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					United States   In cooperation with
Department of
Agriculture
                Illinois Agricultural
                Experiment Station
                                        Soil Survey of
Natural
Resources
                                        Adams County,
Conservation
Service                                 Illinois
                                        Part I
NRCS Accessibility Statement
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     information accessible to all of its customers and employees. If you are experiencing
     accessibility issues and need assistance, please contact our Helpdesk by phone at
     1-800-457-3642 or by e-mail at helpdesk@helpdesk.itc.nrcs.usda.gov. For assistance
     with publications that include maps, graphs, or similar forms of information, you may
     also wish to contact our State or local office. You can locate the correct office and
     phone number at http://offices.sc.egov.usda.gov/locator/app.
                                                                                                                   3




How To Use This Soil Survey
Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the Index to Map Sheets. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to that sheet.

Locate your area of interest on the map sheet. Note the map unit symbols that are in that area. Turn to the
Contents in Part I, which lists the map units by symbol and name and shows the page where each map unit is
described.

The Contents in Part II shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. Also see
the Contents in Part I and Part II for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.
4




        This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
    of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
    agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
    Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
    leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
        Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1996. Soil names and
    descriptions were approved in 1997. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
    publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1997. This survey was made
    cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Illinois
    Agricultural Experiment Station. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
    Adams County Soil and Water Conservation District. Financial assistance was provided
    by the Adams County Board and the Illinois Department of Agriculture.
        Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
    maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
    maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
    larger scale.
        The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of
    its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability,
    political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases
    apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
    communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should
    contact the USDA’s TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice or TDD).
        To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
    Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC
    20250-9410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
    provider and employer.


       Cover: An area of cropland in Adams County. Creal soils are in the foreground, and Lacrescent
    soils are on the wooded side slopes.




         Additional information about the Nation’s natural resources is available on the
       Natural Resources Conservation Service homepage on the World Wide Web. The
       address is http://www.nrcs.usda.gov.
                                                                                                                                                      5




Contents
How To Use This Soil Survey ................................. 3                671B—Biggsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
Numerical Index to Map Units ............................. 10                      slopes .......................................................... 35
Foreword ............................................................... 13    829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to 7
How This Survey Was Made ................................... 15                    percent slopes ............................................. 36
General Nature of the County ................................. 16              Blake Series ....................................................... 36
  History and Settlement ....................................... 17            3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2
  Agriculture .......................................................... 17        percent slopes, frequently flooded, long
  Physiography, Relief, and Drainage .................... 17                       duration ........................................................ 37
  Climate ............................................................... 18   Blyton Series ...................................................... 37
Formation and Classification of the Soils .......... 19                        3634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  Factors of Soil Formation ................................... 19                 slopes, frequently flooded ............................ 38
     Parent Material ............................................... 19        8634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
     Climate ........................................................... 21        slopes, occasionally flooded ........................ 38
     Living Organisms ........................................... 22           Bunkum Series ................................................... 39
     Relief and Drainage ....................................... 22            515B2—Bunkum silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
     Time ............................................................... 23       slopes, eroded ............................................. 40
  Classification of the Soils .................................... 23          515C2—Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
Soil Series and Detailed Soil Map Units .............. 25                          slopes, eroded ............................................. 41
  Atlas Series ........................................................ 26     515C3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 5 to 10
  7C2—Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,                                     percent slopes, severely eroded .................. 41
      eroded ......................................................... 27      515D2—Bunkum silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
  7C3—Atlas silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                       slopes, eroded ............................................. 42
      slopes, severely eroded ............................... 27               515D3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 10 to 18
  Baylis Series ...................................................... 28          percent slopes, severely eroded .................. 42
  472C2—Baylis silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      Caseyville Series ................................................ 43
      slopes, eroded ............................................. 29          267A—Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  472D2—Baylis silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                         slopes .......................................................... 44
      slopes, eroded ............................................. 29          267B—Caseyville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
  472E2—Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent                                         slopes .......................................................... 44
      slopes, eroded ............................................. 30          Clarksdale Series ............................................... 44
  Beaucoup Series ................................................ 30          257A—Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  1070L—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2                                           slopes .......................................................... 46
      percent slopes, undrained, occasionally                                  257B—Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
      flooded, long duration ................................... 31                slopes .......................................................... 46
  8070A—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2                                       Coatsburg Series ............................................... 47
      percent slopes, occasionally flooded ............ 32                     660C2—Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10
  Bethalto Series ................................................... 32           percent slopes, eroded ................................ 48
  90A—Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                       Creal Series ....................................................... 48
      slopes .......................................................... 33     337A—Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ...... 50
  90B—Bethalto silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                       Crider Series ...................................................... 50
      slopes .......................................................... 34     629C2—Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  Biggsville Series ................................................. 34           slopes, eroded ............................................. 51
  671A—Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                    629D2—Crider silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
      slopes .......................................................... 35         slopes, eroded ............................................. 51
6




    Downsouth Series .............................................. 51         6D2—Fishhook silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
    283B—Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                       slopes, eroded ............................................. 69
        slopes .......................................................... 53   6D3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 10 to 18
    283C2—Downsouth silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                     percent slopes, severely eroded .................. 69
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 53        Gorham Series ................................................... 70
    Drury Series ....................................................... 54    8162A—Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2
    75A—Drury silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ....... 54                          percent slopes, occasionally flooded ............ 71
    75B—Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ....... 55                      Goss Series ....................................................... 71
    75C2—Drury silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      606F—Goss gravelly silt loam, 18 to 35
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 55            percent slopes ............................................. 72
    Dupo Series ....................................................... 56     606G—Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60
    8180A—Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                           percent slopes ............................................. 72
        slopes, occasionally flooded ........................ 57               Greenbush Series .............................................. 72
    Edwardsville Series ............................................ 57        675B—Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    384A—Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                    slopes .......................................................... 73
        slopes .......................................................... 58   675C2—Greenbush silt loam, 5 to 10
    384B—Edwardsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                    percent slopes, eroded ................................ 74
        slopes .......................................................... 59   Haymond Series ................................................. 74
    El Dara Series .................................................... 59     3331A—Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    264C2—El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                       slopes, frequently flooded ............................ 75
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 61        Hickory Series .................................................... 75
    264D2—El Dara silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                  8E2—Hickory loam, 18 to 25 percent
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 61            slopes, eroded ............................................. 77
    264D3—El Dara sandy loam, 10 to 18                                         8F—Hickory silt loam, 18 to 35 percent
        percent slopes, severely eroded .................. 62                      slopes .......................................................... 77
    264E2—El Dara sandy loam, 18 to 25                                         8G—Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent
        percent slopes, eroded ................................ 62                 slopes .......................................................... 77
    264G—El Dara fine sandy loam, 35 to 60                                     Huntsville Series ................................................ 78
        percent slopes ............................................. 63        8077A—Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    Elsah Series ....................................................... 63        slopes, occasionally flooded ........................ 78
    3475A—Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent                                  Ipava Series ....................................................... 79
        slopes, frequently flooded ............................ 64             855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2
    Emery Series ..................................................... 64          percent slopes ............................................. 80
    538B2—Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                      855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 65            percent slopes ............................................. 81
    538C2—Emery silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                     Keller Series ....................................................... 81
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 66        470B2—Keller silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    Fishhook Series ................................................. 66           slopes, eroded ............................................. 82
    6B2—Fishhook silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                     470C—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 67            slopes .......................................................... 83
    6C2—Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                    470C2—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
        slopes, eroded ............................................. 68            slopes, eroded ............................................. 83
    6C3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 5 to 10                                      Keomah Series ................................................... 84
        percent slopes, severely eroded .................. 68                  17A—Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ... 85
                                                                                                                                                  7




17B—Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                        Marseilles Series .............................................. 100
     slopes .......................................................... 85   549D2—Marseilles silt loam, 10 to 18
Keswick Series ................................................... 86           percent slopes, eroded .............................. 101
651C2—Keswick loam, 5 to 10 percent                                         549D3—Marseilles silty clay loam, 10 to
     slopes, eroded ............................................. 87            18 percent slopes, severely eroded ........... 102
651C3—Keswick clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                    549F—Marseilles silt loam, 18 to 35
     slopes, severely eroded ............................... 87                 percent slopes ........................................... 102
651D2—Keswick loam, 10 to 18 percent                                        549G—Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60
     slopes, eroded ............................................. 88            percent slopes ........................................... 102
651D3—Keswick clay loam, 10 to 18 percent                                   Menfro Series ................................................... 103
     slopes, severely eroded ............................... 88             79B—Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
651E2—Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent                                            slopes ........................................................ 104
     slopes, eroded ............................................. 89        79C2—Menfro silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
Lacrescent Series .............................................. 89             slopes, eroded ........................................... 104
785G—Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35 to                                   79C3—Menfro silty clay loam, 5 to 10
     60 percent slopes ........................................ 90              percent slopes, severely eroded ................ 105
Lamont Series .................................................... 91       79D2—Menfro silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
175F—Lamont sandy loam, 18 to 35 percent                                        slopes, eroded ........................................... 105
     slopes .......................................................... 92   79D3—Menfro silty clay loam, 10 to 18
175G—Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent                                        percent slopes, severely eroded ................ 106
     slopes .......................................................... 92   801B—Orthents, silty, undulating ..................... 106
Lawson Series .................................................... 93       Osco Series ..................................................... 107
3451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                      86B—Osco silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ...... 108
     slopes, frequently flooded ............................ 93             Passport Series ................................................ 108
8451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                      652C2—Passport silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
     slopes, occasionally flooded ........................ 94                   slopes, eroded ........................................... 109
Lenzburg Series ................................................. 94        652C3—Passport silty clay loam, 5 to 10
871G—Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60                                         percent slopes, severely eroded ................ 110
     percent slopes ............................................. 95        864—Pits, quarries ........................................... 110
Lindley Series ..................................................... 95     Raveenwash Series ......................................... 111
559F—Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent                                         3368L—Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2
     slopes .......................................................... 96       percent slopes, frequently flooded,
559G—Lindley loam, 35 to 60 percent                                             long duration .............................................. 111
     slopes .......................................................... 97   Riley Series ...................................................... 112
Littleton Series ................................................... 97     8452A—Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
81A—Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                         slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 113
     slopes .......................................................... 98   Ross Series ...................................................... 113
Mannon Series ................................................... 98        8073A—Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
678A—Mannon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                           slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 114
     slopes .......................................................... 99   Rozetta Series .................................................. 114
678B—Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                       279B—Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
     slopes ........................................................ 100        slopes ........................................................ 115
829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to 7                                   279C2—Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
     percent slopes ........................................... 100             slopes, eroded ........................................... 116
8




    279C3—Rozetta silty clay loam, 5 to 10                                    855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5
        percent slopes, severely eroded ................ 116                      percent slopes ........................................... 131
    Rubio Series ..................................................... 117    Timula Series ................................................... 132
    111A—Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                      271C2—Timula silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
        slopes ........................................................ 117       slopes, eroded ........................................... 133
    Rushville Series ............................................... 118      271D2—Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
    16A—Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                       slopes, eroded ........................................... 133
        slopes ........................................................ 119   816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,
    Sarpy Series .................................................... 119         1 to 7 percent slopes .................................. 134
    8092A—Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,                                  816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,
        occasionally flooded ................................... 120              7 to 15 percent slopes ................................ 134
    Slacwater Series .............................................. 121       856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35
    3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2                                      percent slopes ........................................... 134
        percent slopes, frequently flooded, long                              856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60
        duration ...................................................... 121       percent slopes ........................................... 135
    Sparta Series ................................................... 122     Titus Series ...................................................... 135
    88B—Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent                                     8404A—Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
        slopes ........................................................ 122       slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 136
    Stookey Series ................................................. 123      Twomile Series ................................................. 137
    216B—Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                    8217A—Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
        slopes ........................................................ 124       slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 138
    216C2—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                  Ursa Series ...................................................... 138
        slopes, eroded ........................................... 124        655C2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet,
    216C3—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded ................... 140
        slopes, severely eroded ............................. 125             655C3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately
    216D2—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                     wet, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely
        slopes, eroded ........................................... 125            eroded ....................................................... 140
    216D3—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                 655D2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet,
        slopes, severely eroded ............................. 126                 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded ................. 140
    816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,                                     655D3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately
        1 to 7 percent slopes .................................. 126              wet, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely
    816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,                                         eroded ....................................................... 141
        7 to 15 percent slopes ................................ 126           Vesser Series ................................................... 141
    856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35                                   3396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
        percent slopes ........................................... 127            slopes, frequently flooded .......................... 142
    856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60                                   8396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
        percent slopes ........................................... 127            slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 143
    Tice Series ....................................................... 128   Virden Series .................................................... 143
    8284A—Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                50A—Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
        slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 129                   slopes ........................................................ 144
    Timewell Series ................................................ 129      Wakeland Series .............................................. 144
    855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2                                     3333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
        percent slopes ........................................... 131            slopes, frequently flooded .......................... 145
                                                                                                                                                      9




8333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                    37A—Worthen silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 145                     slopes ........................................................ 151
Wakenda Series ............................................... 146          37B—Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
441B—Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                          slopes ........................................................ 152
    slopes ........................................................ 147     Zumbro Series .................................................. 152
Winfield Series ................................................. 147       8349B—Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6 percent
477B—Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                         slopes, occasionally flooded ...................... 153
    slopes ........................................................ 148   References .......................................................... 155
477C2—Winfield silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                 Glossary .............................................................. 157
    slopes, eroded ........................................... 149        Tables .................................................................. 169
477C3—Winfield silty clay loam, 5 to 10                                     Table 1.—Temperature and Precipitation .......... 170
    percent slopes, severely eroded ................ 149                    Table 2.—Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall ........ 171
Wirt Series ....................................................... 150     Table 3.—Growing Season ............................... 171
3226A—Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                        Table 4.—Classification of the Soils .................. 172
    slopes, frequently flooded .......................... 150               Table 5.—Acreage and Proportionate
Worthen Series ................................................ 151             Extent of the Soils ...................................... 174


                                                                   Issued 2003
10




Numerical Index to Map Units
6B2—Fishhook silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,                                  81A—Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 98
  eroded ................................................................ 67    86B—Osco silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes .......... 108
6C2—Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,                                 88B—Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent slopes ... 122
  eroded ................................................................ 68    90A—Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 33
6C3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                   90B—Bethalto silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ........ 34
  slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 68             111A—Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ....... 117
6D2—Fishhook silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                        175F—Lamont sandy loam, 18 to 35 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 69          slopes ................................................................. 92
6D3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent                                  175G—Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent
  slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 69               slopes ................................................................. 92
7C2—Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,                                    216B—Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes .... 124
  eroded ................................................................ 27    216C2—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
7C3—Atlas silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                        slopes, eroded .................................................. 124
  slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 27             216C3—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
8E2—Hickory loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes,                                        slopes, severely eroded .................................... 125
  eroded ................................................................ 77    216D2—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
8F—Hickory silt loam, 18 to 35 percent                                            slopes, eroded .................................................. 125
  slopes ................................................................. 77   216D3—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
8G—Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent                                            slopes, severely eroded .................................... 126
  slopes ................................................................. 77   257A—Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
16A—Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                           slopes ................................................................. 46
  slopes ............................................................... 119    257B—Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
17A—Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                              slopes ................................................................. 46
  slopes ................................................................. 85   264C2—El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
17B—Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                              slopes, eroded .................................................... 61
  slopes ................................................................. 85   264D2—El Dara silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
37A—Worthen silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                             slopes, eroded .................................................... 61
  slopes ............................................................... 151    264D3—El Dara sandy loam, 10 to 18 percent
37B—Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                             slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 62
  slopes ............................................................... 152    264E2—El Dara sandy loam, 18 to 25 percent
50A—Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                        slopes, eroded .................................................... 62
  slopes ............................................................... 144    264G—El Dara fine sandy loam, 35 to 60
75A—Drury silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ............ 54                        percent slopes .................................................... 63
75B—Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ............ 55                      267A—Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
75C2—Drury silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,                                     slopes ................................................................. 44
  eroded ................................................................ 55    267B—Caseyville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
79B—Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ....... 104                           slopes ................................................................. 44
79C2—Menfro silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,                                  271C2—Timula silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  eroded .............................................................. 104       slopes, eroded .................................................. 133
79C3—Menfro silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                    271D2—Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes, severely eroded .................................... 105                slopes, eroded .................................................. 133
79D2—Menfro silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                         279B—Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................. 105           slopes ............................................................... 115
79D3—Menfro silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent                                   279C2—Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  slopes, severely eroded .................................... 106                slopes, eroded .................................................. 116
                                                                                                                                                          11




279C3—Rozetta silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent                                  538C2—Emery silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  slopes, severely eroded .................................... 116                slopes, eroded .................................................... 66
283B—Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                        549D2—Marseilles silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 53     slopes, eroded .................................................. 101
283C2—Downsouth silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      549D3—Marseilles silty clay loam, 10 to 18
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 53          percent slopes, severely eroded ....................... 102
337A—Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                            549F—Marseilles silt loam, 18 to 35 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 50     slopes ............................................................... 102
384A—Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                     549G—Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 58     slopes ............................................................... 102
384B—Edwardsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                     559F—Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 59     slopes ................................................................. 96
441B—Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                          559G—Lindley loam, 35 to 60 percent
  slopes ............................................................... 147      slopes ................................................................. 97
470B2—Keller silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,                                  606F—Goss gravelly silt loam, 18 to 35
  eroded ................................................................ 82      percent slopes .................................................... 72
470C—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                          606G—Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60
  slopes ................................................................. 83     percent slopes .................................................... 72
470C2—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                         629C2—Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 83          slopes, eroded .................................................... 51
472C2—Baylis silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                         629D2—Crider silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 29          slopes, eroded .................................................... 51
472D2—Baylis silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                        651C2—Keswick loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 29          eroded ................................................................ 87
472E2—Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent                                        651C3—Keswick clay loam, 5 to 10 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 30          slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 87
477B—Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                         651D2—Keswick loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes ............................................................... 148      slopes, eroded .................................................... 88
477C2—Winfield silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                       651D3—Keswick clay loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................. 149           slopes, severely eroded ...................................... 88
477C3—Winfield silty clay loam, 5 to 10                                         651E2—Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes,
  percent slopes, severely eroded ....................... 149                     eroded ................................................................ 89
515B2—Bunkum silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                          652C2—Passport silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 40          slopes, eroded .................................................. 109
515C2—Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                         652C3—Passport silty clay loam, 5 to 10
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 41          percent slopes, severely eroded ....................... 110
515C3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 5 to 10                                           655C2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 5 to
  percent slopes, severely eroded ......................... 41                    10 percent slopes, eroded ................................ 140
515D2—Bunkum silt loam, 10 to 18 percent                                        655C3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet,
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 42          5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded ........... 140
515D3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 10 to 18                                          655D2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 10
  percent slopes, severely eroded ......................... 42                    to 18 percent slopes, eroded ............................ 140
538B2—Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,                                   655D3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet,
  eroded ................................................................ 65      10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded ......... 141
12




660C2—Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      3368L—Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 48          slopes, frequently flooded, long duration .......... 111
671A—Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                       3396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  slopes ................................................................. 35     frequently flooded ............................................. 142
671B—Biggsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                       3451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 35     slopes, frequently flooded ................................... 93
675B—Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                        3475A—Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes ................................................................. 73     slopes, frequently flooded ................................... 64
675C2—Greenbush silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                                      3634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  slopes, eroded .................................................... 74          frequently flooded ............................................... 38
678A—Mannon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                           3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2
  slopes ................................................................. 99     percent slopes, frequently flooded, long
678B—Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                                             duration .............................................................. 37
  slopes ............................................................... 100    8070A—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2
785G—Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35 to                                         percent slopes, occasionally flooded .................. 32
  60 percent slopes ............................................... 90          8073A—Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
801B—Orthents, silty, undulating .......................... 106                   occasionally flooded ......................................... 114
816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 1                                         8077A—Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  to 7 percent slopes ........................................... 126             slopes, occasionally flooded ............................... 78
816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 7                                         8092A—Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  to 15 percent slopes ......................................... 126              occasionally flooded ......................................... 120
829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to 7                                       8162A—Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
  percent slopes .................................................... 36          slopes, occasionally flooded ............................... 71
855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2 percent                                   8180A—Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  slopes ............................................................... 131      occasionally flooded ........................................... 57
855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5 percent                                   8217A—Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes ............................................................... 131      slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 138
856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35                                         8284A—Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
  percent slopes .................................................. 127           slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 129
856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60                                         8333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  percent slopes .................................................. 127           slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 145
864—Pits, quarries ............................................... 110          8349B—Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6 percent
871G—Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60                                           slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 153
  percent slopes .................................................... 95        8396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
1070L—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2                                            slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 143
  percent slopes, undrained, occasionally                                       8404A—Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
  flooded, long duration ......................................... 31             slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 136
3226A—Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,                                    8451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  frequently flooded ............................................. 150            slopes, occasionally flooded ............................... 94
3331A—Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                         8452A—Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes, frequently flooded ................................... 75               slopes, occasionally flooded ............................. 113
3333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                        8634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
  slopes, frequently flooded ................................. 145                slopes, occasionally flooded ............................... 38
                                                                                                  13




