating on the inlet caps.
It also includes two inlet valves and two nose cup valves of a softer rubber which do not
become hard and brittle in the cold.

       b.     When it is cold, the protective mask should be donned normally. However,
clearing the mask by the usual procedure of quickly exhaling maximally will fog the lens.
Instead, exhale steadily and slowly.

      c.      The M6A2 hood should not cover the mask voicemeter outlet valve when
the temperature is below freezing. The hood voicemeter outlet valve assembly cover
should be pulled open below the voicemeter outlet valve assembly cover to allow
moisture to escape.

        d.     To prevent the outlet valve from freezing and sticking to the seat, lift the
outlet valve cover and rotate the disc while exhaling.
      e.     In extreme cold weather (0 F), mask carriers must be worn under the parka
to keep the mask warm and flexible enough to provide an adequate seal. Practice
donning the mask when the carrier is worn under the parka.

        f.     CAUTION! Do not adjust the harness straps on the mask too tight. This
will reduce blood flow to skin of the head and face and can cause frostbite.

      g.     The mask should be wiped thoroughly dry after use to remove
condensation which could freeze inside.

5.     Radiation detectors (IM27), chemical agent alarms (M8), and chemical agent
detectors (M256/M256A1) should be kept warm to ensure that batteries remain
operational, and liquid containing components (M256/M256A1) do not freeze. Carry
spare batteries inside clothing to keep them warm.

6.     Chemical agent detector paper and tape and the M256/M256A1 detection kits all
require more time in the presence of agents to give a positive indication when
temperatures are below freezing.

       a.     Store the detector paper, tape and kits inside the parka during the day and
in sleeping bags at night to keep them warm.

       b.     In extreme cold, chemical agents may not vaporize sufficiently to be sensed
by detectors, so samples may need to be warmed in the presence of the detector, or the
vapors concentrated by placing a box or bag over the suspected contaminant, and
sampling from a small hole in the container.

7.    Protect nerve agent antidote and anticonvulsant autoinjectors from freezing.

       a.      Autoinjectors should not be carried in the external pocket on the BDO when
the temperature is below freezing. Place them in an inner pocket where body heat will
keep them warm. A string should be tied to the autoinjector, and threaded through the
outer layers of clothing and tied to an outside pocket or belt. The autoinjector can be
rapidly extracted from within the clothing by pulling the string (practice this).

      b.     Frozen autoinjectors are still usable after being thawed if they do not appear
broken or cracked.

8.     When it is cold enough to freeze decontamination solutions or if using the alcohol
pads from the M258A1 kit on the skin would risk frostbite, alternative dry decontamination
can be accomplished.

        a.     Combining 2 parts supertropical bleach (STB) and 3 parts diatomaceous
earth makes a dry mix that will inactivate chemical agents. This mixture can be used
directly on skin. Decontamination of footwear and skis is accomplished by using shuffle
boxes containing the dry mix. Other clothing and equipment can be dusted with the mix.

      b.     Heated air blown over contaminated items removes chemical agents by
evaporation. When decontamination solutions and/or water are frozen or not available,

decontamination of vehicles and equipment can be accomplished using high temperature
vehicle exhaust or forced air heaters. This decontamination method should only be
performed outdoors. The use of heated air will increase the contamination threat

        The principles of leadership are unaffected by the weather, but challenges for
leaders, especially of company and smaller-sized units, can be profound during cold-
weather. To accomplish their mission, leaders must contend with not only the enemy
soldier, but also the stress of the environment on their men and equipment. The
preceding sections have focused on the effects of cold-weather on the soldier’s biological
functioning. However, the stress of cold can also adversely affect attitudes and morale,
and leaders must recognize and cope with these effects to maintain their unit’s

Leadership Challenges During Cold-Weather Operations:

1.     Many soldiers come from regions where winters are not severe, and few have
experience in living outdoors during cold weather. Initially, these soldiers may lack
confidence in their ability to cope with and survive in cold weather.

