Ch. 9 : A New National Identity, 1812-1830
EQ: What forces and events affected national unity and growth?
I. American Foreign Policy: The U.S. peacefully settled disputes with
A. The U.S. and Great Britain settled their disputes over boundaries and
control of waterways. (map, p.299)
1. Rush-Bagot Agreement limited naval power on the Great Lakes for
both U.S. and Great Britain.
2. Convention of 1818 set the border between the U.S. and Canada
at 49 degrees latitude as far west at the Rocky Mountains.
3. Both agreed to share the Pacific Northwest.
B. The United States gained Florida in an agreement, the Adams-Onis
Treaty, with Spain.
C. With the Monroe Doctrine (exclusive statement of American policy
warning European powers not to interfere with the Americas;
“hands off the western hemisphere”), the U.S. strengthened its
relationship with Latin America. Latin American countries were
struggling with democracy; U.S. did not want European interference.
II. Nationalism and Sectionalism: A rising sense of national unity allowed
some regional differences to be set aside and national interests to be
A. Growing nationalism, a sense of pride and loyalty to a nation, led to
improvements in the nation’s transportation system.
1. American System, developed by Henry Clay, was a series of
measures intended to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient.
2. Roads and canals grew and improved: (map, p. 303)
a. Cumberland Road was first road built by the federal
b. Erie Canal ran from Albany to Buffalo, NY. Allowed goods and
people to move between towns on the Lake Erie to NYC and the
east coast. (song; pp.306-307))
3. Era of Good Feeling (1815-1825) was a period of peace, pride and
progress during the presidency of James Monroe.
B. The Missouri Compromise settled an important regional conflict. (p.
304) Conflict involved Missouri requesting statehood as a slave state.
North was opposed because it would through off the balance of slave
and free states. The Compromise declared:
1. Missouri enters slave, Maine free, thus maintaining the balance of
slave and free states.
2. Slavery prohibited in any new territories or states formed north
of 36 degrees latitude.
C. The outcome of the election of 1824 led to controversy. Four
candidates were running for president: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy
Adams, Henry Clay and I Can’t remember the name of the 4th guy. Any
way, Jackson wins the most popular votes, but not a majority of
electoral votes. Back then the House of Representatives was supposed
to choose the winner. They chose Adams, who then picked Clay as his
Secretary of State. Jackson and his followers cried “corrupt bargain.”
III. American Culture: as the U.S. grew, developments in many cultural areas
contributed to the creation of a new American identity.
A. American writers created a new style of literature.
1. Washington Irving – Rip Van Winkle (p. 313)
2. James Fenimore Cooper – The Leatherstocking Tales; Last of
the Mohicans (p.312)
3. Catharine Maria Sedgwick – A New-England Tale
B. A new style of art showcased the beauty of America and its people.
An example would be the Hudson River School whose painters created
paintings that reflected national pride and appreciation of the
American landscape. Other painters moved west to paint the American
frontier, trappers, traders, settlers and Native Americans.
C. American ideals influenced other aspects of culture, including religion
and music. Religious revivals often included spirituals, a type of folk
D. Architecture and education were affected by cultural ideals.
1. American cities began designing buildings based on Greek and
Roman architectural ideas.
2. State-funded public schools gained support with Massachusetts
creating the first state school board in 1837.