Foreword
        This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in Adams County.
    It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also highlights
    soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
    selected land uses on the environment.
        This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
    agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management needed
    for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials, engineers,
    developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use, select sites
    for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure proper performance.
    Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
    management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them
    understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
        Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
    special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
    intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
    treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users
    identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations on various land uses. The landowner or
    user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and regulations.
        Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
    seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
    unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
    poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
    poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
        These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
    survey. The location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the
    survey area is described, and information on specific uses is given. Help in using this
    publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Natural
    Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


    William J. Gradle
    State Conservationist
    Natural Resources Conservation Service
                                                                                                                 15




Soil Survey of
Adams County, Illinois
             By Robert A. Tegeler, Natural Resources Conservation Service

             Fieldwork by Ronald D. Collman, Charles Love, and Robert A. Tegeler,
             Natural Resources Conservation Service

             Map compilation by Ronald D. Collman, James K. Hornickel, Paula K. Shannon,
             Robert A. Tegeler, William M. Teater, Tonie J. Endres, Gerald V. Berning, and
             Kenneth A. Gotsch

             United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
             in cooperation with
             the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station




How This Survey Was Made                                  to predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the
                                                          kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific location
    This survey was made to provide information about     on the landscape.
the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area.        Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
The information includes a description of the soils and   into one another as their characteristics gradually
miscellaneous areas and their location and a              change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
discussion of their suitability, limitations, and         soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
management for specified uses. Soil scientists            the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
observed the steepness, length, and shape of the          soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of     supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
crops and native plants; and the kinds of bedrock.        vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to
They dug many holes to study the soil profile, which is   verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil.   determine the boundaries.
The profile extends from the surface down into the           Fieldwork in Adams County consisted primarily of
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The     soil transects conducted by soil scientists. Soil
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other      transects provide a systematic method for sampling a
living organisms and has not been changed by other        specific soil type. Soil borings are taken at regular
biological activity.                                      intervals. Soil scientists then record the characteristics
    The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey       of the soil profiles that they studied. They note soil
area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the     color, texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind
geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural          and amount of rock fragments, distribution of plant
vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil and             roots, reaction, and other features. This information
miscellaneous area is associated with a particular kind   can then be used to run statistical analyses for specific
of landform or with a segment of the landform. By         soil properties. The results of these analyses, along
observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in the        with other observations, enable the soil scientists to
survey area and relating their position to specific       assign the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
segments of the landform, a soil scientist develops a     Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic
concept, or model, of how they were formed. Thus,         class has a set of soil characteristics with precisely
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist     defined limits. The classes are used as a basis for
16                                                                                                        Soil Survey of




comparison to classify soils systematically. Soil           General Nature of the County
taxonomy, the system of taxonomic classification used
in the United States, is based mainly on the kind and         Pam Peter, resource conservationist, Adams County Soil and
character of soil properties and the arrangement of         Water Conservation District, helped prepare this section.
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
                                                                Adams County is the westernmost county in Illinois
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
                                                            (fig. 1). It is bounded by Hancock County on the north;
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
                                                            by Schuyler, Brown, and Pike Counties on the east; by
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they
                                                            Pike County on the south; and by the Mississippi River
could confirm data and assemble additional data
                                                            on the west. The total area of the county, including
based on experience and research.
                                                            water, is 557,470 acres (U.S. Department of
    While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
                                                            Commerce, 1994). In 1994, the population of Adams
of the soils in the area generally are collected for
                                                            County was 66,329. Quincy, the county seat and
laboratory analyses. Soil scientists interpret the data
                                                            largest city in the county, had a population of 39,859
from these analyses as well as the field-observed
                                                            (Two Rivers Regional Council of Public Officials,
characteristics and the soil properties to determine the
                                                            1994).
expected behavior of the soils under different uses.
                                                                This soil survey updates an earlier survey of Adams
Interpretations for all of the soils are field tested
through observation of the soils in different uses and
under different levels of management. Some
interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, and
some new interpretations are developed to meet local
needs. Data are assembled from other sources, such
as research information, production records, and field
experience of specialists. For example, data on crop
yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
    Predictions about soil behavior are based not only
on soil properties but also on such variables as
climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are
predictable over long periods of time, but they are not
predictable from year to year. For example, soil
scientists can predict with a fairly high degree of
accuracy that a given soil will have a high water table
within certain depths in most years, but they cannot
predict that a high water table will always be at a
                                                                                          Springfield
specific level in the soil on a specific date.
    Aerial photographs used in this survey were taken
in 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996. Soil scientists also
studied U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps
(enlarged to a scale of 1:12,000) and
orthophotographs to relate land and image features.
Specific soil boundaries were drawn on the
orthophotographs. Soil boundary lines were adjusted
to coincide with the U.S. Geological Survey
topographic map contour lines and tonal patterns on
aerial photographs.
    The descriptions, names, and delineations of the
soils in this survey area do not fully agree with those
of the soils in adjacent survey areas. Differences are
the result of a better knowledge of soils, modifications
in series concepts, or variations in the intensity of
mapping or in the extent of the soils in the survey
areas.                                                             Figure 1.—Location of Adams County in Illinois.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   17




County published in 1979 (Bushue, 1979). It provides      Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
additional data and updated soil interpretations and
has larger maps, which show the soils in greater              Adams County has extremes in topography. The
detail.                                                   majority of the county lies in the Galesburg Plain, but
                                                          the western edge of the county is in the Dissected Till
History and Settlement                                    Plains Section. Both of these physiographic divisions
                                                          are part of the Central Lowland Province (Leighton
    The first Europeans to visit the survey area were     and others, 1948). The northeastern and central parts
the two great French explorers, Father Marquette and      of the county have large, nearly level areas that are
Louis Joliet, who traveled the upper Mississippi River    part of a relatively undissected upland drainage divide
in 1673. Adams County was established as a                between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. Other
separate county in 1825. The county’s first settler was   large nearly level areas are on the flood plain along
Justus I. Perigo, who settled in what is now Fall Creek   the Mississippi River. Small nearly level areas and
Township in the southwestern part of the county in        larger gently sloping to very steep areas are in other
1821.                                                     parts of the county. The present topography is mainly
    The founder of Adams County and the city of           the result of erosion, even though the Illinoian
Quincy was John Wood. Wood later became State             terminal moraine extends from about the
Senator, Lieutenant Governor, and Governor of Illinois.   northwestern part of the county to the southeastern
He was an outstanding officer in the Civil War. His       part. The highest point in the county is about 860 feet
home, a Southern-style mansion, now houses the            above sea level and is near the southwest corner of
Quincy Historical Society and is one of the Prairie       the county. The lowest point is about 460 feet above
State’s leading architectural and historic landmarks.     sea level and is on the flood plain along the Mississippi
    In 1858, the sixth Lincoln-Douglas debate took        River near the southwest corner of the county. Of
place in Quincy at the present site of Washington Park.   interest is a home belonging to the Funk family near
It is estimated that 10,000 to 12,000 people attended     the village of Beverly. Water falling on the east side of
this debate (Drury, 1955).                                the home drains into the Mississippi River, and water
    Adams County has well developed transportation        falling on the west side of the home drains into the
facilities. These include Federal and State Highways,     Illinois River.
railroads, buses, barges, and an airfield. U.S.               Pigeon, Mill, and Bear Creeks are the major
Highways 24 and 172 and State Highways 57, 61, 94,        tributaries to the Mississippi River from Adams County.
96, and 104 provide good access to cities, towns, and     The Illinois River basin is drained by McKee Creek
outlying areas throughout the county.                     and tributaries of the LaMoine River.
                                                              Soils in the upland areas of the county formed
Agriculture                                               mainly in loess and glacial drift. The combined
                                                          thickness of these materials is mostly 30 to 60 feet.
    Agriculture is a major economic force in Adams        The soils on bottom land formed in sandy to clayey
County. In 1992, the county had 1,500 farms that          water-deposited material. This material is more than
made up 464,834 acres. The average farm size was          100 feet thick throughout most of the Mississippi River
310 acres (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994). In         flood plain and 5 to 50 feet thick on small flood plains
1996, Adams County ranked among the top ten               in the county.
counties in Illinois in numbers of total cattle and in        The native vegetation of Adams County was
numbers of milk cattle and beef cattle. Corn,             primarily hardwood timber, but the nearly level
soybeans, wheat, and hay are the major crops. In          prairie areas in the northeastern and central parts
1996, about 153,000 acres was used for corn, about        of the county supported native prairie grasses and
126,000 acres was used for soybeans, about 36,400         forbs.
acres was used for wheat, and about 24,600 acres              Water is plentiful on most of the flood plain along
was used for hay. Also grown in the county are            the Mississippi River. In the upland part of the county,
sorghum and specialty crops, such as sweet corn,          the supply of water is generally sufficient for farm use.
sod, ornamental plants, and nursery stock. There are      Most wells are drilled into limestone or, in places, into
several orchards. Hogs and cattle are the main            sand or gravel beds in the glacial drift. More than
livestock. In 1996, the number of swine was 93,500        2,500 water impoundments cover nearly 2,700 acres
and the number of cattle was 42,300 (Illinois             in Adams County. Several rural water districts serve
Department of Agriculture and USDA, 1997).                Adams County and its towns and villages.
18




Climate                                                   plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring
                                                          and the first freeze in fall.
   Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation        The total annual precipitation is 39.69 inches. Of
for the survey area as recorded at Quincy in the period   this total, 28.45 inches, or about 72 percent, usually
1961 to 1990. Table 2 shows probable dates of the first   falls in April through October. The growing season for
freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring. Table 3     most crops falls within this period. The heaviest 1-day
provides data on length of the growing season.            rainfall during the period of record was 5.84 inches on
   In winter, the average temperature is 27.1 degrees     June 14, 1950. Thunderstorms occur on about 48 days
F and the average daily minimum temperature is 19.0       each year, and most occur in June and July.
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which              The average seasonal snowfall is 23.2 inches. The
occurred on December 22, 1989, is -22 degrees. In         greatest snow depth at any one time during the period of
summer, the average temperature is 74.3 degrees and       record was 21 inches. On the average, 38 days of the
the average daily maximum temperature is 84.4             year have at least 1 inch of snow on the ground. The
degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which          number of such days varies greatly from year to year.
occurred on July 14, 1954, is 112 degrees.                    The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
   Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They         about 61 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
are equivalent to “heat units.” During the month,         average at dawn is about 83 percent. The sun shines
growing degree days accumulate by the amount that         71 percent of the time possible in summer and 48
the average temperature each day exceeds a base           percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the south.
temperature (40 degrees F). The normal monthly            Average windspeed is highest, 12 to 14 miles per
accumulation is used to schedule single or successive     hour, from November to April.
                                                                                                                           19




Formation and Classification of the Soils
   This section relates the soils in the survey area to             places, old weathered bedrock material and old soil
the major factors of soil formation and describes the               material become parent material for the continuing soil
system of soil classification.                                      development at the land surface.
                                                                         Parent materials in Adams County are loess, glacial
                                                                    till, alluvium, colluvium, eolian sand, Cretaceous
Factors of Soil Formation                                           sediments, and bedrock residuum.
   Ronald Collman, soil scientist, Natural Resources Conservation        Loess is windblown silt that was deposited by winds
Service, helped prepare this section.                               that carried it from major stream valleys and outwash
                                                                    plains as glacial ice melted. Loess blankets the
   Soil forms through several processes that act on                 uplands of Adams County. The texture of the loess
deposited geologic material. The major factors of soil              becomes finer with increasing distance from the
formation are the physical and mineralogical                        Mississippi River Valley. Loess is relatively young in
composition of the parent material; the climate under               geologic terms and covers much of the Midwest. It is
which the soil material has accumulated and existed                 the parent material of many of the soils in the uplands
since accumulation; the type of living organisms on                 of Adams County. The loess ranges from 6 to 25 feet
and in the soil; relief; and the length of time that the            in thickness in nearly level areas and is thinner in the
soil-forming factors have acted on the parent material              eastern part of the county than in the western part.
(Fehrenbacher and others, 1968).                                    Several soils in the county formed completely in loess;
   Climate and plant and animal life are active factors             others in the more sloping areas formed in a thin layer
of soil formation. They act directly on the parent                  of loess and an underlying parent material of different
material that has accumulated in place through the                  origin (fig. 2). Some of the deep loess soils that formed
weathering of rocks or that was deposited through the               under forest vegetation are the Stookey and Timula
action of water, wind, or glaciers and slowly change it             soils on the bluffs along the Mississippi River and the
into a natural body that has genetically related                    Keomah, Menfro, Rozetta, and Winfield soils in areas
horizons. Relief also affects the processes of soil                 farther from the bluffs. Deep loess soils that formed
formation. It can inhibit soil formation on the steeper,            under grass vegetation and that have a dark surface
eroded slopes and in wet, depressional or nearly level              layer include the Biggsville soils along the Mississippi
areas by controlling the amount of moisture in the                  River bluffs and the Edwardsville, Osco, Timewell,
soils. Finally, time is needed to change the parent                 Ipava, and Virden soils in areas farther from the bluffs.
material into a soil that has distinct horizons.                         Glacial till is a mixture of materials produced by
   The factors of soil formation are so closely                     glaciers. The materials range in size from clay to
interrelated and conditioned by each other that few                 stones. The materials deposited by the ice sheets are
generalizations can be made regarding the effects of                from distant sources as well as from local sources. In
any one factor unless conditions are specified for the              Adams County, tills from the early glacial advances
others.                                                             came from the direction of Iowa and Lake Michigan.
                                                                    Distant sources are indicated by the rocks and
Parent Material                                                     minerals that are present, such as granite, quartzite,
                                                                    diorite, galena, and pyrite. Local sources are indicated
   Parent materials are determined by the geology of                by angular chert, limestone, geodes, and shale
an area and control the chemical and mineralogical                  fragments that were eroded from surrounding
composition of the soil at the beginning of soil                    landscapes. The youngest tills in Adams County were
formation. Weathering and biological activities                     deposited by the Illinoian glacier. These tills are in the
gradually change the composition of the soil as it                  northeastern part of Adams County and are
develops. Parent material includes all organic and                  composed of materials from northern and
inorganic materials that are at the earth’s surface. In             northeastern sources as well as from the materials
20                                                                                                         Soil Survey of




                                                                 Fishhook and Keller soils formed in 20 to 40 inches of
                                                                 loess and in the underlying paleosol. In steep and very
                                                                 steep areas, the paleosol has been eroded and a
                                                                 modern soil has formed in the loess and underlying
                                                                 glacial till. Hickory and Lindley soils formed in this
                                                                 material.
                                                                    Alluvium is water-deposited sediment. Stream
                                                                 alluvium, valley-side alluvium, and pedisediment are
                                                                 the three types of alluvium in Adams County. Stream
                                                                 alluvium consists of well sorted, stratified sediments
                                                                 on flood plains and stream terraces. The materials that
                                                                 make up stream alluvium can be eroded from
                                                                 anywhere upstream within the watershed.
                                                                 Streambanks in Adams County commonly expose the
                                                                 alluvial history of the stream. Many of the soils in the
                                                                 county formed in stream alluvium. Blyton and
                                                                 Wakeland soils, for example, formed in silty alluvium,
                                                                 and Sarpy and Zumbro soils formed in sandy alluvium.
                                                                 Because of flooding, many alluvial soils have layers of
                                                                 contrasting materials within their profiles. Dupo and
                                                                 Riley soils are examples. Slackwater sediments are
                                                                 included as stream alluvium but are deposited in slow-
                                                                 moving or still waters in lakes and sloughs. The soils in
                                                                 these areas typically have a higher clay content than
                                                                 that of the silty or sandy alluvial soils. Titus and
                                                                 Beaucoup soils formed in slackwater sediments.
Figure 2.—Loess overlying glacial drift and limestone bedrock.   Valley-side alluvium is slopewash or local alluvium on
                                                                 footslopes and alluvial fans that is derived from
                                                                 erosion of adjacent sloping areas. The material is
that were transported by previous glaciers. Hickory              poorly sorted and stratified and reflects the character
soils occur in moderately steep and steep areas                  of the parent material directly upslope. The largest
where Illinoian till is near the surface. There are at           areas of valley-side alluvial deposits in Adams County
least two other kinds of till that are older than the            are along the base of the Mississippi River bluffs.
Illinoian tills, but they are difficult to distinguish in        Other areas are throughout the county at the base of
places because their properties and appearance are               slopes along major streams and their tributaries.
similar to those of the Illinoian tills. These older tills are   Drury, Littleton, and Worthen soils formed in valley-
collectively called pre-Illinoian till. They are derived         side alluvium. Pedisediment consists of sediments that
from materials from northwestern and northeastern                accumulated on old erosion surfaces in the uplands
sources as well as from local sources. Lindley soils             and are now buried by loess deposits. Bunkum,
occur where pre-Illinoian tills are near the surface in          Emery, and Passport soils formed in loess,
moderately steep or steep areas. Pre-Illinoian tills and         pedisediment, and the underlying paleosol formed in
their associated soils may outcrop below Illinoian till          glacial till.
soils in steep, very dissected areas in the northern                Colluvium consists of deposits of rock fragments
part of Adams County. Paleosols are soils that formed            and soil material that have accumulated on very steep
in Illinoian or pre-Illinoian glacial till during an             slopes as a result of gravitational action. Lacrescent
interglacial period prior to the last glacial advances of        soils formed in limestone colluvial deposits and occur
Wisconsinan age. Although the Wisconsinan glaciers               along the Mississippi River bluffs and major streams
did not reach Adams County, the predominant loess                and their tributaries in Adams County.
deposits are a result of that last glacial advance. The             Eolian sand refers to windblown deposits of fine
strongly developed paleosols in Adams County                     sand. These deposits contain very low percentages of
typically have a very high content of clay. Atlas,               sand coarser than fine sand and are poorly graded.
Coatsburg, Keswick, and Ursa soils formed in less                Sparta soils formed in sandy deposits that were
than 20 inches of loess and in the underlying paleosol.          reworked by wind. They are on terraces of the
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                             21




Mississippi River. Lamont soils also formed in sandy                Creek, and McKee Creek; and in the southern part of
deposits. They are in steep and very steep areas near               Adams County, where outcrops of bedrock are
Siloam Springs State Park.                                          common. Baylis and Crider soils formed in loess and
    Cretaceous sediments are stratified marine                      the underlying limestone residuum. Goss soils formed
deposits that are much older than the glacial deposits              in limestone residuum. Baylis and Goss soils contain
of Adams County. They are predominantly deposits of                 cherty gravel. Marseilles soils formed in loess and
loose, unconsolidated sand and form a ridge running                 shale residuum.
from near Mendon to the southeast corner of Adams
County. Cretaceous sediments include a wide range of                Climate
textures from sand to clay. El Dara soils are examples
(fig. 3).                                                               Adams County has a temperate, humid continental
    Bedrock residuum is the product of direct                       climate. Although climate has had an important overall
weathering of bedrock. Limestone and shale of the                   influence on the characteristics of the soils, it is
Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods are the two                 essentially uniform throughout the county and has not
major types of bedrock in Adams County (Willman and                 caused any major differences among the soils.
Frye, 1970). The largest areas of residuum near the                     Climate has a very important effect on weathering,
land surface occur along the Mississippi River bluffs;              vegetation, and erosion. The weathering of minerals in
along major tributaries, such as Bear Creek, Mill                   the soil increases as temperature and rainfall increase.