2.     The cold can seem inescapable. Even when soldiers are able to stay warm, the
effects of cold are felt in awkward cold-weather clothing, confinement to small shelters
and problems with vehicles and equipment. These effects can lead to anger, frustration
and depression, which can be intensified by fatigue, periods of isolation, and shortened
daylight hours.

3.    When conditions are extremely cold and soldiers have been out for a long time,
the need to stay warm tends to become the individual’s most important concern.

      a.     Soldiers may appear confused or forget how to do things they are trained to

       b.    Some soldiers may attempt to shirk their duties in order to avoid the cold
and stay warm.

4.     The need to wear multiple layers of clothing or remain bundled in sleeping bags
and blankets when it is cold, combined with extended periods of darkness can intensify
the sense of isolation soldiers often experience when they are separated from home,
family and friends. Some individuals respond to these feelings by "huddling up" to keep
warm, and withdrawing within themselves away from the unit. This can lead to mental

sluggishness, increased susceptibility to cold injuries and degraded individual
effectiveness, unit discipline and cohesion.

Positive Leadership and the Right Attitude:

1.     Leaders are responsible for prevention of cold injury among their troops.

        a.     Susceptibility to cold injury varies considerably, and safe exposure times for
different soldiers exposed to the same cold-weather conditions also varies considerably.

       b.    Newly assigned individuals, who have little or no cold-weather training and
experience, often sustain cold injuries.

       c.    Individuals with considerable cold-weather experience (often those in
leadership positions) can become nonchalant or desensitized to the threat of cold injury.
Leaders must be alert for carelessness even in soldiers experienced in cold weather

2.     Soldiers need to be taught that when it is cold, tasks may be more difficult, but
they are not impossible. This knowledge comes from confidence in their abilities to
survive and perform their mission during cold weather.

       a.   Leaders can build this confidence in their men by having them practice
tasks and survival skills outdoors in the cold, and by conducting cold-weather training

       b.      After several weeks of training and experience in cold weather, most
soldiers learn to cope fairly well.

         c.     Leaders must be alert and avoid the common trap of allowing cold-weather
training exercises to become a camping trip. If this occurs, soldiers will become
distracted from accomplishing their mission. Leaders must remind soldiers that their job
is to fight, and the purpose of the training exercise is to teach them how to carry out their
mission under cold-weather conditions.

3.     A positive "can do" attitude helps in coping with cold-weather problems.
Leadership must be aggressive and emphasize personal example to demonstrate that
cold conditions are beatable.

       a.     Direct supervision should be emphasized.

     b.       Ensure duties are properly performed and work is equitably distributed
among all unit members.

      c.     Be alert for individuals who have withdrawn from the group. Leaders
should keep talking to their troops and encourage them to talk among themselves. Use
the buddy system to maintain communication, and to watch for cold injuries.

      d.    Keep soldiers busy and physically active. Plan operations carefully to avoid
unnecessary periods where troops are left standing in the open.

      e.     Use hot food to improve morale.

         f.     Allow soldiers more time to accomplish tasks and more discretion regarding
how to accomplish them. However, do not allow them to use the cold as an excuse for
failing to carry out orders, comply with unit SOP’s or properly perform their duties.

1.     Units preparing for deployment to cold-weather regions must anticipate the effects
of the environment on the functioning of the individual as well as the unit. Preparation
should involve steps to minimize those effects.

