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					Ch. 9 : A New National Identity, 1812-1830

EQ: What forces and events affected national unity and growth?

I.    American Foreign Policy: The U.S. peacefully settled disputes with
      foreign powers.
      A. The U.S. and Great Britain settled their disputes over boundaries and
         control of waterways. (map, p.299)
         1. Rush-Bagot Agreement limited naval power on the Great Lakes for
             both U.S. and Great Britain.
         2. Convention of 1818 set the border between the U.S. and Canada
             at 49 degrees latitude as far west at the Rocky Mountains.
         3. Both agreed to share the Pacific Northwest.
      B. The United States gained Florida in an agreement, the Adams-Onis
         Treaty, with Spain.
      C. With the Monroe Doctrine (exclusive statement of American policy
         warning European powers not to interfere with the Americas;
         “hands off the western hemisphere”), the U.S. strengthened its
         relationship with Latin America. Latin American countries were
         struggling with democracy; U.S. did not want European interference.
II.   Nationalism and Sectionalism: A rising sense of national unity allowed
      some regional differences to be set aside and national interests to be
      A. Growing nationalism, a sense of pride and loyalty to a nation, led to
         improvements in the nation’s transportation system.
         1. American System, developed by Henry Clay, was a series of
             measures intended to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient.
         2. Roads and canals grew and improved: (map, p. 303)
             a. Cumberland Road was first road built by the federal
             b. Erie Canal ran from Albany to Buffalo, NY. Allowed goods and
                people to move between towns on the Lake Erie to NYC and the
                east coast. (song; pp.306-307))
         3. Era of Good Feeling (1815-1825) was a period of peace, pride and
             progress during the presidency of James Monroe.
      B. The Missouri Compromise settled an important regional conflict. (p.
         304) Conflict involved Missouri requesting statehood as a slave state.
         North was opposed because it would through off the balance of slave
         and free states. The Compromise declared:
          1. Missouri enters slave, Maine free, thus maintaining the balance of
             slave and free states.
          2. Slavery prohibited in any new territories or states formed north
             of 36 degrees latitude.
       C. The outcome of the election of 1824 led to controversy. Four
          candidates were running for president: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy
          Adams, Henry Clay and I Can’t remember the name of the 4th guy. Any
          way, Jackson wins the most popular votes, but not a majority of
          electoral votes. Back then the House of Representatives was supposed
          to choose the winner. They chose Adams, who then picked Clay as his
          Secretary of State. Jackson and his followers cried “corrupt bargain.”
III.   American Culture: as the U.S. grew, developments in many cultural areas
       contributed to the creation of a new American identity.
       A. American writers created a new style of literature.
          1. Washington Irving – Rip Van Winkle (p. 313)
          2. James Fenimore Cooper – The Leatherstocking Tales; Last of
             the Mohicans (p.312)
          3. Catharine Maria Sedgwick – A New-England Tale
       B. A new style of art showcased the beauty of America and its people.
          An example would be the Hudson River School whose painters created
          paintings that reflected national pride and appreciation of the
          American landscape. Other painters moved west to paint the American
          frontier, trappers, traders, settlers and Native Americans.
       C. American ideals influenced other aspects of culture, including religion
          and music. Religious revivals often included spirituals, a type of folk
       D. Architecture and education were affected by cultural ideals.
          1. American cities began designing buildings based on Greek and
             Roman architectural ideas.
          2. State-funded public schools gained support with Massachusetts
             creating the first state school board in 1837.

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