          Figure 3.—Gullies in an area of El Dara soils, which are typical of soils that formed in Cretaceous deposits.
22                                                                                                      Soil Survey of




As water moves downward, clay is moved from the             stability of soil aggregates is affected by microbial
surface soil to the subsoil, where it accumulates. The      activity. Cellular excretions from these organisms help
water also dissolves soluble salts and leaches them         to bind soil particles together. Stable aggregates help
downward. Climate determines the kind and extent of         to maintain soil porosity and a favorable water-air
plant and animal life on and in the soil. The climate in    relationship in the soil. Earthworms, crayfish, insects,
Adams County has favored prairie grasses and                and burrowing animals incorporate organic material
hardwood forests. Heavy rains can harm exposed              into the soil and help to maintain porosity.
soils that are used for crops. Spring rains and wind           Human activities, such as clearing of forests,
can cause extensive erosion of the surface if crop          cultivating, applying fertilizers, and draining, have
residue and trees are removed. More soil can be lost        increased the hazard of erosion in some areas in
through erosion each year than is formed by natural         Adams County. In other areas, erosion has been
processes.                                                  controlled as a result of human activities. In some
                                                            soils, fertility levels have increased. Soil structure has
Living Organisms                                            been altered as a result of tillage and compaction.

    Soil development varies greatly depending on the        Relief and Drainage
type of vegetation in an area. One of the most easily
recognized examples of the effect of vegetation on soil         Depositional and erosional forces have shaped the
formation is the difference between prairie soils and       landscape in the survey area and created the
forest soils. Under prairie conditions, grasses produce     landforms that are present today. The relief, or lay of
a fibrous root system within a few feet of the surface.     the land, and the internal and overland drainage
As they die, these roots contribute to the total content    characteristics affect soil formation. In general, soil
of organic matter in the surface horizon. Plant material    map unit boundaries follow landform and landform
in the soil breaks down into humus, which retains the       component boundaries. Slopes in the county range
minerals, fertilizers, and water added to the soil. Osco,   from 0 to 60 percent.
Biggsville, Timewell, Ipava, and Virden soils formed            The shape and size of the landform play a role in
under prairie vegetation. These soils have a thick,         the development of soils. The shape and slope of a
black or dark brown surface layer. Soils that formed        landform affect the depth to the water table and
under forest vegetation have a lighter colored surface      influence natural drainage. In nearly level, poorly
layer than soils that formed under grass. Forest            drained soils, such as Virden and Rushville soils, the
vegetation produces less organic material than prairie      water table is close to the surface for most of the year.
vegetation, and the organic material accumulates at         The soil pores contain water, which restricts the
the surface. The humus that is produced is more acid        circulation of air in the soil. Under these conditions,
than the humus in areas of grassland. These acids           iron and manganese compounds are chemically
percolate into the soil and promote the breakdown of        reduced. As a result, the subsoil is dull gray and
minerals. This process increases the rate of leaching       mottled. In areas of the more sloping, well drained
and translocation, which reduces fertility and causes       Menfro soils, however, the water table is lower and
clay-sized particles to accumulate in lower layers. In      some of the rainfall runs off the surface. The soil pores
areas where this process has been active for a long         contain less water and more air. The iron and
time, an eluvial horizon is produced. This horizon has      manganese compounds are well oxidized. As a result,
a bleached or ashy appearance. Keomah, Menfro,              the subsoil is brown and brightly colored.
Rozetta, Stookey, Timula, and Winfield soils formed             Nearly level, poorly drained soils, such as Rushville
under forest vegetation. Soils that formed under mixed      soils, are less well developed than the gently sloping,
forest and grassland vegetation are called transition       well drained Menfro soils. Rushville soils have a high
soils. They are in areas that follow the present prairie-   water table for part of the year. The wetness inhibits
forest border. These soils have a moderately dark           the removal of weathered material. In contrast, Menfro
surface layer and a moderate content of organic             soils are deeper to a water table. As a result,
matter. Mannon, Greenbush, and Clarksdale soils are         weathered material is translocated downward to a
examples.                                                   greater extent than in the Rushville soils. The
    Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms help to      increased runoff rate also increases the hazard of
break down the organic material and thus provide            erosion and further shapes the landscape. Soils that
nutrients for plants and other soil organisms. The          formed on the steeper slopes typically have been
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     23




subject to more erosion and less development than           differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
soils in less sloping areas.                                forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
                                                            Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
Time                                                        example is Alfisol.
                                                                SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
   The length of time needed for the formation of a soil    primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
depends on the other factors of soil formation. Soils       genesis and are important to plant growth or
form more rapidly and are more acid if the content of       properties that reflect the most important variables
lime in the parent material is low. Soil formation          within the orders. The last syllable in the name of a
proceeds at a faster rate in rapidly permeable material     suborder indicates the order. An example is Udalf (Ud,
than in slowly permeable material because lime and          meaning humid, plus alf, from Alfisol).
other soluble minerals are leached more quickly.                GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into
Prairie soils form less quickly than forest soils because   great groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
grasses are more efficient than trees in recycling          arrangement, and degree of development of
calcium and other bases from the subsoil to the             pedogenic horizons; soil moisture and temperature
surface layer, and thus the loss of exchangeable            regimes; and base status. Each great group is
bases by leaching and the development of soil acidity       identified by the name of a suborder and by a prefix
are slowed. Soils in a humid climate that supports          that indicates a property of the soil. An example is
good growth of vegetation develop more rapidly than         Hapludalfs (Hapl, meaning minimal horizonation, plus
those in a dry climate.                                     udalf, the suborder of the Alfisols that has a udic
   The length of time that the parent material has been     moisture regime).
in place determines, to a great extent, the degree of           SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic
profile development. Blyton and Wakeland soils are on       subgroup. Other subgroups are intergrades or
flood plains. They have a very weakly developed             extragrades. The typic is the central concept of the
profile because they periodically receive new alluvial      great group; it is not necessarily the most extensive.
sediments. Although the parent material of Tice soils is    Intergrades are transitions to other orders, suborders,
similar to that of the Blyton and Wakeland soils, the       or great groups. Extragrades have some properties
sediments in the Tice soils are deposited slowly            that are not representative of the great group but do
enough to allow stronger profile development. Menfro        not indicate transitions to any other known kind of soil.
and Osco soils show intermediate profile development.       Each subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
They are in relatively stable upland areas where the        preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
parent material has been in place for a long time. On       Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
the more sloping parts of the landscape, erosion can        group. An example is Typic Hapludalfs.
remove the surface soil material at about the same              FAMILY. Families are established within a
rate as the rate of soil formation. Thus, soils in these    subgroup on the basis of physical and chemical
areas, such Hickory, Lindley, and Timula soils, have        properties and other characteristics that affect
weaker profile development even though the slopes           management. Generally, the properties are those of
have been exposed to weathering for thousands of            horizons below plow depth where there is much
years.                                                      biological activity. Among the properties and
                                                            characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Classification of the Soils                                 mineral content, temperature regime, thickness of the
                                                            root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope,
    The system of soil classification used by the           and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the
National Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories.        name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the       soil properties. An example is fine-silty, mixed, mesic
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and         Typic Hapludalfs.
series. Classification is based on soil properties              SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
observed in the field or inferred from those                similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are
observations or from laboratory measurements.               similar in color, texture, structure, reaction,
Table 4 shows the classification of the soils in the        consistence, mineral and chemical composition,
survey area. The categories are defined in the              and arrangement in the profile. The texture of the
following paragraphs.                                       surface layer or of the substratum can differ within a
    ORDER. Twelve soil orders are recognized. The           series.
                                                                                                                    25




Soil Series and Detailed Soil Map Units
    In this section, arranged in alphabetical order, each   These areas are called similar soils. They may or may
soil series recognized in the survey area is described.     not be mentioned in the map unit description. Other
Each series description is followed by descriptions of      soils and miscellaneous areas, however, have
the associated detailed soil map units.                     properties and behavioral characteristics divergent
    Characteristics of the soil and the material in which   enough to affect use or to require different
it formed are identified for each soil series. A pedon, a   management. These are called dissimilar components.
small three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of    They generally are in small areas and could not be
the series in the survey area is described. The detailed    mapped separately because of the scale used. Some
description of each soil horizon follows standards in       small areas of strongly contrasting soils or
the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey Division Staff,       miscellaneous areas are identified by a special symbol
1993). Many of the technical terms used in the              on the maps. The areas of dissimilar soils or
descriptions are defined in “Soil Taxonomy” (Soil           miscellaneous areas are mentioned in the map unit
Survey Staff, 1999). Unless otherwise stated, colors in     descriptions. A few of these areas may not have been
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon    observed, and consequently they are not mentioned in
description is the range of important characteristics of    the descriptions, especially where the pattern was so
the soils in the series.                                    complex that it was impractical to make enough
    The map units on the detailed soil maps in this         observations to identify all the soils and miscellaneous
survey represent the soils or miscellaneous areas in        areas on the landscape.
the survey area. The map unit descriptions in this              The presence of these minor components in a map
section, along with the maps, can be used to                unit in no way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy
determine the suitability and potential of a unit for       of the data. The objective of mapping is not to
specific uses. They also can be used to plan the            delineate pure taxonomic classes but rather to
management needed for those uses. More information          separate the landscape into segments that have
about each map unit is given in Part II of this survey.     similar use and management requirements. The
    A map unit delineation on the detailed soil maps        delineation of such landscape segments on the map
represents an area on the landscape and consists of         provides sufficient information for the development of
one or more soils or miscellaneous areas. A map unit        resource plans, but if intensive use of small areas is
is identified and named according to the taxonomic          planned, onsite investigation is needed to define and
classification of the dominant soils. Within a taxonomic    locate the soils and miscellaneous areas.
class there are precisely defined limits for the                An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the     in the map unit descriptions. Each description includes
soils and miscellaneous areas are natural                   general facts about the unit. The principal hazards and
phenomena, and they have the characteristic                 limitations to be considered in planning for specific
variability of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range of    uses are described in Part II of this survey.
some observed properties may extend beyond the                  Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
limits defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a   up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped       surface layer or of the underlying layers, all the soils of
without including areas of other taxonomic classes.         a series have major horizons that are similar in
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soils        composition, thickness, and arrangement.
or miscellaneous areas for which it is named and                Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
some minor components or areas that belong to other         surface layer or of the underlying layers. They also can
taxonomic classes.                                          differ in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of
    Most map units include some areas with properties       erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use.
so similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the    On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
map unit that they do not affect use and management.        divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on
26                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The             fine granular structure; friable; common very fine
name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature                 and fine roots; common medium prominent brown
that affects use or management. For example, Menfro               (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is a phase of the               throughout, few fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
Menfro series.                                                    masses of iron and manganese accumulation
    Some map units are made up of two or more major               throughout, and few fine distinct yellowish brown
soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are                 (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
called complexes or undifferentiated groups.                      throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
    A complex consists of two or more soils or                BE—7 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay loam,
miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or in            light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium
such small areas that they cannot be shown                        subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
separately on the maps. The pattern and proportion of             roots; few fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR
the soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar             6/2) clay depletions and few fine distinct yellowish
in all areas. Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2 percent          brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
slopes, frequently flooded, long duration, is an                  throughout; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
example.                                                      2Btg1—13 to 26 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty
    An undifferentiated group is made up of two or                clay loam; moderate thick platy structure parting to
more soils or miscellaneous areas that could be                   weak fine subangular blocky; firm; common fine
mapped individually but are mapped as one unit                    and few medium roots; common distinct very dark
because similar interpretations can be made for use               gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of
and management. The pattern and proportion of the                 peds and in pores; few fine prominent yellowish
soils or miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not             brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
uniform. An area can be made up of only one of the                and few fine distinct white (10YR 8/1) masses of
major soils or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made             barite throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy
up of all of them. Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2               boundary.
percent slopes, is an undifferentiated group in this          2Btg2—26 to 37 inches; 87 percent dark gray (10YR
survey area.                                                      4/1) and 10 percent gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay;
    This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such                weak medium prismatic structure; firm; common
areas have little or no soil material and support little or       fine and medium roots; few distinct very dark gray
no vegetation. The map unit Pits, quarries, is an                 (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and
example.                                                          in pores; common fine prominent yellowish brown
    Table 5 gives the acreage and proportionate extent            (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and few
of each map unit. Other tables (see Contents in Part II)          fine distinct white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite
give properties of the soils and the limitations,                 throughout; 1 percent rounded gravel and 1
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The                   percent subangular limestone-cherty gravel;
Glossary defines many of the terms used in describing             neutral; clear wavy boundary.
the soils or miscellaneous areas.                             2Btg3—37 to 47 inches; gray (2.5Y 5/1) silty clay;
                                                                  weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; common
                                                                  fine roots; few distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
Atlas Series                                                      organo-clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                                  few fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                                  masses of iron accumulation throughout and few
   Aeric Chromic Vertic Epiaqualfs
                                                                  fine faint gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions and few
     Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official                        fine distinct white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite
              Series Description)                                 throughout; 1 percent angular gravel; neutral; clear
                                                                  wavy boundary.
Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at an
                                                              2Btg4—47 to 61 inches; gray (2.5Y 5/1) clay loam;
elevation of 665 feet; 1,200 feet west and 50 feet south
                                                                  weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; common
of the northeast corner of sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 6 W.;
                                                                  very fine roots; few distinct very dark gray (10YR
USGS Coatsburg, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
                                                                  3/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and in
40 degrees 5 minutes 39.9 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                                  pores; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
degrees 7 minutes 51.5 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                                  iron and manganese accumulation and few fine
Ap—0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt              distinct white (10YR 8/1) barite crystals
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak                 throughout; 1 percent limestone-cherty gravel and
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  27




   1 percent rounded igneous-granite gravel; neutral;       Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   clear wavy boundary.                                  as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
2BCg—61 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)     Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm;
                                                                               Composition
   few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   masses of iron accumulation and common                Atlas and similar soils: 90 percent
   medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   masses of iron accumulation throughout; 2
                                                         Similar soils:
   percent limestone-cherty gravel; neutral.
                                                         • Keller soils, which have less clay in the upper part of
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 the subsoil than the Atlas soil and have a darker
                                                         surface layer
Thickness of the loess: 0 to 20 inches
                                                         • Passport soils, which have less clay in the upper
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 42
                                                         part of the subsoil than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope
    inches
                                                         from the Atlas soil
Slope range: 5 to 10 percent
                                                         • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
Ap or A horizon:                                         surface layer than the Atlas soil
    Hue—10YR
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
    Value—2 to 5
                                                         • Fishhook soils, which have less clay in the upper
    Chroma—1 to 4
                                                         part of the subsoil than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope
    Texture—silt loam, loam, silty clay loam, or clay
                                                         from the Atlas soil
       loam
                                                         • Rozetta soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
E or BE horizon:                                         than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope from the Atlas soil
    Hue—10YR                                             • The well drained Ursa soils
    Value—4 or 5                                         • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
    Chroma—1 to 4
                                                                               Management
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                           For general and detailed information about
Bt, Btg, or 2Btg horizon:
                                                         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
                                                         Part II of this publication:
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—0 to 3                                        •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—clay loam, clay, silty clay loam, or silty   •   “Forestland” section
       clay                                              •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent             •   “Engineering” section
                                                         •   “Soil Properties” section
2Cg horizon (if it occurs):
   Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, 5Y, or N
   Value—4 to 6                                          7C3—Atlas silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent
   Chroma—0 to 6                                           slopes, severely eroded
   Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, or loam
   Content of rock fragments—2 to 15 percent                                       Setting
                                                         Landform: Interfluves
7C2—Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                     Position on the landform: Backslopes
  slopes, eroded                                         Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
                        Setting
                                                         Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Landform: Interfluves
                                                         Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                         Special feature: The Atlas soil in this map unit has a
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                             thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
           Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                  as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
28                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




                      Composition                               structure; firm; many fine and medium roots
                                                                between peds; many fine and medium
Atlas and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                moderate-continuity tubular pores; many faint
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on
Similar soils:                                                  faces of peds; moderately acid; clear wavy
• Keller soils, which have less clay in the subsoil than        boundary.
the Atlas soil and have a darker surface layer              Bt2—16 to 24 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay
• Passport soils, which have less clay in the upper             loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
part of the subsoil than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope       blocky structure; firm; common medium and
from the Atlas soil                                             coarse roots between peds; common medium and
• Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the            coarse moderate-continuity tubular pores; many
surface layer than the Atlas soil                               faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) clay films on faces of
                                                                peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                iron and manganese accumulation lining root
• Fishhook soils, which have less clay in the upper
                                                                channels and pores; strongly acid; clear wavy
part of the subsoil than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope
                                                                boundary.
from the Atlas soil
                                                            2Bt3—24 to 42 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty
• Rozetta soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                                clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky
than the Atlas soil; in areas upslope from the Atlas soil
                                                                structure; firm; few coarse roots throughout; few
• The well drained Ursa soils
                                                                coarse moderate-continuity tubular pores; many
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                                distinct reddish brown (5YR 4/4) and dark brown
                      Management                                (7.5YR 3/4) clay films on faces of peds; common
                                                                fine and medium faint dark red (2.5YR 3/6)
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                between peds and common fine and medium
Part II of this publication:
                                                                prominent black (5YR 2/1) masses of iron and
•   “Agronomy” section                                          manganese accumulation lining root channels and
•   “Forestland” section                                        pores; 10 percent cherty gravel; strongly acid;
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  gradual wavy boundary.
•   “Engineering” section                                   2Bt4—42 to 60 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6)
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   gravelly silty clay loam; moderate coarse
                                                                subangular blocky structure; very firm; few coarse
                                                                roots throughout; few coarse tubular moderate-
Baylis Series                                                   continuity pores; common distinct reddish brown
                                                                (5YR 4/4) and dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) clay films
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                                on faces of peds; common fine and medium faint
   superactive, mesic Typic Paleudalfs
                                                                dark red (2.5YR 3/6) masses of iron and
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official                     manganese accumulation and prominent black
               Series Description)                              (5YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                                accumulation throughout; 20 percent cherty
Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded, at an
                                                                gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
elevation of 610 feet; 100 feet west and 1,750 feet
                                                            2Bt5—60 to 80 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6)
north of the southeast corner of sec. 17, T. 4 S., R. 6
                                                                extremely gravelly clay; massive; very firm;
W.; USGS Barry, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
                                                                common distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) and
39 degrees 43 minutes 4.1 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                                reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay films on rock
degrees 6 minutes 25.5 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                                fragments; common fine and medium distinct dark
Ap—0 to 7 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)               red (2.5YR 3/6) masses of iron and manganese
   silt loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; moderate medium             accumulation and prominent black (5YR 2/1)
   granular structure; friable; many fine and medium            masses of iron and manganese accumulation
   roots throughout; many medium moderate-                      throughout; 70 percent cherty gravel; strongly
   continuity tubular pores; moderately acid; abrupt            acid.
   smooth boundary.
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Bt1—7 to 16 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
   silty clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky         Thickness of the loess: 20 to 40 inches
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     29




Depth to lithic or paralithic contact: More than 60         • Soils that have chert fragments on the surface
    inches
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 60
                                                            • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
    inches
                                                            fragments in the upper part of the subsoil than the
Slope range: 5 to 25 percent
                                                            Baylis soil; in areas downslope from the Baylis soil
Ap or A horizon:                                            • Menfro soils, which have less clay in the lower part
    Hue—10YR                                                of the subsoil than the Baylis soil; in areas upslope
    Value—3 to 5                                            from the Baylis soil
    Chroma—2 to 4
                                                                                  Management
    Texture—silt loam
                                                              For general and detailed information about
E horizon (if it occurs):
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR
                                                            Part II of this publication:
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—2 or 3                                           •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam                                       •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Bt horizon:
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—3 to 6
    Texture—silty clay loam                                 472D2—Baylis silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
2Bt horizon:                                                   slopes, eroded
    Hue—10YR, 2.5YR, 5YR, or 7.5YR
                                                                                      Setting
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—4 to 6                                           Landform: Interfluves
    Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, silty clay, or      Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
      clay                                                  Type of landscape: Uplands
    Content of rock fragments—10 to 90 percent
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
472C2—Baylis silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                     Parent material: Loess and the underlying limestone
   slopes, eroded                                               residuum
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                            Setting
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Landform: Interfluves                                       Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                                                  Composition
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Baylis and similar soils: 90 percent
           Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Similar soils:
Parent material: Loess and the underlying limestone
                                                            • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
    residuum
                                                            surface layer than the Baylis soil
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   • Soils that have chert fragments on the surface
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            • Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
                     Composition                            upslope from the Baylis soil
                                                            • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
Baylis and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            fragments in the upper part of the subsoil than the
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Baylis soil; in areas downslope from the Baylis soil
Similar soils:                                              • Lacrescent soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          than the Baylis soil and have a dark surface soil; in
surface layer than the Baylis soil                          areas downslope from the Baylis soil
30                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




• Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock on the      of the subsoil than the Baylis soil; in areas upslope
surface                                                     from the Baylis soil
• Menfro soils, which have less clay in the lower part
                                                                                  Management
of the subsoil than the Baylis soil; in areas upslope
from the Baylis soil                                          For general and detailed information about
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                      Management
                                                            Part II of this publication:
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
•   “Agronomy” section                                      •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   Beaucoup Series
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls

472E2—Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent                          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
   slopes, eroded                                                          Series Description)
                                                            Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
                          Setting
                                                            occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 480 feet; 727
Landform: Interfluves                                       feet south and 2,577 feet west of the northeast corner
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        of sec. 9, T. 1 N., R. 9 W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois,
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 5 minutes 39
                                                            seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 27 minutes 2
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            seconds W., NAD 27:
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Ap—0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay
Parent material: Loess and the underlying limestone
                                                               loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine granular
    residuum
                                                               structure; friable; common fine roots; few fine
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       accumulation between peds; neutral; gradual
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            smooth boundary.
                                                            A—6 to 15 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay
                      Composition
                                                               loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine prismatic
Baylis and similar soils: 90 percent                           structure parting to weak medium subangular
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   blocky; friable; few very fine roots; few fine distinct
                                                               dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) masses of iron
Similar soils:
                                                               accumulation between peds; neutral; gradual
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                               smooth boundary.
surface layer than the Baylis soil
                                                            Bg1—15 to 24 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay
• Soils that have chert fragments on the surface
                                                               loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to
Dissimilar soils:                                              weak medium subangular blocky; friable; few very
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas            fine roots; few fine distinct dark yellowish brown
upslope from the Baylis soil                                   (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
• Goss soils, which have more clay and rock                    throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
fragments in the upper part of the subsoil than the         Bg2—24 to 35 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
Baylis soil; in areas downslope from the Baylis soil           weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak
• Lacrescent soils, which have less clay in the subsoil        medium subangular blocky; friable; few very fine
than the Baylis soil and have a dark surface soil; in          roots; very few faint dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay films in
areas downslope from the Baylis soil                           root channels and/or pores; common fine
• Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock on the         prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
surface                                                        masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
• Menfro soils, which have less clay in the lower part         prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     31




   iron and manganese accumulation throughout,                   Value—3 to 6
   and few fine prominent dark brown (7.5YR 3/4)                 Chroma—0 to 2
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                     Texture—silty clay loam
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Cg horizon:
Bg3—35 to 48 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
                                                                Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
   weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak
                                                                Value—4 to 6
   medium subangular blocky; friable; few very fine
                                                                Chroma—0 to 2
   roots; very few faint dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay films in
                                                                Texture—stratified silty clay loam, silt loam, loam,
   root channels and/or pores; few fine prominent
                                                                  sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or very fine sandy
   dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                                  loam
   accumulation throughout, few fine prominent
   strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron and
   manganese accumulation throughout, and few fine
   dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) masses of iron and                1070L—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2
   manganese accumulation throughout; neutral;                 percent slopes, undrained,
   clear smooth boundary.                                      occasionally flooded, long duration
BCg—48 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 5/1), stratified silt
                                                                                      Setting
   loam and silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic
   structure; friable; very few faint dark gray (5Y 4/1)    Landform: Flood plains
   clay films in root channels and/or pores; common         Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
   fine prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of             Drainage class: Very poorly drained
   iron and manganese accumulation throughout,              Parent material: Alluvium
   and few fine dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) masses of
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   iron and manganese accumulation throughout;
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Cg1—60 to 70 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1), stratified
   silt loam and silty clay loam; massive; friable;                               Composition
   common fine prominent dark yellowish brown
                                                            Beaucoup and similar soils: 90 percent
   (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Cg2—70 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1), stratified       Similar soils:
   silt loam and silty clay loam; massive; friable;         • Soils that are frequently flooded
   common fine prominent dark yellowish brown
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
   (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
                                                            • Drained areas of Beaucoup soils
   throughout; slightly acid.
                                                            • Tice soils, which are somewhat poorly drained; in
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                    the slightly higher positions on the landform
                                                            • Wakeland soils, which have a lighter colored surface
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
                                                            soil than that of the Beaucoup soil and have less clay
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40
                                                            throughout the profile; in the slightly higher positions
    inches
                                                            on the landform
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 35 to 65 inches
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                                                       Management
Ap or A horizon:                                              For general and detailed information about
    Hue—10YR or N                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Value—2 or 3                                            Part II of this publication:
    Chroma—0 to 2
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
    Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Bg or Btg horizon:                                          •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N                                •   “Soil Properties” section
32                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




8070A—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2                      Bethalto Series
   percent slopes, occasionally flooded
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                          Setting                              superactive, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs
Landform: Flood plains                                                Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
                                                            Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
                                                            elevation of 715 feet; 2,075 feet south and 525 feet
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            west of the northeast corner of sec. 2, T. 1 N., R. 8 W.;
Drainage class: Poorly drained                              USGS Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
Parent material: Alluvium                                   40 degrees 6 minutes 13 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                            degrees 16 minutes 53 seconds W., NAD 27:
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak thick platy
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               structure parting to moderate fine subangular
                                                               blocky; friable; common very fine roots throughout;
                      Composition
                                                               neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Beaucoup and similar soils: 90 percent                      Eg—8 to 14 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak
                                                               medium platy structure parting to moderate fine
Similar soils:
                                                               and medium subangular blocky; friable; few very
• Gorham soils, which have more sand in the
                                                               fine roots throughout; common distinct very dark
underlying material than the Beaucoup soil
                                                               gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats on faces of peds;
• Soils that have silty overwash on the surface
                                                               few fine distinct brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron
• Soils that have a thicker or thinner dark surface soil
                                                               accumulation and few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
than that of the Beaucoup soil
                                                               masses of iron and manganese accumulation
• Soils that have more sand in the surface layer than
                                                               throughout; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
the Beaucoup soil
                                                            Bt1—14 to 20 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
• Titus soils, which have more clay in the upper part
                                                               loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
than the Beaucoup soil
                                                               structure; firm; few very fine roots throughout; few
Dissimilar soils:                                              distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in
• The somewhat poorly drained Lawson soils, which              root channels and/or pores and many prominent
have less clay in the upper part than the Beaucoup             dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films on faces
soil; in the slightly higher positions on the landform         of peds; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
• The somewhat poorly drained Riley soils, which               5/6) masses of iron accumulation and few fine
have more sand throughout than the Beaucoup soil; in           distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
the slightly higher positions on the landform                  manganese accumulation throughout; slightly acid;
• Soils that are undrained                                     clear smooth boundary.
• The somewhat poorly drained Tice soils in the             Bt2—20 to 29 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
slightly higher positions on the landform                      loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                               structure; firm; few very fine roots throughout; few
                      Management                               distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in
                                                               root channels and/or pores and many prominent
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films on faces
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               of peds; many fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR
Part II of this publication:
                                                               5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few
•   “Agronomy” section                                         fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
•   “Forestland” section                                       manganese accumulation throughout, and few fine
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
•   “Engineering” section                                      throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
•   “Soil Properties” section                                  boundary.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  33




Bt3—29 to 38 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay             Chroma—1 or 2
   loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to          Texture—silt loam
   moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few
                                                         E or Eg horizon:
   very fine roots throughout; few prominent very
                                                             Hue—10YR
   dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root
                                                             Value—4 to 6
   channels and/or pores and common distinct
                                                             Chroma—1 to 3
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of
                                                             Texture—silt loam
   peds; many fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine      Bt or Btg horizon:
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and              Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   manganese accumulation throughout, and many               Value—4 to 6
   fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron            Chroma—2 to 4
   depletions throughout; moderately acid; gradual           Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
   smooth boundary.
                                                         C or Cg horizon:
BC1—38 to 47 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
                                                             Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                             Value—5 or 6
   friable; common prominent very dark gray (10YR
                                                             Chroma—1 to 4
   3/1) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
                                                             Texture—silt loam
   common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and          90A—Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   manganese accumulation throughout, and many              slopes
   fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
                                                                                 Setting
   depletions throughout; slightly acid; gradual
   smooth boundary.                                      Landform: Interfluves
BC2—47 to 63 inches; 35 percent light brownish gray      Position on the landform: Summits
   (10YR 6/2), 35 percent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6),      Type of landscape: Uplands
   and 30 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak
                                                                   Soil Properties and Qualities
   coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
   common prominent very dark gray (10YR 3/1)            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
   organic coats in root channels and/or pores; few      Parent material: Loess
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   manganese accumulation throughout; neutral;
                                                         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   gradual smooth boundary.
                                                         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
C—63 to 80 inches; 35 percent light brownish gray
   (10YR 6/2), 35 percent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6),                          Composition
   and 30 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;
                                                         Bethalto and similar soils: 90 percent
   massive; friable; few prominent very dark gray
                                                         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root channels and/or
   pores; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of   Similar soils:
   iron and manganese accumulation throughout;           • Caseyville soils, which have a lighter colored surface
   neutral.                                              layer than that of the Bethalto soil
                                                         • Clarksdale soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                         than the Bethalto soil
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60        • Edwardsville soils, which have a thicker dark surface
    inches                                               layer than that of the Bethalto soil
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 80 inches
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
                                                         • Soils that are poorly drained
Ap or A horizon:
                                                                             Management
    Hue—10YR
    Value—2 or 3                                           For general and detailed information about
34                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




managing this map unit, see the following sections in       • The moderately well drained Winfield soils in the
Part II of this publication:                                slightly higher positions on the landform
•   “Agronomy” section                                                            Management
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              For general and detailed information about
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
90B—Bethalto silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                      •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   slopes                                                   •   “Engineering” section
                          Setting                           •   “Soil Properties” section
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders             Biggsville Series
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               superactive, mesic Typic Hapludolls
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                                       Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
Parent material: Loess
Special feature: The Bethalto soil in this map unit has     Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical        elevation of 632 feet; 2,300 feet west and 2,350 feet
    pedon.                                                  north of the southeast corner of sec. 31, T. 1 N., R. 8
                                                            W.; USGS Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            lat. 40 degrees 1 minute 48 seconds N. and long. 91
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            degrees 22 minutes 5 seconds W., NAD 27:
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
                      Composition
                                                               dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate fine
Bethalto and similar soils: 90 percent                         granular structure; friable; many very fine and fine
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   roots; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            A—7 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
Similar soils:
                                                               dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate fine
• Caseyville soils, which have a lighter colored surface
                                                               subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
layer than that of the Bethalto soil
                                                               fine granular; friable; common very fine and fine
• Clarksdale soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
                                                               roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
than the Bethalto soil
                                                            BA—13 to 22 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam,
• Edwardsville soils, which have a thicker dark surface
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak medium
layer than that of the Bethalto soil
                                                               prismatic structure parting to moderate fine
• Emery soils, which have more sand in the
                                                               subangular blocky; friable; few fine roots; many
underlying material than the Bethalto soil; in areas
                                                               distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats
downslope from the Bethalto soil
                                                               on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Dissimilar soils:                                           Bt1—22 to 31 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
• The moderately well drained Downsouth soils in the           silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
slightly higher positions on the landform                      structure parting to moderate fine subangular
• Fishhook soils, which have a lighter colored surface         blocky; friable; few fine roots; common distinct
soil than that of the Bethalto soil and have more clay in      brown (10YR 4/3) clay films and few distinct very
the lower part of the subsoil; in areas downslope from         dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on
the Bethalto soil                                              faces of peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
• Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part         masses of iron and manganese accumulation
of the subsoil than the Bethalto soil; in areas                throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
downslope from the Bethalto soil                            Bt2—31 to 41 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
• The well drained Wakenda soils, which have a                 loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
thicker dark surface soil than that of the Bethalto soil;      parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
in the slightly higher positions on the landform               friable; few fine roots; common distinct brown
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   35




   (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; common         C or Cg horizon:
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and          Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
   manganese accumulation and few fine faint brown            Value—4 to 6
   (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation                    Chroma—2 to 6
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                Texture—silt loam
Bt3—41 to 53 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
   friable; few faint brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on      671A—Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   faces of peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)         slopes
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                                        Setting
   throughout, common fine distinct strong brown
                                                          Landform: Interfluves
   (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
                                                          Position on the landform: Broad summits
   throughout, and common fine faint light brownish
                                                          Type of landscape: Uplands
   gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions between peds;
   slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                              Soil Properties and Qualities
C—53 to 64 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
   loam; massive; friable; few distinct brown (10YR
                                                          Parent material: Loess
   4/3) clay films in root channels and/or pores; few
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and         Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   manganese accumulation throughout, many fine           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   and medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6)           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and
                                                                                Composition
   common fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   iron depletions between peds; slightly acid; clear     Biggsville and similar soils: 90 percent
   smooth boundary.                                       Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Cg—64 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt
                                                          Similar soils:
   loam; massive; friable; few prominent very dark
                                                          • Mannon soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) clay films in root
                                                          than that of the Biggsville soil
   channels and/or pores; common fine distinct
                                                          • Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
                                                          depth of more than 60 inches
   accumulation throughout, few fine distinct black
                                                          • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
   (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                          Biggsville soil
   accumulation throughout, and common fine and
   medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)              Dissimilar soils:
   masses of iron accumulation throughout; slightly       • Somewhat poorly drained soils in the lower positions
   acid.                                                  on the landform
                                                                                Management
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                            For general and detailed information about
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
                                                          managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 42
                                                          Part II of this publication:
    inches
Slope range: 0 to 7 percent                               •   “Agronomy” section
                                                          •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Ap or A horizon:                                          •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR                                              •   “Soil Properties” section
    Value—2 or 3
    Chroma—1 to 3
    Texture—silt loam                                     671B—Biggsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
                                                             slopes
Bw or Bt horizon:
                                                                                    Setting
   Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   Value—3 to 5                                           Landform: Interfluves
   Chroma—3 to 6                                          Position on the landform: Summits and head slopes
   Texture—silt loam                                      Type of landscape: Uplands
36                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




            Soil Properties and Qualities                                         Composition
Drainage class: Well drained                                Biggsville and similar soils: 45 percent
Parent material: Loess                                      Mannon and similar soils: 45 percent
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                intermingled that mapping them separately was
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                not practical.
                      Composition
                                                            Similar soils:
Biggsville and similar soils: 90 percent                    • Soils that have slopes of more than 7 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                • Stookey soils, which have a lighter colored surface
                                                            layer
Similar soils:
• Mannon soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil      Dissimilar soils:
than that of the Biggsville soil                            • Orthents in areas where the soils have been
• Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a          disturbed
depth of more than 60 inches                                • Somewhat poorly drained soils in the lower positions
• Wakenda soils, which have more clay in the subsoil        on the landform
than the Biggsville soil
                                                                                  Management
Dissimilar soils:
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• Somewhat poorly drained soils in the lower, less
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
sloping positions on the landform
                                                            Part II of this publication:
                      Management
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:                                •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              Blake Series
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               superactive, calcareous, mesic Aquic Udifluvents

829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to                                Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
   7 percent slopes                                         Blake silt loam, in an area of Blake-Slacwater silt
                                                            loams, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded, long
                          Setting
                                                            duration, at an elevation of 465 feet; 490 feet west and
Landform: Interfluves                                       40 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 2
Position on the landform: Biggsville—broad summits;         S., R. 9 W.; USGS Quincy West, Illinois, topographic
    Mannon—summits and head slopes                          quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 23 minutes 32 seconds N.
Special features: These soils occur on upland               and 91 degrees 26 minutes 5 seconds W., NAD 27:
    landscapes in areas of urban development in or
                                                            AC—0 to 6 inches; stratified, 85 percent very dark
    near Quincy. They are used as sites for buildings,
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 15 percent brown
    streets, sidewalks, and other structures.
                                                               (10YR 5/3) silt loam; moderate fine subangular
            Soil Properties and Qualities                      blocky structure; friable; common very fine and
                                                               fine roots; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline;
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               clear smooth boundary.
Parent material: Loess
                                                            C1—6 to 14 inches; stratified, 95 percent very dark
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 5 percent brown
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak thick platy structure
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable;
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      37




   common very fine and fine roots; very slightly           Type of landscape: Flood plains
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
   boundary.
C2—14 to 31 inches; stratified, 78 percent dark             Drainage class: Blake—somewhat poorly drained;
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and 20 percent light                Slacwater—poorly drained
   olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) silt loam; weak thick platy       Parent material: Alluvium
   structure parting to moderate fine subangular
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   blocky; friable; common very fine and fine roots;
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   few faint very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   organic coats in root channels and/or pores; few
   fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of                             Composition
   iron accumulation and few fine faint grayish brown
                                                            Blake and similar soils: 45 percent
   (10YR 5/2) iron depletions throughout (the
                                                            Slacwater and similar soils: 45 percent
   yellowish brown accumulations occur below a
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   depth of 20 inches); very slightly effervescent;
                                                            Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately
   slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                intermingled that mapping them separately was
C3—31 to 60 inches; stratified, 70 percent very dark
                                                                not practical.
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 24 percent light olive
   brown (2.5Y 5/3) silt loam; weak thick platy structure   Similar soils:
   parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable;     • Raveenwash soils, which have a lighter colored
   common very fine roots; few faint very dark gray         surface soil and have more sand and less clay
   (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root channels and/or         throughout the profile; in positions adjacent to the
   pores; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)      stream channel
   masses of iron accumulation and common fine faint        • Soils that are not stratified in the surface layer
   gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout; slightly     • Soils that are in the slightly higher positions and are
   effervescent; slightly alkaline.                         subject to occasional flooding
                                                            • Soils that have more clay in the upper part
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                            • Soils that have more sand in the underlying material
Depth to carbonates: 0 to 10 inches
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: Less than 10
                                                            • Soils that are moderately well drained
    inches
                                                            • Soils that do not have carbonates
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                                  Management
AC, Ap, or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                          For general and detailed information about
    Value—3 or 4                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Chroma—1 or 2                                           Part II of this publication:
    Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
C horizon:                                                  •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                         •   “Engineering” section
   Value—3 to 5                                             •   “Soil Properties” section
   Chroma—1 to 4
   Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam, loam, or very
       fine sandy loam                                      Blyton Series
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Coarse-silty, mixed,
3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2                       superactive, nonacid, mesic Oxyaquic Udifluvents
   percent slopes, frequently flooded,
                                                                  Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
   long duration                                                           Series Description)
                        Setting
                                                            Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently
Landform: Blake—rises; Slacwater—flood plains               flooded, at an elevation of 515 feet; 1,520 feet east
Position on the landform: Blake—summits;                    and 1,400 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 3,
    Slacwater—low-lying areas                               T. 5 N., R. 3 E.; USGS Lewistown, Illinois, topographic
38                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 26 minutes 57 seconds N.      Type of landscape: Flood plains
and long. 90 degrees 9 minutes 24 seconds W., NAD
                                                                      Soil Properties and Qualities
27:
                                                          Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Ap—0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                          Parent material: Alluvium
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak
   fine subangular blocky structure; very friable;           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   many very fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   boundary.                                              Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
C1—10 to 23 inches; 55 percent brown (10YR 4/3)
   and 40 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;                                   Composition
   massive with thin bedding planes; very friable;
                                                          Blyton and similar soils: 90 percent
   many very fine roots; few distinct very dark grayish
                                                          Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root channels
   and/or pores; common fine distinct dark yellowish      Similar soils:
   brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation           • The well drained Haymond soils
   throughout; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.           • The well drained Wirt soils, which have more sand
C2—23 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;           throughout than the Blyton soil
   massive with thin bedding planes; very friable;
                                                          Dissimilar soils:
   common very fine roots; few distinct very dark
                                                          • The well drained Drury soils, which have more clay
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root
                                                          in the upper part than the Blyton soil; in the higher
   channels and/or pores; common fine distinct dark
                                                          positions on footslopes
   yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron
                                                          • Elsah soils, which have rock fragments throughout
   accumulation throughout and common fine faint
                                                          • Soils that have carbonates throughout
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions along
                                                          • The poorly drained Twomile soils, which have more
   pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                          clay in the upper part than the Blyton soil; in the higher
C3—26 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
                                                          positions on the landform
   massive with thin bedding planes; very friable;
                                                          • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils in the
   common fine faint dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                          slightly lower positions on the landform
   4/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout,
   common fine faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron                              Management
   depletions along pores, and light brownish gray
                                                            For general and detailed information about
   (10YR 6/2) iron depletions along pores; neutral.
                                                          managing this map unit, see the following sections in
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 Part II of this publication:
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                               •   “Agronomy” section
                                                          •   “Forestland” section
Ap or A horizon:
                                                          •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR
                                                          •   “Engineering” section
    Value—4 or 5
                                                          •   “Soil Properties” section
    Chroma—2 to 4
    Texture—silt loam
C or Cg horizon:                                          8634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    Hue—10YR                                                 slopes, occasionally flooded
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—2 to 6                                                                   Setting
    Texture—silt loam or loam
                                                          Landform: Rises
                                                          Position on the landform: Summits
3634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                    Type of landscape: Flood plains
   slopes, frequently flooded                                         Soil Properties and Qualities
                        Setting                           Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                                                          Parent material: Alluvium
Landform: Rises
Position on the landform: Summits                             Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   39