2.    Units deploying to cold-weather regions should conduct training for their soldiers
on basic winter skills and cold-weather survival.

       a.     It is especially important that soldiers practice wearing the cold-weather
clothing to ensure that the fit is correct
and the individual knows how to wear
the gear.                                   COLD-WEATHER PREPARATION

        b.    Soldiers should practice     INDIVIDUALS:
performing their duties while wearing
cold-weather clothing, since this gear     1.     LEARN    TO   SURVIVE   AND
restricts movement considerably. It is            PERFORM DUTIES IN THE COLD
also important that soldiers practice      2.     OPTIMIZE PHYSICAL FITNESS
donning individual NBC protective          3.     INSPECT-COLD        WEATHER
gear while wearing cold-weather                   CLOTHING AND SURVIVAL KIT
clothing.                                  4.     PRACTICE    WEARING    COLD-
                                                  WEATHER CLOTHING
3.    Winter      operations        are
physically demanding, and troops           UNITS:
must be in peak physical condition.
                                           5.     CONDUCT      COLD-WEATHER
        a.     Units on alert, or                 TRAINING
identified for future deployment,          6.     ESTABLISH    UNIT   BUDDY
should immediately optimize their                 SYSTEM
physical training program, and spend       7.     IDENTIFY       SUSCEPTIBLE
more time training outdoors in the cold           TROOPS
to accustom individuals to the effects     7.     EXPECT SUPPLY PROBLEMS
of cold.                                          (STOCK LARGE SIZE NBC
                                                  INDIVIDUAL      PROTECTIVE
         b.   Outdoor training should             CLOTHING)
not be halted when temperatures are        8.     REASSESS SOPs FOR FIELD
cold. Rather than restrict outdoor                FEEDING, FIELD SANITATION,
activities at certain preselected                 MEDICAL EVACUATION
temperatures, commanders should
establish    programs     in     which
increasingly                 protective

countermeasures (clothing, surveillance) are initiated as conditions become colder. Such
programs build soldiers’ confidence in their ability to complete their missions, regardless
of weather. Appendix B shows recommended guidance for conducting, modifying,
restricting or canceling training according to wind chill conditions.

4.     Each soldier must have an individual cold-weather survival kit (Appendix C) and all
required cold-weather clothing in proper working condition.

5.      In addition to conducting training to help soldiers prepare to operate and survive
under cold-weather conditions, unit leaders should anticipate how the disruption of normal
unit procedures due to the weather conditions will affect unit operations.

      a.     Identify unit members who have previously experienced cold injuries.
These soldiers should receive intensive retraining in cold-injury prevention, and should be
monitored closely while deployed.

      b.     Establish a buddy system within the unit to increase unit cohesiveness by
minimizing the sense of isolation that individuals may experience during cold weather. A
buddy system will also help to monitor for signs of cold injury among unit members.

       c.    Field sanitation procedures should be reviewed and modified as necessary
if weather conditions are extreme. Aspects requiring particular re-emphasis include
placement, maintenance and closure of latrines, water purification and sanitary food

       d.     Anticipate supply difficulties, and stockpile emergency stores of critical
items. During cold-weather operations, units will need more of the larger sizes of NBC
protective clothing, since soldiers wear NBC clothing over multiple layers of bulky cold-
weather clothing. Develop storage and transportation procedures for food and water
which prevent freezing, and determine measures for thawing frozen supplies. Set up
procedures for keeping rations hot until received by individual soldiers in the field.

        e.    Establish safety SOPs for personnel travelling by vehicle away from the
unit’s bivouac site. At a minimum, these SOPs should require all vehicle occupants to
have their sleeping bag, extra clothing and individual survival kit with them whenever they
leave the unit area. The SOPs should also designate what actions are to be taken in
case the vehicle is disabled or the driver becomes lost.










