8.1 Cell Respiration HL.ppt

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					8.1.1 Comparison of Oxidation and Reduction
              Loss of hydrogen atoms

                            Gain of hydrogen atoms
8.1.1 Comparison of Oxidation and Reduction

                Oxidation:                                   Reduction:
often associated with the release of energy   often associated with the gain of energy
Reduction and Oxidation Reaction: Electron carriers
• Electron carriers are substances that accept and give up electrons as required.
• They often link oxidations and reductions in cells.
• Main electron carrier is NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), it is a coenzyme
• It’s Reduced to NADH when it picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ion

        NAD+ + 2 H                        NADH         +       H+

               FAD      + 2H                    FADH2

       Remember that 2H              =2     electrons          and      2H+
Aerobic respiration process
 8.1.2 Outline the process of Glycolysis
                          Glucose (6C)
                                   ADP + Pi
                    Glucose phosphate (6C)
                                   ADP + Pi
                   Fructose bisphosphate (6C)

      glicerate 3-phosphate           glicerate 3-phosphate
                (3C)                            (3C)

    NAD+            2 ADP + Pi       NAD+             2 ADP + Pi     OXIDATION
                                                                   ATP FORMATION

NADH + H +           2 ATP     NADH + H +              2 ATP

         Pyruvate (3C)                     Pyruvate (3C)
8.1.3 Structure mitochondrion like in micrographs
                 8.1.4 Aerobic respiration:
                      the link reaction
Piruvate (3C) enters the matrix of the mitochondria from the cytoplasm
        Piruvate (3C)


  CO2             NADH + H +

        Acetate (2C)
        Coenzyme A

    Acetyl Coenzyme A

 Piruvate + CoA +NAD+                   acetyl-CoA + CO2 +NADH + H+
  8.1.4 Aerobic respiration: Krebs Cycle

1. Acetyl Co-A combines with a 4-carbon
   compound (oxalacetate) to form a six-
   carbon compound (citrate)

2. A series of reactions take place where
   the citrate (6C) is both decarboxylated
   and dehydrogenated

3. The most important role of the Krebs
   cycle is to provide hydrogen that can be
   used in the electron transport chain to
   provide energy for the formation of
                    8.1.4 Aerobic respiration:
                    The electron transport chain
The final stage occurs in the inner membranes of mitochondria. This stage has two parts:
an electron transport chain and ATP production by ATP synthase
        8.1.5 Electron Transport Chain &
            Oxidative phosphorilation
Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis
8.1.5 Oxidative phosphorilation
    & Chemiosmotic theory
8.1.6 Relationship between structure of
    mitochondrion and its function

    1. Cristae: Large Surface Area for the Electron Transport Chain
    2. Intermembrane Space: Accumulation of protons
    3. Matrix: containing enzymes for the Krebs Cycle
Overview Aerobic Cell Respiration
ATP balance

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