as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       common fine and medium roots throughout; few
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and manganese
                                                               concretions and few fine distinct light gray (10YR
                      Composition
                                                               7/2) clay depletions throughout; neutral; abrupt
Blyton and similar soils: 90 percent                           smooth boundary.
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                AE—4 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, very
                                                               pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; weak medium
Similar soils:
                                                               subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
• The well drained Haymond soils in the slightly higher
                                                               roots throughout; few fine distinct yellowish brown
positions on the landform
                                                               (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
• Soils that have a buried soil at a depth of 20 to 40
                                                               throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
inches
                                                            Bt1—7 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
Dissimilar soils:                                              clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
• The poorly drained Beaucoup soils, which have a              structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; few
darker surface soil than that of the Blyton soil and           distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of
have more clay in the upper part of the profile; in the        peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and
lower positions on the landform                                manganese concretions throughout, few fine
• The somewhat poorly drained Lawson soils, which              distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
have a darker surface soil than that of the Blyton soil        manganese accumulation between peds, and few
and have more clay in the upper part of the profile; in        fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
the slightly lower positions on the landform                   depletions between peds; moderately acid; clear
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the                smooth boundary.
Blyton soil                                                 Bt2—10 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils in the            clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
slightly lower positions on the landform                       parting to weak medium subangular blocky;
                                                               friable; few fine roots throughout; common distinct
                      Management
                                                               brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds;
  For general and detailed information about                   many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
managing this map unit, see the following sections in          masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
Part II of this publication:                                   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout, and
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                               common medium distinct light brownish gray
•   “Forestland” section
                                                               (10YR 6/2) iron depletions throughout; moderately
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                               acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            Bt3—22 to 34 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                               clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
                                                               few fine roots throughout; few distinct dark
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of
Bunkum Series                                                  peds; many medium faint brown (10YR 5/3)
                                                               masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
   superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout, many
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                               iron depletions throughout, and common medium
Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at
                                                               distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
an elevation of 660 feet; 2,360 feet south and 2,440
                                                               accumulation throughout; strongly acid; gradual
feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 23, T. 2 S., R.
                                                               wavy boundary.
8 W.; USGS Quincy East, Illinois, topographic
                                                            BCt—34 to 50 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 53 minutes 2 seconds N.
                                                               loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable; few
and long. 91 degrees 17 minutes 30.5 seconds W.,
                                                               fine roots throughout; very few faint dark yellowish
NAD 27:
                                                               brown (10YR 4/4) clay films in root channels
Ap—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale             and/or pores; common medium faint brown (10YR
   brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak thick platy structure            5/3) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few
   parting to weak fine subangular blocky; friable;            fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
40                                                                                                Soil Survey of




   manganese accumulation between peds, few             2C or 2Cg horizon:
   medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)              Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and             Value—4 to 6
   many medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR          Chroma—1 to 4
   6/2) iron depletions throughout; moderately acid;       Texture—silt loam
   gradual wavy boundary.
2C1—50 to 65 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt
   loam; massive; friable; few fine roots between       515B2—Bunkum silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   peds; common medium distinct yellowish brown            slopes, eroded
   (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
                                                                                  Setting
   throughout, common medium faint brown (10YR
   5/3) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few     Landform: Interfluves
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and    Position on the landform: Head slopes
   manganese accumulation throughout, and many          Type of landscape: Uplands
   medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
                                                                    Soil Properties and Qualities
   depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy
   boundary.                                            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
2C2—65 to 78 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt         Parent material: Loess and the underlying
   loam; massive; friable; few fine roots between           pedisediment
   peds; many coarse faint yellowish brown (10YR
                                                           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   5/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few
                                                        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   medium yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
                                                        Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   iron accumulation throughout, few fine distinct
   black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese                              Composition
   accumulation throughout, and many coarse faint
                                                        Bunkum and similar soils: 90 percent
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
                                                        Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   throughout; moderately acid; gradual wavy
   boundary.                                            Similar soils:
2C3—78 to 85 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt    • Emery soils, which have a darker surface layer than
   loam; massive; firm; common fine and medium          that of the Bunkum soil
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and         • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
   manganese accumulation throughout, few coarse        part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
   distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron         • Keomah soils, which have less sand in the
   depletions throughout, and common medium             underlying material than the Bunkum soil; in areas
   distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron   upslope from the Bunkum soil
   accumulation throughout; moderately acid.            • Soils on terraces
                                                        • Soils that are moderately well drained
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                        Dissimilar soils:
Thickness of the loess: 24 to 60 inches                 • Winfield and Rozetta soils, which are better drained
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 24 to 60 inches    than the Bunkum soil and have less sand in the lower
Slope range: 2 to 18 percent                            part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Bunkum
                                                        soil
Ap or A horizon:
                                                                              Management
    Hue—10YR
    Value—4 or 5                                          For general and detailed information about
    Chroma—2 to 4                                       managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                Part II of this publication:
Bt or Btg horizon:                                      •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                               •   “Forestland” section
    Value—4 to 6                                        •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Chroma—1 to 4                                       •   “Engineering” section
    Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam                •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  41




515C2—Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                  515C3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 5 to 10
   slopes, eroded                                           percent slopes, severely eroded
                          Setting                                                Setting
Landform: Interfluves                                    Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes       Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                               Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                   Soil Properties and Qualities
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                         Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                         Parent material: Loess and the underlying
Parent material: Loess and the underlying
                                                             pedisediment
    pedisediment
                                                         Special feature: The Bunkum soil in this map unit has
   Additional information specific to this map unit,         a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in          pedon.
the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
publication.
                                                         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                      Composition                        Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Bunkum and similar soils: 90 percent                                         Composition
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                         Bunkum and similar soils: 90 percent
Similar soils:                                           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
• Emery soils, which have a darker surface layer than
                                                         Similar soils:
that of the Bunkum soil
                                                         • Emery soils, which have a darker surface layer than
• Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
                                                         that of the Bunkum soil
part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
                                                         • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
• Keomah soils, which have less sand in the
                                                         part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
underlying material than the Bunkum soil; in areas
                                                         • Keomah soils, which have less sand in the
upslope from the Bunkum soil
                                                         underlying material than the Bunkum soil; in areas
• Passport soils, which have more sand in the upper
                                                         upslope from the Bunkum soil
part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
                                                         • Passport soils, which have more sand in the upper
• Soils on terraces
                                                         part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
• Soils that are moderately well drained
                                                         • Soils on terraces
Dissimilar soils:                                        • Soils that are moderately well drained
• The moderately well drained Keswick soils, which
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
have more clay in the subsoil than the Bunkum soil; in
                                                         • The moderately well drained Keswick soils, which
areas downslope from the Bunkum soil
                                                         have more clay in the subsoil than the Bunkum soil; in
• Winfield and Rozetta soils, which are better drained
                                                         areas downslope from the Bunkum soil
than the Bunkum soil and have less sand in the lower
                                                         • Winfield and Rozetta soils, which are better drained
part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Bunkum
                                                         than the Bunkum soil and have less sand in the lower
soil
                                                         part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Bunkum
                      Management
                                                         soil
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                             Management
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                               For general and detailed information about
                                                         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                         Part II of this publication:
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                           • “Agronomy” section
•   “Engineering” section                                • “Forestland” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                            • “Wildlife Habitat” section
42                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




• “Engineering” section                                     515D3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 10 to 18
• “Soil Properties” section                                    percent slopes, severely eroded
                                                                                      Setting
515D2—Bunkum silt loam, 10 to 18
   percent slopes, eroded                                   Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                          Setting                           Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                            Parent material: Loess and the underlying
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                pedisediment
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     Special feature: The Bunkum soil in this map unit has
Parent material: Loess and the underlying                       a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
    pedisediment                                                pedon.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                      Composition                                                 Composition
Bunkum and similar soils: 90 percent                        Bunkum and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Similar soils:                                              Similar soils:
• El Dara soils, which formed in loamy Cretaceous           • El Dara soils, which formed in loamy Cretaceous
material; in areas downslope from the Bunkum soil           material; in areas downslope from the Bunkum soil
• Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower         • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil                    part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
• Passport soils, which have more sand in the upper         • Passport soils, which have more sand in the upper
part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil                    part of the subsoil than the Bunkum soil
• Soils on terraces                                         • Soils on terraces
• Soils that are moderately well drained                    • Soils that are moderately well drained
Dissimilar soils:                                           Dissimilar soils:
• The moderately well drained Keswick soils, which          • The moderately well drained Keswick soils, which
have more clay in the subsoil than the Bunkum soil; in      have more clay in the subsoil than the Bunkum soil; in
areas downslope from the Bunkum soil                        areas downslope from the Bunkum soil
• Winfield and Rozetta soils, which are better drained      • Winfield and Rozetta soils, which are better drained
than the Bunkum soil and have less sand in the lower        than the Bunkum soil and have less sand in the lower
part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Bunkum       part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Bunkum
soil                                                        soil
                      Management                                                  Management
  For general and detailed information about                  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                                Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section                                      •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section                                    •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    43




Caseyville Series                                            throughout; very strongly acid; clear smooth
                                                             boundary.
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,              Btg—36 to 43 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
   superactive, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs                      clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
Taxadjunct features: The Caseyville soils in this            structure; firm; very few fine roots throughout; few
   survey area are browner in the upper part of the          distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of
   subsoil than is defined as the range for the series.      peds; common medium faint light brownish gray
   This difference, however, does not significantly          (10YR 6/2) iron depletions throughout, common
   affect the use or behavior of the soils. These soils      medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   are classified as fine-silty, mixed, superactive,         masses of iron accumulation throughout, and few
   mesic Aquic Hapludalfs.                                   medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
                                                             manganese accumulation throughout; strongly
         Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                             acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an        BCg—43 to 50 inches; 60 percent light brownish gray
elevation of 715 feet; 320 feet east and 160 feet north      (10YR 6/2) and 40 percent yellowish brown (10YR
of the southwest corner of sec. 36, T. 7 S., R. 3 W.;        5/6) silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
USGS Pearl West, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.      structure; friable; few medium distinct black (2.5Y
39 degrees 23 minutes 58 seconds N. and long. 90             2/1) masses of manganese accumulation
degrees 42 minutes 20 seconds W., NAD 27:                    throughout; moderately acid; gradual smooth
                                                             boundary.
Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                          Cg—50 to 60 inches; 60 percent light brownish gray
   loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak
                                                             (10YR 6/2) and 40 percent yellowish brown (10YR
   medium granular structure; friable; few fine roots
                                                             5/6) silt loam; massive; friable; few medium distinct
   throughout; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
                                                             black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of manganese
   boundary.
                                                             accumulation throughout; slightly acid.
E—9 to 16 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam;
   weak thin platy structure; friable; few fine roots
                                                              MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   throughout; few fine faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
   iron depletions throughout and few medium              Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and               inches
   manganese accumulation throughout; very                Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 76 inches
   strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.                  Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
Bt1—16 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
                                                          Ap or A horizon:
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
                                                              Hue—10YR
   firm; very few fine roots throughout; few distinct
                                                              Value—3 to 6
   brown (10YR 4/3) and dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                              Chroma—1 or 2
   4/2) clay films on faces of peds; common fine faint
                                                              Texture—silt loam
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
   throughout, few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR      E or Eg horizon:
   5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout, and           Hue—10YR
   few fine and medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)              Value—4 to 6
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                  Chroma—1 to 3
   throughout; very strongly acid; clear smooth               Texture—silt loam
   boundary.
                                                          Bt or Btg horizon:
Bt2—22 to 36 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
                                                              Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
                                                              Value—4 to 6
   firm; very few fine roots throughout; few distinct
                                                              Chroma—1 to 4
   brown (10YR 4/3) and dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                              Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
   4/2) clay films on faces of peds; common medium
   faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions   Cg or C horizon:
   throughout, common medium distinct yellowish              Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation              Value—5 or 6
   throughout, and few medium distinct black (2.5Y           Chroma—1 to 4
   2/1) masses of manganese accumulation                     Texture—silt loam
44                                                                                                      Soil Survey of




267A—Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                Soil Properties and Qualities
   slopes                                                    Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                          Setting                            Parent material: Loess
                                                             Special feature: The Caseyville soil in this map unit
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                 has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
Position on the landform: Broad summits
                                                                 pedon.
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                Additional information specific to this map unit, such
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                             as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                      Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Parent material: Loess
                                                                                   Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                             Caseyville and similar soils: 90 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                             Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                             Similar soils:
                      Composition
                                                             • Bethalto soils, which have a darker surface layer
Caseyville and similar soils: 90 percent                     than that of the Caseyville soil
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                 • Bunkum soils, which have more sand in the lower
                                                             part of the subsoil than the Caseyville soil; in areas
Similar soils:
                                                             downslope from the Caseyville soil
• Bethalto soils, which have a darker surface layer
                                                             • Soils that have less clay in the subsoil than the
than that of the Caseyville soil
                                                             Caseyville soil
• Soils that have less clay in the subsoil than the
Caseyville soil                                              Dissimilar soils:
                                                             • The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
Dissimilar soils:
                                                             have a darker surface layer than that of the Caseyville
• The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
                                                             soil; in the slightly higher positions on the landform
have a darker surface layer than that of the Caseyville
                                                             • The moderately well drained Winfield soils in the
soil; in the slightly higher positions on the landform
                                                             slightly higher positions on the landform
• The poorly drained Rushville soils, which have more
clay in the subsoil than the Caseyville soil; in the lower                         Management
positions on the landform
                                                               For general and detailed information about
• The moderately well drained Winfield soils in the
                                                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
slightly higher positions on the landform
                                                             Part II of this publication:
                      Management
                                                             •   “Agronomy” section
  For general and detailed information about                 •   “Forestland” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in        •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Part II of this publication:                                 •   “Engineering” section
                                                             •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                               Clarksdale Series
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                                Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                                Udollic Endoaqualfs
                                                                        Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
267B—Caseyville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   slopes                                                    Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
                                                             elevation of 650 feet; 800 feet south and 550 feet east
                          Setting
                                                             of the northwest corner of sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 7 W.;
Landform: Interfluves                                        USGS Loraine, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40
Position on the landform: Summits and head slopes            degrees 9 minutes 55.1 seconds N. and long. 91
Type of landscape: Uplands                                   degrees 13 minutes 18 seconds W., NAD 27:
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   45




Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)         manganese accumulation throughout, and
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate         common fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   medium granular structure; friable; common fine           iron depletions throughout; moderately acid;
   roots throughout; neutral; abrupt smooth                  gradual wavy boundary.
   boundary.                                             Btg1—31 to 47 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
E—8 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt         silty clay loam; moderate coarse prismatic
   loam; moderate medium platy structure parting to          structure parting to moderate coarse subangular
   weak very fine subangular blocky; friable; common         blocky; firm; few fine roots throughout; common
   very fine and fine roots throughout; many faint           prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats          faces of peds and many prominent very dark gray
   on faces of peds and in pores; few fine distinct          (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron                 in pores; many fine and medium prominent strong
   accumulation lining root channels and/or pores,           brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   few fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron        throughout, few fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
   and manganese accumulation throughout, and                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
   many fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1 and 7/2)          throughout, and few fine faint light brownish gray
   clay depletions between peds; neutral; clear              (10YR 6/2) iron depletions lining root channels
   smooth boundary.                                          and/or pores; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
BE—12 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt        Btg2—47 to 57 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;          silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm;
   friable; few fine roots throughout; common distinct       few fine roots throughout; common prominent dark
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay            grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films in root
   films on faces of peds and in pores; few fine             channels and/or pores; many medium prominent
   prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and             strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron
   manganese accumulation throughout, common                 accumulation and few fine prominent black (2.5Y
   fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of        2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation
   iron accumulation throughout, and common fine             throughout; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
   faint light gray (10YR 7/1) clay depletions between   BCg—57 to 67 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.             silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
Bt1—16 to 23 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay             structure; firm; common prominent dark grayish
   loam; moderate medium prismatic structure                 brown (10YR 4/2) clay films in root channels
   parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;             and/or pores; common medium prominent strong
   firm; few very fine and fine roots throughout; many       brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   prominent dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay              and common medium prominent yellowish red
   films on faces of peds and many prominent very            (5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   dark gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of        throughout; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
   peds and in pores; common fine prominent black        Cg—67 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese                   silt loam; massive; friable; few distinct dark grayish
   accumulation and common fine distinct yellowish           brown (10YR 4/2) clay films in root channels
   brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation              and/or pores; many medium prominent yellowish
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth                 red (5YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation and
   boundary.                                                 common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
Bt2—23 to 31 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay             5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout;
   loam; moderate medium prismatic structure                 neutral.
   parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
   firm; few fine roots throughout; many faint grayish       MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds and
                                                         Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40
   many prominent very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                             inches
   organo-clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                         Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 60 inches
   many fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                         Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of          Ap or A horizon:
   iron accumulation throughout, common fine                 Hue—10YR
   prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and             Value—2 or 3
46                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