                    KEEP CALM

                 KEEP TOGETHER

                    KEEP WARM


                    KEEP SAFE


                                     APPENDIX A. Wind Chill Chart1
                                                        ACTUAL TEMPERATURE ( F)

       (IN MPH)
                       50       40      30        20     10       0     -10     -20     -30     -40      -50      -60

                                                  EQUIVALENT CHILL TEMPERATURE (oF)
        CALM           50       40      30        20     10       0     -10     -20     -30     -40      -50      -60

          5            48       37      27        16     6        -5    -15     -26     -36     -47      -57      -68

          10           40       28      16        3      -9      -21    -33     -46     -58     -70      -83      -95

          15           36       22       9        -5     -18     -32    -45     -58     -72     -85      -99     -112

          20           32       18       4        -10    -25     -39    -53     -67     -82     -96     -110     -124
          25           30       15       0        -15    -29     -44    -59     -74     -89    -104     -118     -133
          30           28       13      -2        -18    -33     -48    -63     -79     -94    -109     -125     -140
          35           27       11      -4        -20    -35     -51    -67     -82     -98    -113     -129     -145
          40           26       10      -6        -22    -37     -53    -69     -85    -101    -117     -132     -148
 (WIND SPEEDS               LITTLE DANGER                     INCREASING                  GREAT DANGER
 GREATER THAN                                                   DANGER

   To determine the windchill temperature, enter the chart at the row corresponding to the windspeed and read right until
reaching the column corresponding to the actual air temperature.

(In less than 5 hrs with dry skin.   (Exposed flesh may   (Exposed flesh may freeze within 30
   Greatest hazard from false          freeze within 1                 seconds)
        sense of security)                 minute)

      APPENDIX B. Cold-Weather Training Guidelines

                                                          Windchill Category
                                                                   (see Windchill table)

Work Intensity                          Little                         Increased                          Great
                                       Danger                           Danger                            Danger

         High                    Increased surveillance by        ECWCS or equivalent;              Postpone non-essential
                                 small unit leaders; Black        Mittens with liners; No          training; Essential tasks
Digging foxhole, running,            gloves optional -               facial camouflage;              only with <15 minute
marching with rucksack,           mandatory below 0 F;           Exposed skin covered and          exposure; Work groups of
  making or breaking               Increased hydration           kept dry; Rest in warm,           no less than 2; Cover all
         bivouac                                                   sheltered area; Vapor                 exposed skin
                                                                  barrier boots below 0 F

                                 Increased surveillance;           Restrict Non-essential          Cancel Outdoor Training
         Low                    Cover exposed flesh when           training; 30-40 minute
                                 possible; Mittens with          work cycles with frequent
  Walking, marching                liner and no facial           supervisory surveillance
 without rucksack, drill        camouflage below 10 F;
                                                                  for essential tasks. See
     and ceremony                 Full head cover below                    above.
                                  0 F. Keep skin dry -
                                 especially around nose
                                       and mouth.

                                   See above; Full head            Postpone non-essential          Cancel Outdoor Training
    Sedentary                       cover and no facial            training; 15-20 minute
                                 camouflage below 10 F;           work cycles for essential
  Sentry duty, eating,           Cold-weather boots (VB)         tasks; Work groups of no
resting, sleeping, clerical               o
                                 below 0 F; Shorten duty         less than 2 personnel; No
           work                  cycles; Provide warming                exposed skin

 These guidelines are generalized for worldwide use. Commanders of units with extensive extreme cold-weather
                training and specialized equipment may opt to use less conservative guidelines.

                              General Guidance for all Cold-Weather Training

           Skin:        Exposed skin is more likely to develop frostbite. Covering skin lessens risk,                   provided
                        that skin is kept dry. Avoid wet skin (common around the nose and mouth).                       Inspect
                        hands, feet, face and ears frequently for signs of frostbite.
       Clothing:        Soldiers must change into dry clothing at least daily and whenever clothing becomes
                        wet, and must wash and dry feet and put on dry socks at least twice daily.
     Nutrition:         4500 calories/day/soldier. Equivalent to 1 ration-cold weather (RCW) or 4 MRE’s.
     Hydration:         3-6 Liters (canteens)/day/soldier. Warm, sweet, non-caffeinated drinks preferable.
   Camouflage:          Prevents detection of cold injuries; Not recommended below 10 F.
Responsibilities:       Soldiers are responsible for preventing individual cold injuries. Unit NCO’s are responsible for the
                                          health and safety of their troops. Cold injury prevention is a command
     APPENDIX C. Individual Cold-Weather Survival Kit

1.   Waterproof matches and fire starter (eg. candle, magnesium match)
2.   Signaling devices (eg. mirror and whistle)
3.   Knife
4.   Pressure Bandage, cold-climate lip balm, sunglasses
5.   Compass
6.   Water container (metal for use in fire)
7.   Small amount of concentrated food (eg. MRE or Trail mix)
8.   Foil survival blanket (NSN 7210-00-935-6667)

                   APPENDIX D. Further Reading
Department of the Army, FM 31-70, Basic Cold Weather Manual

Department of the Army, FM 31-71, Northern Operations

Department of the Army, FM 31-72, Mountain Operations

Department of the Army, FM 21-10, Field Hygiene and Sanitation

Department of the Army, FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers

Department of the Army, TC 21-3, Soldiers Handbook for Individual Operations & Survival
in Cold Weather Areas

US Army Northern Warfare Training Center, Fort Greely, Alaska, Winter Operations

Department of the Navy, FMFM 7-23, Small Unit Leader’s Guide to Cold Weather

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Fort Drum, NY 13602-5004

Ireland Army Community Hospital
Fort Knox, KY 40121-5520

Irwin Army Community Hospital
Fort Riley, KS 66442-5036

Bassett Army Community Hospital
Fort Wainright AK 99703-7300

U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5422

Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center
Fort Detrick, MD 21701-5012

Director, Biological Sciences Division
Office of Naval Research - Code 141
800 N. Quincy Street
Arlington, VA 22217

Commanding Officer
Naval Medical Research and Development Command
NNMC / Bldg. 1
Bethesda, MD 20889-5044

Commanding Officer
U.S. Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility
Natick, MA 01760-5000

Commanding Officer
Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (code 32)
Naval Air Station
Pensacola, FL 32508-5600

Commanding Officer
Naval Medical Research Institute
Bethesda, MD 20889

Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute
Bethesda, MD 20889-5145

Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Warfighting Center (WF12)
ATTN: Combat Medical Section
Marine Corps Combat Development Center
Quantico, VA 22134-5001

Armstrong Medical Research Laboratory
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433

USAF Armstrong Medical Research Laboratory
ATTN: Technical Library
Brooks Air Force Base, Texas 78235-5301

Commanding Officer
Navy Environmental Health Center
2510 Walmer Ave
Norfolk, VA 23513-2617

        This document does not replace policy and doctrine established by Headquarters,
Department of the Army, Training and Doctrine Command, Forces Command, Northern
Warfare Training Center or contained in TB Med 508 and other official publications.
Rather, information has been integrated from a variety of sources including studies
conducted by this Institute, observations made by Institute personnel who have
accompanied troops deployed during cold-weather training exercises (e.g., Arctic Warrior),
and information extracted from manuals, circulars, and bulletins published concerning
aspects of cold-weather operations. A great many persons assisted the authors in the
preparation of this Technical Note, and in particular the editorial review and suggestion
for revision of COL. G.P. Krueger, LTC J.F. Glenn, LTC E. Davis, CPT E.A. Sheetz and
Drs. L.E. Banderet, R.P. Francesconi, M.P. Hamlet, R.W. Hubbard, R.F. Johnson, K.B.
Pandolf, J.F. Patton, M.N. Sawka and J.A. Vogel are gratefully acknowledged. We
encourage readers to provide critical comments and examples of their own "lessons-
learned" about cold-weather operations to:

              U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine
              ATTN: SGRD-UE-ZA
              Natick, MA 01760-5007

              Telephone: DSN 256-4811 Fax Number 256-5298
                           Commercial (508)651-(extension)
              E-Mail Address: Commander@NATICK-ILCN.ARMY.MIL


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