     Chroma—1 or 2                                                                Management
     Texture—silt loam
                                                              For general and detailed information about
E or BE horizon:                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR                                                Part II of this publication:
    Value—4 to 6
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
    Texture—silt loam
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Bt or Btg horizon:                                          •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                   •   “Soil Properties” section
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—1 to 6
    Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or silt loam       257B—Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
C or Cg horizon:                                               slopes
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                                             Setting
    Value—4 to 6
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
    Chroma—1 to 6
                                                            Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
    Texture—silt loam
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
257A—Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   slopes                                                   Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                            Parent material: Loess
                         Setting
                                                            Special feature: The Clarksdale soil in this map unit
Landform: Interfluves                                           has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
Position on the landform: Broad summits                         pedon.
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
          Soil Properties and Qualities                     as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Parent material: Loess                                                            Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Clarksdale and similar soils: 90 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Similar soils:
                     Composition                            • Bethalto soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            than the Clarksdale soil
Clarksdale and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            • Bunkum soils, which have more sand in the lower
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            part of the subsoil than the Clarksdale soil and have a
Similar soils:                                              lighter colored surface layer; in areas downslope from
• Bethalto soils, which have less clay in the subsoil       the Clarksdale soil
than the Clarksdale soil                                    • Greenbush and Downsouth soils, which have less
• Keomah soils, which have a lighter colored surface        clay in the subsoil than the Clarksdale soil; on the
layer than the Clarksdale soil                              higher summits
• Soils on terraces                                         • Emery soils, which have more sand in the lower part
• Timewell and Ipava soils, which have a thicker dark       of the subsoil than the Clarksdale soil; in areas
surface soil than that of the Clarksdale soil               downslope from the Clarksdale soil
                                                            • Keomah soils, which have a lighter colored surface
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            layer than that of the Clarksdale soil
• The poorly drained Rubio soils in the slightly lower
                                                            • Osco and Wakenda soils, which have less clay in the
positions on the landform
                                                            subsoil than the Clarksdale soil and have a thicker
• The poorly drained Virden soils, which have a thicker
                                                            dark surface soil; on the higher summits
dark surface soil than that of the Clarksdale soil and
do not have a gray subsurface layer; in the lower           Dissimilar soils:
positions on the landform                                   • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    47




part of the subsoil than the Clarksdale soil and have a          masses of iron accumulation throughout;
lighter colored surface layer; in areas downslope from           moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
the Clarksdale soil                                          2Btg2—14 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
• Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part           clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
of the subsoil than the Clarksdale soil; in areas                weak medium subangular blocky; firm; few fine
downslope from the Clarksdale soil                               roots; common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                                 organo-clay films on faces of peds; many fine
                      Management
                                                                 prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of
  For general and detailed information about                     iron accumulation and common fine faint light
managing this map unit, see the following sections in            brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
Part II of this publication:                                     throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                             2Btg3—19 to 26 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                                 clay loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure;
•   “Forestland” section
                                                                 firm; few fine roots; common distinct gray (10YR
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                                 5/1) clay films and few distinct very dark gray
•   “Engineering” section
                                                                 (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds;
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                 many fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
                                                                 depletions and common fine and medium
                                                                 prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of
Coatsburg Series                                                 iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;
                                                                 clear wavy boundary.
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                             2Btg4—26 to 38 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
   Vertic Argiaquolls
                                                                 clay loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure;
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official                      firm; few very fine roots; few distinct gray (10YR
               Series Description)                               5/1) clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                                 many fine and medium faint light brownish gray
Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at
                                                                 (10YR 6/2) iron depletions throughout, common
an elevation of 705 feet; 2,550 feet east and 2,400 feet
                                                                 fine and medium prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
north of the southwest corner of sec. 20, T. 2 N., R. 5
                                                                 masses of iron and manganese accumulation
W.; USGS Augusta, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                                                                 throughout, and common fine and medium
lat. 40 degrees 8 minutes 31.1 seconds N. and long.
                                                                 prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of
91 degrees 7 minutes 25.4 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                                 iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;
Ap—0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,           clear wavy boundary.
    dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate fine         2Btg5—38 to 45 inches; light brownish gray (10YR
    granular structure; friable; many fine and medium            6/2) silty clay loam; moderate very coarse
    roots; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.              prismatic structure; firm; common faint grayish
AB—6 to 10 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty               brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds and
    clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak medium                  few distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films lining
    subangular blocky structure parting to moderate              root channels and pores; common medium
    fine subangular blocky; firm; common fine roots;             prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) masses of
    many fine distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)              iron accumulation and common fine faint light gray
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, common               (10YR 7/2) clay depletions throughout; slightly
    fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses               acid; clear wavy boundary.
    of iron accumulation throughout, and few fine light      2Btg6—45 to 62 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) silty clay
    gray (10YR 7/1) clay depletions on faces of peds;            loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure;
    moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.                        firm; common distinct gray (10YR 5/1) clay films
2Btg1—10 to 14 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR                  on faces of peds; many fine faint light gray (10YR
    4/2) silty clay loam; weak medium subangular                 7/2) clay depletions on faces of peds, common
    blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; common               medium and coarse prominent brownish yellow
    distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay               (10YR 6/6) masses of iron accumulation
    films and common faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay             throughout, and few medium prominent black
    films on faces of peds; many fine distinct light olive       (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
    brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron accumulation and             accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear wavy
    common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)               boundary.
48                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




2Btg7—62 to 70 inches; light brownish gray (10YR           Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
    6/2) silty clay; weak very coarse prismatic
                                                              Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    structure parting to moderate medium subangular
                                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    blocky; very firm; few distinct gray (10YR 6/1) clay
                                                           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    films in root channels and/or pores; many medium
    distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron                             Composition
    accumulation and common fine prominent black
                                                           Coatsburg and similar soils: 90 percent
    (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    accumulation throughout; slightly acid; gradual
    wavy boundary.                                         Similar soils:
2BCg—70 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) silty clay;          • The somewhat poorly drained Atlas soils, which
    weak very coarse prismatic structure; firm; many       have a light-colored surface soil
    coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)            • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
    masses of iron accumulation and common fine            surface layer than the Coatsburg soil
    prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and          • Soils that have slopes of more than 10 percent
    manganese accumulation throughout; slightly acid.
                                                           Dissimilar soils:
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                  • The somewhat poorly drained Keller soils, which
                                                           have less clay in the upper part of the subsoil than the
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 20 inches
                                                           Coatsburg soil; in areas upslope from the Coatsburg
Thickness of the loess: Less than 20 inches
                                                           soil
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
                                                           • Lawson soils on flood plains along drainageways
    inches
                                                           • The well drained Ursa soils, which have a light-
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 50 to 80 inches
                                                           colored surface layer
Slope range: 5 to 10 percent
                                                                                 Management
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                                 For general and detailed information about
    Value—2 or 3                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Chroma—1 or 2                                          Part II of this publication:
    Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam, or clay loam
                                                           •   “Agronomy” section
Bt, Btg, 2Bt, or 2Btg horizon:                             •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N                               •   “Engineering” section
    Value—3 to 6                                           •   “Soil Properties” section
    Chroma—0 to 2
    Texture—clay, clay loam, silty clay, or silty clay
       loam                                                Creal Series
2Cg horizon (if it occurs):
                                                           Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
   Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
                                                              superactive, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
   Value—4 to 6
   Chroma—0 to 8                                                      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
   Texture—clay, clay loam, silty clay, silty clay loam,
                                                           Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an elevation
      or loam
                                                           of 608 feet; 2,270 feet west and 2,460 feet south of the
                                                           northeast corner of sec. 9, T. 3 S., R. 7 W.; USGS
660C2—Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10                         Payson, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
   percent slopes, eroded                                  degrees 49 minutes 22 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                           degrees 12 minutes 42 seconds W., NAD 27:
                        Setting
                                                           Ap—0 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
Landform: Interfluves                                         loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry;
Position on the landform: Backslopes                          moderate thin platy structure parting to moderate
Type of landscape: Uplands                                    very fine granular; friable; common very fine and
                                                              fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
           Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                           Eg1—9 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Drainage class: Poorly drained                                silt loam, light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; moderate thin
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                        49




   and medium platy structure; friable; few very fine           common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
   roots; very few distinct dark grayish brown (10YR            masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
   4/2) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;            distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) iron and manganese
   few fine faint dark grayish brown (2.5Y 7/2) clay            concretions throughout, and few fine distinct gray
   depletions between peds, few fine distinct brown             (10YR 6/1) iron depletions throughout; moderately
   (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation                      acid; clear smooth boundary.
   throughout, and few fine distinct black (7.5YR 2/1)      Bt3—41 to 51 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay
   iron and manganese concretions throughout;                   loam; moderate medium prismatic structure;
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.                              friable; common distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
Eg2—14 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt              clay films, common distinct light brownish gray
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak               (2.5Y 6/2) silt coats on faces of peds, and very few
   thick platy structure parting to moderate fine               distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
   subangular blocky; friable; few very fine roots; very        organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
   few distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic           common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
   coats in root channels and/or pores; many fine               masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
   faint light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay depletions         distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) iron-manganese
   between peds, common fine distinct brown (7.5YR              concretions throughout, and few fine distinct gray
   4/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout, and             (10YR 6/1) iron depletions throughout; slightly
   common fine distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) iron and              acid; gradual smooth boundary.
   manganese concretions throughout; neutral; clear         B´tg—51 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   smooth boundary.                                             silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic
Btg—19 to 24 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty             structure; friable; few distinct grayish brown (10YR
   clay loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to          5/2) clay films, few distinct light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt
   moderate fine subangular blocky; friable; many               coats on faces of peds, and very few distinct very
   distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay films on              dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in
   faces of peds and very few distinct very dark                root channels and/or pores; many medium
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root               prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of
   channels and/or pores; common fine faint light               iron accumulation throughout, few fine distinct
   brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay depletions between             black (7.5YR 2/1) iron and manganese
   peds, few fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR           concretions throughout, and few fine faint gray
   4/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout, and             (2.5Y 6/1) iron depletions throughout; slightly acid.
   few fine distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) iron and
                                                                 MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   manganese concretions throughout; moderately
   acid; clear smooth boundary.                             Depth to top of argillic horizon: 19 to 36 inches
Bt1—24 to 29 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay            Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
   loam; moderate fine prismatic structure; friable;
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
   many distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films,
                                                                Hue—10YR
   few distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt coats
                                                                Value—3 to 5
   on faces of peds, and very few distinct very dark
                                                                Chroma—2 or 3
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root
                                                                Texture—silt loam
   channels and/or pores; common fine distinct
   strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron                  E or Eg horizon:
   accumulation throughout, few fine distinct black             Hue—10YR
   (7.5YR 2/1) iron and manganese concretions                   Value—4 to 6
   throughout, and few fine distinct gray (10YR 6/1)            Chroma—2 to 4
   iron depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear           Texture—silt loam
   smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt or Btg horizon:
Bt2—29 to 41 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay
                                                                Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
                                                                Value—4 to 6
   common distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay
                                                                Chroma—2 to 4
   films, very few distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y
                                                                Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   6/2) silt coats on faces of peds, and very few
   distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)              Cg horizon (if it occurs):
   organic coats in root channels and/or pores;                Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
50                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




     Value—4 to 6                                           lat. 40 degrees 6 minutes 34 seconds N. and long. 91
     Chroma—2 to 4                                          degrees 17 minutes 31 seconds W., NAD 27:
     Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; 95 percent brown (10YR 4/3) and 5
                                                                percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam,
337A—Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                            brown (10YR 5/3) dry; moderate very fine
   slopes                                                       subangular blocky structure; friable; common very
                                                                fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
                          Setting
                                                            Bt1—8 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
Landform: Alluvial fans                                         clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
Position on the landform: Footslopes                            structure; friable; common very fine roots; very few
Type of landscape: Stream terraces                              distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of
                                                                peds and very few distinct dark grayish brown
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                (10YR 4/2) organic coats in root channels and/or
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                         pores; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Parent material: Slope alluvium                             Bt2—12 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
                                                                clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                structure; friable; few very fine roots; few distinct
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds;
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                      Composition                           Bt3—26 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
                                                                clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
Creal and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                structure; friable; very few distinct brown (10YR
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                4/3) clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid;
Similar soils:                                                  gradual smooth boundary.
• Soils that do not have a gray subsurface layer            2Bt4—35 to 47 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty
                                                                clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure; firm;
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                very few faint brown (7.5YR 4/3) clay films and
• The moderately well drained Blyton soils on flood
                                                                very few faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) organic
plains along drainageways
                                                                coats in root channels and/or pores; moderately
• The poorly drained Twomile soils in the slightly lower
                                                                acid; clear smooth boundary.
positions on the landform
                                                            2Bt5—47 to 61 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                                clay; weak coarse prismatic structure; very firm;
                      Management                                very few faint reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay films
                                                                on faces of peds, very few faint dark brown (7.5YR
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                3/2) organic coats in root channels and/or pores,
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                and very few faint brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay films in
Part II of this publication:
                                                                root channels and/or pores; 1 percent limestone
•   “Agronomy” section                                          gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Forestland” section                                    2BC—61 to 72 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  clay; moderate medium prismatic structure; very
•   “Engineering” section                                       firm; very few faint brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay films
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   and very few faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) organic
                                                                coats in root channels and/or pores; 1 percent
                                                                limestone gravel and 2 percent cherty gravel;
Crider Series                                                   slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                            2R—72 inches; limestone bedrock.
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active,
   mesic Typic Paleudalfs
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                            Thickness of the loess: 20 to 45 inches
Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at an     Depth to lithic contact: More than 60 inches
elevation of 645 feet; 2,000 feet east and 200 feet         Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 60
south of the northwest corner of sec. 2, T. 1 N., R. 8          inches
W.; USGS Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;          Slope range: 5 to 18 percent
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      51




Ap or A horizon:                                            •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR                                       •   “Forestland” section
    Value—4 or 5                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Chroma—2 to 4                                           •   “Engineering” section
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                    •   “Soil Properties” section
Bt horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR
    Value—4 or 5                                            629D2—Crider silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
    Chroma—4 to 6                                              slopes, eroded
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                                                      Setting
2Bt horizon:
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
    Hue—10YR, 2.5YR, or 5YR
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
    Value—3 to 5
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
    Chroma—4 to 8
    Texture—silty clay, clay, or silty clay loam                        Soil Properties and Qualities
    Content of rock fragments—0 to 35 percent
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Loess and the underlying residuum
629C2—Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                        Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   slopes, eroded                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
                                                                                  Composition
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Side slopes and head slopes       Crider and similar soils: 90 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
          Soil Properties and Qualities                     Similar soils:
                                                            • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            surface layer than the Crider soil
Parent material: Loess and the underlying residuum
                                                            • Soils that have more clay in the upper part of the
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   subsoil than the Crider soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            • Menfro and Winfield soils, which have less clay in
                    Composition                             the lower part of the subsoil than the Crider soil
                                                            • Soils that have limestone bedrock at a depth of less
Crider and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            than 60 inches
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            • Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock
Similar soils:
                                                                                  Management
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
surface layer than the Crider soil                            For general and detailed information about
• Soils that have more clay in the upper part of the        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
subsoil than the Crider soil                                Part II of this publication:
Dissimilar soils:                                           •   “Agronomy” section
• Menfro and Winfield soils, which have less clay in        •   “Forestland” section
the lower part of the subsoil than the Crider soil          •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
• Soils that have limestone bedrock at a depth of less      •   “Engineering” section
than 60 inches                                              •   “Soil Properties” section
• Soils that have limestone bedrock outcrops
                    Management
                                                            Downsouth Series
  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
Part II of this publication:                                   superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
52                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




         Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         iron and manganese concretions throughout, few
                                                             fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
                                                             accumulation throughout, and few fine distinct light
elevation of 705 feet; 900 feet south and 30 feet east
                                                             brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
of the northwest corner of sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 8 W.;
                                                             throughout; moderately acid; gradual smooth
USGS Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
                                                             boundary.
40 degrees 0 minutes 13.5 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                          Bt5—51 to 63 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
degrees 20 minutes 8.5 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                             clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
                                                             common distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats
Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                             and common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate
                                                             on faces of peds; few fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/4)
   medium granular structure; friable; neutral; abrupt
                                                             masses of iron accumulation and few fine distinct
   smooth boundary.
                                                             light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
E—7 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
                                                             throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
   brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak medium platy
                                                          BC—63 to 73 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   structure parting to weak fine granular; friable;
                                                             loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable; few
   common distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                             distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats on faces of
   3/2) organic coats on faces of peds; neutral; clear
                                                             peds and few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films
   smooth boundary.
                                                             in root channels and/or pores; few fine faint brown
BE—11 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
                                                             (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation and few
   weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
                                                             fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
   common distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                             depletions throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth
   3/2) organic coats on faces of peds; neutral; clear
                                                             boundary.
   smooth boundary.
                                                          C—73 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
Bt1—15 to 21 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                             loam; massive; friable; few distinct brown (10YR
   clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
                                                             4/3) clay films in root channels and/or pores;
   blocky structure; friable; common prominent light
                                                             common fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of
   gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats and many distinct brown
                                                             iron accumulation throughout, few fine distinct
   (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; moderately
                                                             black (10YR 2/1) iron and manganese concretions
   acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                             throughout, and common fine distinct light
Bt2—21 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                             brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
   clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                             throughout; slightly acid.
   structure; firm; common distinct light gray (10YR
   7/1) silt coats and many distinct brown (10YR 4/3)         MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black
                                                          Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
   (10YR 2/1) iron and manganese concretions
                                                              inches
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                          Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 70 inches
   boundary.
                                                          Slope range: 2 to 10 percent
Bt3—30 to 41 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
   clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure             Ap or A horizon:
   parting to weak coarse subangular blocky; firm;            Hue—10YR
   few distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats and          Value—2 or 3
   common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on             Chroma—1 to 3
   faces of peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)          Texture—silt loam
   iron and manganese concretions throughout, few
                                                          E horizon:
   fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of
                                                              Hue—10YR
   iron accumulation throughout, and few fine distinct
                                                              Value—4 or 5
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
                                                              Chroma—2 or 3
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                              Texture—silt loam
   boundary.
Bt4—41 to 51 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty     Bt horizon:
   clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;       Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
   few distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats and          Value—4 to 6
   common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on             Chroma—2 to 6
   faces of peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)          Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      53




C horizon:                                                                        Management
   Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
                                                              For general and detailed information about
   Value—5 or 6
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
   Chroma—1 to 4
                                                            Part II of this publication:
   Texture—silt loam
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
283B—Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   percent slopes                                           •   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
                        Setting
Landform: Ridges
Position on the landform: Summits                           283C2—Downsouth silt loam, 5 to 10
Type of landscape: Uplands                                     percent slopes, eroded
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                                      Setting
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
Parent material: Loess
                                                            Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Type of landscape: Uplands
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                    Composition
                                                            Parent material: Loess
Downsouth and similar soils: 90 percent                     Special feature: The Downsouth soil in this map unit
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                    has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
                                                                pedon.
Similar soils:
• The well drained Menfro soils, which have a light-           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
colored surface layer                                       as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
• The well drained Wakenda soils, which have a              Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
thicker dark surface soil than that of the Downsouth
soil                                                                              Composition
• Winfield soils, which have a light-colored surface
                                                            Downsouth and similar soils: 90 percent
layer
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Similar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bethalto soils in the
                                                            • The well drained Menfro soils, which have a light-
slightly lower positions on the landform
                                                            colored surface layer
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            • The well drained Wakenda soils, which have a
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                            thicker dark surface soil than that of the Downsouth
the Downsouth soil and have a light-colored surface
                                                            soil
layer; in areas downslope from the Downsouth soil
                                                            • Winfield soils, which have a light-colored surface
• The somewhat poorly drained Clarksdale soils,
                                                            layer
which have more clay in the subsoil than the
Downsouth soil; in the slightly lower positions on the      Dissimilar soils:
landform                                                    • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
• The somewhat poorly drained Edwardsville soils,           have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
which have a thicker dark surface soil than that of the     the Downsouth soil and have a light-colored surface
Downsouth soil; on broad summits                            layer; in areas downslope from the Downsouth soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Emery soils, which            • The somewhat poorly drained Emery soils, which
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than        have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
the Downsouth soil; in areas downslope from the             the Downsouth soil; in areas downslope from the
Downsouth soil                                              Downsouth soil
54                                                                                                Soil Survey of




                      Management                             masses of iron accumulation throughout;
                                                             moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
  For general and detailed information about
                                                          Bt3—41 to 50 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                             loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
Part II of this publication:
                                                             friable; few very fine roots; common distinct brown
•   “Agronomy” section                                       (10YR 4/3) clay films and common distinct light
•   “Forestland” section                                     brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats on faces of
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                               peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Engineering” section                                 C—50 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam;
•   “Soil Properties” section                                massive; friable; very few distinct dark yellowish
                                                             brown (10YR 4/4) clay films and very few distinct
                                                             light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats in root
Drury Series                                                 channels and/or pores; moderately acid.
                                                              MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
   superactive, mesic Dystric Eutrudepts                  Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40
                                                              inches
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                          Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 26 to 60 inches
Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an elevation   Slope range: 0 to 10 percent
of 545 feet; 100 feet west and 1,740 feet south of the
                                                          Ap or A horizon:
northeast corner of sec. 15, T. 2 S., R. 8 W.; USGS
                                                              Hue—10YR
Quincy East, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
                                                              Value—3 or 4
degrees 53 minutes 58 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                              Chroma—2 to 4
degrees 18 minutes 10 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                              Texture—silt loam or silt
Ap—0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                          E horizon:
   loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate fine
                                                              Hue—10YR
   granular structure; very friable; common fine roots;
                                                              Value—4 or 5
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Chroma—3 or 4
E—6 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, light
                                                              Texture—silt loam or silt
   brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium platy
   structure; very friable; common fine roots; very few   Bt or Bw horizon:
   distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic             Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   coats in root channels and/or pores; neutral; clear        Value—4 or 5
   smooth boundary.                                           Chroma—2 to 6
BE—13 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt           Texture—silt loam
   loam; moderate medium platy structure; friable;
                                                          C horizon:
   few very fine roots; very few distinct dark grayish
                                                             Hue—10YR
   brown (10YR 4/2) organic coats in root channels
                                                             Value—3 to 6
   and/or pores; common distinct light gray (10YR
                                                             Chroma—2 to 6
   7/1) clay depletions throughout; slightly acid;
                                                             Texture—silt loam or loam; loam and strata of very
   gradual smooth boundary.
                                                                 fine sandy loam below a depth of 45 inches in
Bt1—20 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt
                                                                 some pedons
   loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
   structure; friable; few very fine roots; common
   distinct brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on faces of       75A—Drury silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   peds and few distinct light brownish gray (10YR           slopes
   6/2) silt coats on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                                                 Setting
   moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt2—28 to 41 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt      Landform: Alluvial fans
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;         Position on the landform: Footslopes
   friable; few very fine roots; common distinct brown    Type of landscape: Stream terraces
   (10YR 4/3) clay films and common distinct light
                                                                    Soil Properties and Qualities
   brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats on faces of
   peds; few fine faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)          Drainage class: Well drained
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     55




Parent material: Slope alluvium                                                   Composition
Special feature: The Drury soil in this map unit has a
                                                            Drury and similar soils: 90 percent
    thicker surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Similar soils:
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Drury soil
                                                            • Soils that have more sand in the underlying material
                      Composition
                                                            than the Drury soil
Drury and similar soils: 90 percent                         • Worthen soils, which have a darker surface soil than
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                that of the Drury soil
Similar soils:                                              Dissimilar soils:
• Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the         • The somewhat poorly drained Creal soils in the
Drury soil                                                  slightly lower positions on the landform
• Soils that have more sand in the underlying material      • Hickory and Lindley soils, which have more sand in
than the Drury soil                                         the subsoil than the Drury soil; in areas upslope from
• Worthen soils, which have a darker surface soil than      the Drury soil
that of the Drury soil                                      • Soils that have more sand throughout than the Drury
                                                            soil
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
• The somewhat poorly drained Creal soils in the
                                                            flood plains
slightly lower positions on the landform
                                                                                  Management
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the Drury
soil                                                          For general and detailed information about
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
flood plains                                                Part II of this publication:
                      Management                            •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              75C2—Drury silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
•   “Engineering” section                                      slopes, eroded
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                      Setting
                                                            Landform: Alluvial fans
75B—Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                         Position on the landform: Footslopes
   slopes                                                   Type of landscape: Stream terraces
                          Setting                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Alluvial fans                                     Drainage class: Well drained
Position on the landform: Footslopes                        Parent material: Slope alluvium
Type of landscape: Stream terraces                          Special feature: The Drury soil in this map unit has a
                                                                thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Drainage class: Well drained                                as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Parent material: Slope alluvium                             Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                                  Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    Drury and similar soils: 90 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
56                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




Similar soils:                                                 friable; few very fine roots; common fine and
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the             medium faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
surface layer than the Drury soil                              masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral;
• Soils that have clay in the subsoil                          clear smooth boundary.
• Soils that have more sand in the underlying material      Cg—25 to 36 inches; stratified, 75 percent dark gray
than the Drury soil                                            (10YR 4/1) and 20 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt
• Soils that have slopes of more than 10 percent               loam; massive; friable; common fine and medium
• Worthen soils, which have a darker surface soil than         distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses
that of the Drury soil                                         of iron accumulation throughout; neutral; clear
                                                               smooth boundary.
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            2Ab—36 to 51 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty
• The somewhat poorly drained Creal soils in the
                                                               clay; weak fine prismatic structure; firm; slightly
slightly lower positions on the landform
                                                               alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
• Hickory and Lindley soils, which have more sand in
                                                            2Bgb1—51 to 72 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;
the subsoil than the Drury soil; in areas upslope from
                                                               moderate medium prismatic structure; firm;
the Drury soil
                                                               common fine prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4)
• Soils that have sand throughout
                                                               masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral;
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                               clear smooth boundary.
                      Management                            2Bgb2—72 to 85 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay; weak
                                                               medium prismatic structure; firm; common fine
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               prominent black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               manganese accumulation and many fine and
Part II of this publication:
                                                               medium prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of
•   “Agronomy” section                                         iron accumulation throughout; neutral.
•   “Forestland” section
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   Depth to buried soil: 20 to 40 inches
•   “Soil Properties” section                               Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40
                                                                inches
                                                            Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
Dupo Series
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
Taxonomic classification: Coarse-silty over clayey,             Hue—10YR
   mixed over smectitic, superactive, nonacid, mesic            Value—4 or 5
   Aquic Udifluvents                                            Chroma—1 to 3
                                                                Texture—silt loam or silt
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                            C or Cg horizon:
Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally
                                                                Hue—10YR
flooded, at an elevation of 470 feet; 800 feet south and
                                                                Value—4 to 6
2,100 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 14, T. 1
                                                                Chroma—1 to 3
N., R. 9 W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois, topographic
                                                                Texture—silt loam; strata of silt in some
quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 4 minutes 54 seconds N.
                                                                  pedons
and long. 91 degrees 24 minutes 40 seconds W., NAD
27:                                                         2Ab horizon:
                                                               Hue—10YR or N
Ap—0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                                                               Value—2 to 4
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak
                                                               Chroma—0 to 2
   fine granular structure; friable; few very fine roots;
                                                               Texture—silty clay, clay, or silty clay loam
   common fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of
   iron and manganese accumulation between peds;            2Bgb or 2Cg horizon:
   slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                       Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
C—7 to 25 inches; stratified, 55 percent brown (10YR           Value—3 to 6
   4/3), 20 percent brown (10YR 5/3), and 20 percent           Chroma—1 or 2
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; massive;           Texture—silty clay, clay, or silty clay loam
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       57




8180A—Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                        elevation of 730 feet; 1,660 feet west and 1,980 feet
   slopes, occasionally flooded                             north of the southeast corner of sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 8 W.;
                                                            USGS Quincy East, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                          Setting                           lat. 39 degrees 59 minutes 53 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                            degrees 19 minutes 22 seconds W., NAD 27:
Landform: Rises
Position on the landform: Summits                           Ap—0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam, dark
Type of landscape: Flood plains                                 gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak fine granular structure;
                                                                friable; few very fine roots throughout; slightly acid;
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                clear smooth boundary.
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     A1—8 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam, dark
Parent material: Alluvium                                       gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate very fine
                                                                subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                roots throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                boundary.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            A2—13 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam, dark
                      Composition                               grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate very fine
                                                                and fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few
Dupo and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                very fine roots throughout; many distinct black
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                (10YR 2/1) organic coats on faces of peds and in
Similar soils:                                                  pores; very few fine distinct brown (10YR 4/3)
• Soils that have a darker surface layer than that of the       masses of iron accumulation throughout and few
Dupo soil                                                       fine prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) clay
• Wakeland soils, which do not have a buried soil               depletions between peds; moderately acid; clear
within a depth of 40 inches; in positions on the                smooth boundary.
landform similar to those of the Dupo soil                  BA—18 to 23 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silty clay
                                                                loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                friable; few very fine roots throughout; many
• The moderately well drained Blyton soils, which do
                                                                distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats
not have a buried soil
                                                                on faces of peds and in pores; very few fine
• Soils that have more sand in the upper part than the
                                                                distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
Dupo soil
                                                                manganese and few fine faint brown (10YR 4/3)
• Soils in which the buried soil is at a depth of less
                                                                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
than 20 inches
                                                                throughout; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
• The poorly drained Titus soils, which have more clay
                                                            Btg1—23 to 31 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
in the upper part than the Dupo soil and have a darker
                                                                silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular
surface soil; in the lower positions on the landform
                                                                blocky structure; friable; common distinct dark
                      Management                                gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and
                                                                common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                common fine faint brown (10YR 5/3) masses of
Part II of this publication:
                                                                iron accumulation throughout, common fine
•   “Agronomy” section                                          distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  accumulation throughout, and common fine
•   “Engineering” section                                       distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   manganese accumulation throughout; moderately
                                                                acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                            Btg2—31 to 40 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
Edwardsville Series                                             clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                                structure; firm; common distinct dark gray (10YR
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                    4/1) clay films on faces of peds and few faint very
   superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls                          dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root
                                                                channels and/or pores; common medium
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                                prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of
Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an            iron accumulation throughout, common medium
58                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




    brown (10YR 5/3) masses of iron accumulation               Chroma—2 to 4
    throughout, common fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)          Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
    masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                          Cg or C horizon:
    throughout, and few fine faint gray (10YR 6/1) iron
                                                             Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
    depletions lining root channels and/or pores;
                                                             Value—5 or 6
    moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                             Chroma—1 to 4
Btg3—40 to 52 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                             Texture—silt loam
    silty clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
    structure; friable; few faint dark gray (10YR 4/1)
    clay films on faces of peds and in pores; common      384A—Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2
    coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)                percent slopes
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
    medium faint brown (10YR 5/3) masses of iron                                    Setting
    accumulation throughout, and common medium
                                                          Landform: Drainage divides
    black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                          Position on the landform: Broad summits
    accumulation throughout; moderately acid; gradual
                                                          Type of landscape: Uplands
    smooth boundary.
BCg—52 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)                   Soil Properties and Qualities
    silty clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
                                                          Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
    structure; friable; few faint dark gray (10YR 4/1)
                                                          Parent material: Loess
    clay films in root channels and/or pores; common
    coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)                Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, common        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, and
                                                                                Composition
    common medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses
    of iron and manganese accumulation throughout;        Edwardsville and similar soils: 90 percent
    slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.               Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Cg—60 to 80 inches; 40 percent light brownish gray
                                                          Similar soils:
    (2.5Y 6/2), 35 percent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8),
                                                          • Bethalto soils, which have a thinner dark surface
    and 25 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                          layer than that of the Edwardsville soil and are on
    loam; massive; friable; very few faint dark gray
                                                          narrower summits
    (10YR 4/1) clay films in root channels and/or
                                                          • Soils that have a gray subsurface layer
    pores; common medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
    masses of iron and manganese accumulation             Dissimilar soils:
    throughout; slightly acid.                            • The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
                                                          have a thinner dark surface soil than that of the
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 Edwardsville soil; in the slightly higher positions on the
                                                          landform
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 12 to 24 inches
                                                          • Poorly drained soils in the slightly lower positions on
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
                                                          the landform
    inches
                                                          • The well drained Wakenda soils in the slightly higher
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 70 inches
                                                          positions on the landform
Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
                                                                                Management
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                                For general and detailed information about
    Value—2 or 3                                          managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Chroma—1 or 2                                         Part II of this publication:
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                          •   “Agronomy” section
Bt or Btg horizon:                                        •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                      •   “Engineering” section
    Value—3 to 6                                          •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     59




384B—Edwardsville silt loam, 2 to 5                          elevation of 775 feet; 460 feet west and 600 feet north
   percent slopes                                            of the southeast corner of sec. 1, T. 3 S., R. 7 W.;
                                                             USGS Payson, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
                          Setting                            degrees 49 minutes 53 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                             degrees 9 minutes 4.5 seconds W., NAD 27:
Landform: Ridges
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders              Ap—0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
Type of landscape: Uplands                                      brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak thin platy structure
                                                                parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; friable;
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                many very fine roots throughout and few fine roots
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                         between peds; moderately acid; clear smooth
Parent material: Loess                                          boundary.
Special feature: The Edwardsville soil in this map unit      Bt1—6 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam; moderate
    has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical        medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
    pedon.                                                      common fine roots throughout and many very fine
                                                                roots between peds; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3)
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid; clear
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                smooth boundary.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                             Bt2—9 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam;
                      Composition                               weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
                                                                moderate medium subangular blocky; friable;
Edwardsville and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                common fine roots throughout and many very fine
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                roots between peds; common distinct light gray
Similar soils:                                                  (10YR 7/1) silt coats on faces of peds and
• Bethalto soils, which have a thinner dark surface             common faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
layer than that of the Edwardsville soil and are on             clay films on faces of peds and in pores; few fine
narrower summits                                                distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
• Soils that have a gray subsurface layer                       manganese accumulation throughout; very
                                                                strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Dissimilar soils:
                                                             Bt3—17 to 27 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
• The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
                                                                clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
have a thinner dark surface soil than that of the
                                                                parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
Edwardsville soil; in the slightly higher positions on the
                                                                friable; many very fine roots between peds; few
landform
                                                                prominent light gray (10YR 7/2) silt coats on faces
• The well drained Wakenda soils in the slightly higher
                                                                of peds and common distinct dark yellowish brown
positions on the landform
                                                                (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds and in
                      Management                                pores; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                between peds; very strongly acid; clear smooth
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                boundary.
Part II of this publication:
                                                             Bt4—27 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
•   “Agronomy” section                                          loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  friable; few very fine roots between peds; very few
•   “Engineering” section                                       prominent light gray (10YR 7/2) silt coats on faces
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   of peds and few prominent dark yellowish brown
                                                                (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; common
                                                                fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
El Dara Series                                                  iron accumulation throughout; very strongly acid;
                                                                gradual wavy boundary.
Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active,         Bt5—31 to 39 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
   mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs                                    sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
                                                                structure; friable; few very fine roots between
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
                                                                peds; few prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR
               Series Description)
                                                                4/4) clay films on faces of peds; common fine faint
El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at an        yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
60                                                                                                 Soil Survey of




   accumulation throughout; very strongly acid;            C2—78 to 88 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   gradual wavy boundary.                                     sandy clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure
Bt6—39 to 53 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)         parting to moderate coarse subangular blocky;
   sandy loam; weak coarse prismatic structure                friable; very few prominent grayish brown (10YR
   parting to weak coarse subangular blocky; friable;         5/2) clay films and very few prominent gray (10YR
   few very fine roots between peds; few prominent            5/1) clay films on faces of peds and in pores; few
   dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on              fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses
   faces of peds and in pores; common fine distinct           of iron accumulation throughout, common medium
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron                  prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) masses of
   accumulation and common medium distinct light              iron accumulation throughout, and common
   brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions                   medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy                 masses of iron accumulation throughout; strongly
   boundary.                                                  acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt7—53 to 61 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)      C3—88 to 96 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;            sandy clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure;
   very few prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR              firm; very few prominent gray (10YR 6/1) clay films
   4/4) clay films on faces of peds and very few              on faces of peds and in pores; few fine distinct
   prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats on faces        brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) masses of iron
   of peds; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)        accumulation throughout; strongly acid.
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
                                                               MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8)
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and             Thickness of the loess: 0 to 20 inches
   common medium distinct light brownish gray              Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 80 inches
   (10YR 6/2) iron depletions throughout; very             Slope range: 5 to 60 percent
   strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
BC—61 to 66 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)       Ap or A horizon:
   sandy clay loam; moderate coarse prismatic                  Hue—10YR
   structure; friable; very few distinct yellowish brown       Value—3 to 5
   (10YR 5/4) clay films on faces of peds and in               Chroma—2 to 4
   pores and common prominent light gray (10YR                 Texture—sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or
   7/1) silt coats on faces of peds and in pores;                 silt loam
   common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, common          E horizon (if it occurs):
   medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8)                  Hue—10YR
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, common              Value—4 to 6
   coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)                  Chroma—2 to 6
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and                 Texture—sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or
   common fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR                 silt loam
   6/2) iron depletions throughout; 1 percent rounded
   quartzite; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.     Bt or 2Bt horizon:
C1—66 to 78 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)           Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   sandy clay loam; moderate medium prismatic                  Value—4 to 6
   structure parting to weak medium subangular                 Chroma—3 to 6
   blocky; friable; very few prominent dark yellowish          Texture—sandy clay loam, clay loam, loam, sandy
   brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds and               loam, fine sandy loam, or silty clay loam
   in pores; common fine distinct strong brown                 Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
   (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
   throughout, common medium distinct reddish              C or 2C horizon:
   yellow (7.5YR 6/8) masses of iron accumulation              Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   throughout, common coarse distinct yellowish                Value—4 to 7
   brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation                Chroma—1 to 8
   throughout, and common fine distinct light                  Texture—sandy loam, loamy sand, sand, loam, silt
   brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions                      loam, or sandy clay loam
   throughout; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.             Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                 61




264C2—El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                264D2—El Dara silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
   slopes, eroded                                          slopes, eroded
                          Setting                                               Setting
Landform: Interfluves                                   Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Backslopes                    Position on the landform: Backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                              Type of landscape: Uplands

            Soil Properties and Qualities                         Soil Properties and Qualities
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                 Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Parent material: Cretaceous deposits                    Parent material: Cretaceous deposits
                                                        Special feature: The El Dara soil in this map unit has a
   Additional information specific to this map unit,        thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
                                                           Additional information specific to this map unit,
the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
                                                        such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
publication.
                                                        the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
                      Composition                       publication.
El Dara and similar soils: 90 percent                                       Composition
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                        El Dara and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                        Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Similar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Passport soils in
                                                        Similar soils:
areas upslope from the El Dara soil
                                                        • The somewhat poorly drained Passport soils in
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                        areas upslope from the El Dara soil
surface layer than the El Dara soil
                                                        • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                        surface layer than the El Dara soil
Dissimilar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                        Dissimilar soils:
have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than
                                                        • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El Dara
                                                        have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than
soil
                                                        the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El Dara soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Emery soils, which
                                                        • Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than
                                                        downslope from the El Dara soil
the El Dara soil and have a darker surface layer; in
                                                        • Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
areas upslope from the El Dara soil
                                                        than the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
                                                        Dara soil
downslope from the El Dara soil
                                                        • Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
                                                        than the El Dara soil; in the more sloping positions on
than the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El
                                                        the landform
Dara soil
                                                        • Wakeland soils on flood plains along
                      Management
                                                        drainageways
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                            Management
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                              For general and detailed information about
                                                        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                        Part II of this publication:
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                          • “Agronomy” section
•   “Engineering” section                               • “Forestland” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                           • “Wildlife Habitat” section
62                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




• “Engineering” section                                     264E2—El Dara sandy loam, 18 to 25
• “Soil Properties” section                                    percent slopes, eroded
                                                                                    Setting
264D3—El Dara sandy loam, 10 to 18
   percent slopes, severely eroded                          Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
                          Setting                           Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves                                                 Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                            Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Parent material: Cretaceous deposits
            Soil Properties and Qualities                   Special feature: The El Dara soil in this map unit has a
                                                                thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Parent material: Cretaceous deposits                           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Special feature: The El Dara soil in this map unit has a    as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.   Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such                       Composition
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            El Dara and similar soils: 90 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                      Composition
                                                            Similar soils:
El Dara and similar soils: 90 percent                       • The somewhat poorly drained Passport soils in the
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                higher, less sloping positions
                                                            • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
Similar soils:
                                                            surface layer than the El Dara soil
• Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
                                                            • Soils that have a water table at a depth of more than
surface layer than the El Dara soil
                                                            3.5 feet
• The somewhat poorly drained Passport soils in
                                                            • Soils that have more sand in the surface layer than
areas upslope from the El Dara soil
                                                            the El Dara soil
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than
                                                            have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than
the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El Dara soil
                                                            the El Dara soil; in the higher, less sloping positions
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
                                                            • Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
downslope from the El Dara soil
                                                            downslope from the El Dara soil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
                                                            • Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
than the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El
                                                            than the El Dara soil; in areas upslope from the El
Dara soil
                                                            Dara soil
• Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            • Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
than the El Dara soil; in the more sloping positions on
                                                            than the El Dara soil
the landform
                                                            • Soils that have more sand throughout than the El
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                            Dara soil
                      Management                            • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                                Management
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                                  For general and detailed information about
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   • “Forestland” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               • “Wildlife Habitat” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     63




• “Engineering” section                                     Elsah Series
• “Soil Properties” section
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Loamy-skeletal, mixed,
                                                               superactive, nonacid, mesic Typic Udifluvents
264G—El Dara fine sandy loam, 35 to 60
   percent slopes                                                    Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                            Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently
                          Setting
                                                            flooded, at an elevation of 540 feet; 1,900 feet south
Landform: Interfluves                                       and 1,450 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 8,
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        T. 5 S., R. 6 W.; USGS Barry, Illinois, topographic
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 38 minutes 58 seconds N.
                                                            and long. 91 degrees 6 minutes 34 seconds W., NAD
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            27:
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                                                            A—0 to 6 inches; 70 percent brown (10YR 5/3) and 30
Parent material: Cretaceous deposits
                                                               percent dark brown (10YR 3/3) gravelly loam, light
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) dry; weak medium
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       granular structure; friable; many fine and common
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            coarse roots; 20 percent chert gravel; neutral;
                                                               clear wavy boundary.
                      Composition
                                                            C1—6 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly
El Dara and similar soils: 90 percent                          loam; massive; friable; common fine and few
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   coarse roots; 25 percent chert gravel and 15
                                                               percent cobbles; slightly effervescent; slightly
Similar soils:
                                                               alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
• The somewhat poorly drained Passport soils in the
                                                            C2—12 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) very
higher, less sloping positions
                                                               gravelly sandy loam; massive; very friable; few
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                               medium and coarse roots; 40 percent chert gravel
surface layer than the El Dara soil
                                                               and 15 percent cobbles; slightly alkaline; gradual
• Soils that have a water table at a depth of more than
                                                               wavy boundary.
3.5 feet
                                                            C3—29 to 42 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
• Soils that have more sand in the surface layer than
                                                               very gravelly sandy loam; massive; friable; few fine
the El Dara soil
                                                               and medium roots; 40 percent chert gravel and 10
Dissimilar soils:                                              percent cobbles; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which              boundary.
have less sand in the upper part of the subsoil than        C4—42 to 56 inches; stratified, 60 percent yellowish
the El Dara soil; in the higher, less sloping positions        brown (10YR 5/6) and 40 percent brown (10YR
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas            5/3) gravelly loam; massive; friable; 20 percent
downslope from the El Dara soil                                cherty gravel and 5 percent cobbles; slightly
• Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil            effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
than the El Dara soil                                       C5—56 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) very
• Lindley soils in areas upslope from the El Dara soil         gravelly sandy loam; massive; very friable; 45
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the El             percent chert gravel and 10 percent cobbles;
Dara soil                                                      neutral.
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                      Management
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 6 to 18 inches
  For general and detailed information about                Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
Part II of this publication:
                                                                Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
•   “Forestland” section                                        Value—3 to 5
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  Chroma—2 to 4
•   “Engineering” section                                       Texture—silt loam or loam
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   Content of rock fragments—0 to 60 percent
64                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




C horizon:                                                      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
   Hue—10YR or 7.5YR                                                     Series Description)
   Value—4 to 6
                                                            Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, at an
   Chroma—3 to 6
                                                            elevation of 740 feet; 850 feet north and 250 feet east
   Texture—silt loam, loam, or sandy loam
                                                            of the southwest corner of sec. 27, T. 2 S., R. 7 W.;
   Content of rock fragments—5 to 85 percent
                                                            USGS Payson, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
                                                            degrees 51 minutes 49 seconds N. and long. 91
3475A—Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2                           degrees 12 minutes 6 seconds W., NAD 27:
   percent slopes, frequently flooded                       Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
                                                                grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak fine granular
                          Setting
                                                                structure; very friable; common fine and medium
Landform: Rises                                                 roots throughout; many fine and medium
Position on the landform: Summits                               moderate-continuity tubular pores; few distinct
Type of landscape: Flood plains                                 light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay depletions
                                                                throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                boundary.
Drainage class: Well drained                                Bt1—7 to 18 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/3) silty clay
Parent material: Alluvium                                       loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                                friable; common fine and medium roots
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                throughout; common fine and medium moderate-
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                continuity tubular pores; few distinct dark grayish
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                brown (10YR 4/2) clay films on faces of peds;
                      Composition                               common fine and medium distinct yellowish brown
                                                                (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
Elsah soil: 90 percent
                                                                throughout, common fine and medium distinct
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
Dissimilar soils:                                               accumulation throughout, and common fine
• The moderately well drained Blyton soils, which               distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions
have fewer rock fragments throughout than the Elsah             throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
soil                                                        Bt2—18 to 26 inches; olive brown (2.5Y 4/3) silty clay
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils, which             loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
have fewer rock fragments throughout than the Elsah             friable; common fine and medium roots
soil; in the slightly lower positions on the landform           throughout; common fine and medium moderate-
• Wirt soils, which have fewer rock fragments                   continuity tubular pores; few distinct grayish brown
throughout than the Elsah soil                                  (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds; common
                                                                fine and medium distinct dark yellowish brown
                      Management
                                                                (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
  For general and detailed information about                    throughout, common fine and medium distinct
managing this map unit, see the following sections in           black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
Part II of this publication:                                    accumulation throughout, and few fine distinct
                                                                gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions throughout;
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                                slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            Btg1—26 to 37 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                                clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
•   “Engineering” section
                                                                structure; friable; common fine and medium roots
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                throughout; common fine and medium continuous
                                                                tubular pores; very few distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
Emery Series                                                    clay films on faces of peds; common fine and
                                                                medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                    masses of iron accumulation and common fine
   superactive, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs                       and medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       65




    iron and manganese accumulation throughout;                 Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam, loam, or clay
    slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                         loam
2Btg2—37 to 45 inches; light brownish gray (10YR
    6/2) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
    structure; friable; very few distinct gray (10YR 5/1)   538B2—Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    clay films on faces of peds; common fine and               slopes, eroded
    medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                                                    Setting
    masses of iron accumulation and common fine
    and medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of          Landform: Interfluves
    iron and manganese accumulation throughout;             Position on the landform: Head slopes
    slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                   Type of landscape: Uplands
2Btg3—45 to 55 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) silt loam;
                                                                      Soil Properties and Qualities
    weak medium and coarse subangular blocky
    structure; friable; very few distinct gray (10YR 5/1)   Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
    clay films on faces of peds; common fine and            Parent material: Loess and the underlying
    medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)                 pedisediment
    masses of iron accumulation throughout; slightly
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
2BCtg—55 to 67 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam;
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
    very few distinct gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on                             Composition
    faces of peds; common fine and medium distinct
                                                            Emery and similar soils: 90 percent
    light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of iron
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear
    smooth boundary.                                        Similar soils:
2Cg—67 to 87 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt          • Bunkum soils, which have a lighter colored surface
    loam; massive; friable; common fine and medium          layer than that of the Emery soil
    distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of           • Clarksdale soils, which have more clay in the upper
    iron accumulation and common fine and medium            part of the subsoil than the Emery soil; in areas
    distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and            upslope from the Emery soil
    manganese accumulation throughout; slightly             • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
    acid.                                                   part of the subsoil than the Emery soil and have a
                                                            lighter colored surface layer
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                            • Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part
Thickness of the loess: 30 to 50 inches                     of the subsoil than the Emery soil
Thickness of the solum: 40 to 60 inches
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Slope range: 2 to 10 percent
                                                            • Bethalto soils, which have less sand in the lower
Ap or A horizon:                                            part of the subsoil than the Emery soil; in areas
    Hue—10YR                                                upslope from the Emery soil
    Value—2 or 3                                            • Greenbush and Downsouth soils, which have less
    Chroma—1 to 3                                           sand in the lower part of the subsoil than the Emery
    Texture—silt loam                                       soil and are better drained; in areas upslope from the
                                                            Emery soil
Bt, Btg, or 2Btg horizon:
                                                            • Timewell and Ipava soils, which have less sand in
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                            the lower part of the subsoil than the Emery soil and
    Value—4 to 6
                                                            have a thicker dark surface soil; in areas upslope from
    Chroma—1 to 6
                                                            the Emery soil
    Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam, or clay loam
                                                                                Management
2Cg horizon:
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                      For general and detailed information about
   Value—4 to 6                                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
   Chroma—1 to 6                                            Part II of this publication:
66                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




•   “Agronomy” section                                      managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Forestland” section                                    Part II of this publication:
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
538C2—Emery silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                      •   “Soil Properties” section
   slopes, eroded
                          Setting                           Fishhook Series
Landform: Interfluves                                       Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes             superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                       Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded, at
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     an elevation of 665 feet; 1,380 feet south and 455 feet
Parent material: Loess and the underlying                   east of the northwest corner of sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 6 W.;
    pedisediment                                            USGS Coatsburg, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
                                                            40 degrees 5 minutes 25 seconds N. and long. 91
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            degrees 7 minutes 40 seconds W., NAD 27:
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         Ap—0 to 5 inches; 80 percent dark grayish brown
                                                                (10YR 4/3) and 20 percent brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                      Composition
                                                                loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable;
Emery and similar soils: 90 percent                             many very fine and fine roots; common fine pores;
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                    moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt1—5 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay loam;
Similar soils:
                                                                moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
• Bunkum soils, which have a lighter colored surface
                                                                many very fine roots; few fine pores; few distinct
soil than that of the Emery soil
                                                                brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; few
• Clarksdale soils, which have more clay in the upper
                                                                fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
part of the subsoil than the Emery soil; in areas
                                                                iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;
upslope from the Emery soil
                                                                clear smooth boundary.
• Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
                                                            Bt2—10 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
part of the subsoil than the Emery soil and have a
                                                                loam; weak medium and coarse subangular blocky
lighter colored surface layer
                                                                structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; few
• Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part
                                                                distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films; common
of the subsoil than the Emery soil
                                                                medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Dissimilar soils:                                               masses of iron accumulation and few fine faint
• Bethalto soils, which have less sand in the lower             grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions
part of the subsoil than the Emery soil; in areas               throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
upslope from the Emery soil                                     boundary.
• Greenbush and Downsouth soils, which have less            2Btg1—22 to 31 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay
sand in the lower part of the subsoil than the Emery            loam; weak fine prismatic structure; friable; few
soil and are better drained; in areas upslope from the          fine and medium roots; many medium distinct
Emery soil                                                      yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
• Timewell and Ipava soils, which have less sand in             accumulation and common medium faint light
the lower part of the subsoil than the Emery soil and           brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
have a thicker dark surface soil; in areas upslope from         throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
the Emery soil                                              2Btg2—31 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay loam;
                                                                weak medium prismatic structure; firm; few fine
                      Management
                                                                and medium roots; few distinct dark gray (10YR
     For general and detailed information about                 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common medium
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       67




    distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses          2Bt or 2Btg horizon:
    of iron accumulation throughout and few fine                 Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    distinct white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite                   Value—2 to 7
    throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                  Chroma—1 or 2
2Btg3—44 to 55 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay;                     Texture—clay loam, clay, silty clay, silty clay loam,
    moderate medium prismatic structure; firm; few                  or loam
    fine roots; few distinct gray (10YR 6/1) clay films          Content of rock fragments—0 to 12 percent
    on faces of peds; common medium distinct dark
                                                             2Cg horizon (if it occurs):
    yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                                Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    accumulation throughout and few fine distinct
                                                                Value—4 to 6
    white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite throughout;
                                                                Chroma—1 or 2
    neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                Texture—clay loam or loam
2BCtg1—55 to 66 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) clay loam;
                                                                Content of rock fragments—0 to 12 percent
    moderate medium subangular blocky and
    moderate fine subangular blocky structure; firm;
    few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay     6B2—Fishhook silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    films on faces of peds; common fine distinct               slopes, eroded
    yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
    accumulation throughout and few fine distinct                                    Setting
    white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite throughout;
                                                             Landform: Interfluves
    neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                             Position on the landform: Head slopes
2BCtg2—66 to 74 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) clay loam;
                                                             Type of landscape: Uplands
    moderate medium prismatic structure; firm; few
    fine roots; few distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay films             Soil Properties and Qualities
    on faces of peds; many medium prominent dark
                                                             Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
    yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron and
                                                             Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
    manganese accumulation and few medium distinct
                                                                 formed in glacial till
    black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and manganese concretions
    throughout and few fine distinct white (10YR 8/1)           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    masses of barite throughout; neutral; clear smooth       as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    boundary.                                                Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
2BCtg3—74 to 86 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) clay loam;
                                                                                 Composition
    moderate medium prismatic structure; firm; few
    fine roots; few distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay films   Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent
    on faces of peds; 1 percent limestone-cherty             Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    gravel; neutral.
                                                             Similar soils:
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                     • Bunkum soils, which have less clay in the underlying
                                                             material than the Fishhook soil
Thickness of the loess: 20 to 40 inches
                                                             • Emery soils, which have less clay in the underlying
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 50
                                                             material than the Fishhook soil and have a darker
    inches
                                                             surface layer
Slope range: 2 to 18 percent
                                                             • Keller soils, which have a darker surface layer than
Ap or A horizon:                                             that of the Fishhook soil
    Hue—10YR
                                                             Dissimilar soils:
    Value—3 to 5
                                                             • Atlas soils, which have more clay in the upper part of
    Chroma—2 to 4
                                                             the subsoil than the Fishhook soil; in areas downslope
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                             from the Fishhook soil
Bt or Btg horizon:                                           • Timewell and Ipava soils, which have a thicker dark
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                         surface soil than that of the Fishhook soil and have
    Value—4 to 6                                             less clay in the lower part of the subsoil; in areas
    Chroma—1 to 4                                            upslope from the Fishhook soil
    Texture—silty clay loam                                  • Rozetta soils, which have less clay in the lower part
68                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




of the subsoil and underlying material than the             • Timewell and Ipava soils, which have a thicker dark
Fishhook soil                                               surface soil than that of the Fishhook soil and have
                                                            less clay in the lower part of the subsoil; in areas
                      Management
                                                            upslope from the Fishhook soil
  For general and detailed information about                • Ursa soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       the Fishhook soil; in areas downslope from the
Part II of this publication:                                Fishhook soil
•   “Agronomy” section                                                            Management
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              For general and detailed information about
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
6C2—Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                     •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
  slopes, eroded                                            •   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
                          Setting
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes          6C3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 5 to 10
Type of landscape: Uplands                                    percent slopes, severely eroded
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                                      Setting
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
                                                            Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
    formed in glacial till
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil                Soil Properties and Qualities
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                      Composition                           Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
                                                                formed in glacial till
Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Special feature: The Fishhook soil in this map unit has
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
Similar soils:                                                  pedon.
• Bunkum soils, which have less clay in the underlying
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
material than the Fishhook soil
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
• Emery soils, which have less clay in the underlying
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
material than the Fishhook soil and have a darker
surface layer
                                                                                  Composition
• Keller soils, which have a darker surface layer than
that of the Fishhook soil                                   Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent
• Areas of moderately well drained soils                    Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
• Passport soils, which have less clay in the lower part
                                                            Similar soils:
of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil
                                                            • Bunkum soils, which have less clay in the underlying
Dissimilar soils:                                           material than the Fishhook soil
• Atlas soils, which have more clay in the upper part of    • Keller soils, which have a darker surface layer than
the subsoil than the Fishhook soil; in areas downslope      that of the Fishhook soil
from the Fishhook soil                                      • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
• Lawson soils on flood plains along drainageways           surface layer than the Fishhook soil
• The well drained Rozetta soils, which have less clay      • Areas of moderately well drained soils
in the lower part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil;    • Passport soils, which have less clay in the lower part
in the less sloping positions on the landform               of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     69




Dissimilar soils:                                           Dissimilar soils:
• Atlas soils, which have more clay in the upper part of    • The well drained Rozetta soils, which have less clay
the subsoil than the Fishhook soil; in areas downslope      in the lower part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil;
from the Fishhook soil                                      in the less sloping positions on the landform
• Lawson soils on flood plains along drainageways           • The well drained Ursa soils, which have more clay in
• The well drained Rozetta soils, which have less clay      the upper part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil
in the lower part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil;    • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
in the less sloping positions on the landform
                                                                                  Management
• Ursa soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than
the Fishhook soil; in areas downslope from the                For general and detailed information about
Fishhook soil                                               managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Part II of this publication:
                      Management
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
•   “Agronomy” section                                      •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   6D3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 10 to 18
•   “Soil Properties” section                                 percent slopes, severely eroded
                                                                                      Setting
6D2—Fishhook silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
  slopes, eroded                                            Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
                          Setting                           Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves                                                   Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
            Soil Properties and Qualities                       formed in glacial till
                                                            Special feature: The Fishhook soil in this map unit has
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                                a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
                                                                pedon.
    formed in glacial till
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                                  Composition
                      Composition
                                                            Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent
Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Similar soils:
Similar soils:
                                                            • Bunkum soils, which have less clay in the underlying
• Bunkum soils, which have less clay in the underlying
                                                            material than the Fishhook soil
material than the Fishhook soil
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
• Keller soils, which have a darker surface layer than
                                                            surface layer than the Fishhook soil
that of the Fishhook soil
                                                            • Areas of moderately well drained soils
• Areas of moderately well drained soils
                                                            • Passport soils, which have less clay in the lower part
• Passport soils, which have less clay in the lower part
                                                            of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil
of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          Dissimilar soils:
surface layer than the Fishhook soil                        • The well drained Rozetta soils, which have less clay
70                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




in the lower part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil;       fine distinct brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron
in the less sloping positions on the landform                  accumulation and few fine faint gray (2.5Y 5/1)
• The well drained Ursa soils, which have more clay in         iron depletions throughout; neutral; abrupt smooth
the upper part of the subsoil than the Fishhook soil           boundary.
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways         2BCtg—40 to 44 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
                                                               clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                      Management
                                                               structure; friable; few distinct dark gray (2.5Y 4/1)
  For general and detailed information about                   clay films on faces of peds; common fine distinct
managing this map unit, see the following sections in          brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron accumulation
Part II of this publication:                                   and few fine gray (2.5Y 5/1) iron depletions
                                                               throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            2BCg—44 to 50 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                               loamy fine sand and stratified sandy loam; weak
•   “Engineering” section
                                                               coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable;
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                               very few distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                               clay films lining pores; common fine prominent
Gorham Series                                                  strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron
                                                               accumulation and few fine faint gray (2.5Y 5/1)
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                   iron depletions throughout; slightly acid; clear
   superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls                 smooth boundary.
                                                            2C—50 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                               sand; single grain; loose; neutral.
Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 470 feet; 2,100        MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
feet west and 570 feet south of the northeast corner of
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
sec. 34, T. 2 S., R. 9 W.; USGS Quincy Southwest,
                                                            Thickness of silty or loamy alluvium: More than 40
Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 51
                                                                inches
minutes 23 seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 25
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 35 to 60 inches
minutes 22 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                            Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
Ap—0 to 10 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
    clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate fine
                                                                Hue—10YR
    subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine
                                                                Value—2 or 3
    granular; firm; few very fine roots; neutral; clear
                                                                Chroma—1 or 2
    smooth boundary.
                                                                Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam, or silty clay
Btg1—10 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
                                                                Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
    silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
    structure; friable; few very fine roots; few distinct   Btg horizon:
    dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) clay films on faces of peds;           Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
    few fine prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of              Value—3 to 5
    iron accumulation throughout; neutral; gradual              Chroma—0 to 2
    smooth boundary.                                            Texture—silty clay loam or silty clay
Btg2—15 to 32 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)             Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
    silty clay loam; moderate fine prismatic structure
                                                            2BCtg, 2Bt, 2Btg, 2Bg, or 2BCg horizon:
    parting to weak medium subangular blocky;
                                                               Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
    friable; few very fine roots; many distinct dark gray
                                                               Value—3 to 5
    (2.5Y 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; few fine
                                                               Chroma—0 to 4
    distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                               Texture—sandy clay loam, clay loam, loam, sandy
    accumulation and few fine distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
                                                                  loam, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand
    iron depletions throughout; neutral; gradual
                                                               Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
    smooth boundary.
Btg3—32 to 40 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)         2C or 2Cg horizon:
    silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular                Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    blocky structure; friable; few distinct dark gray          Value—3 to 6
    (2.5Y 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common             Chroma—2 to 6
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       71




     Texture—sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam                degrees 47 minutes 12 seconds N. and lat. 91 degrees
                                                            8 minutes 17 seconds W., NAD 27:

8162A—Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2                        A—0 to 7 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) gravelly silt loam,
   percent slopes, occasionally flooded                         pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) dry; weak fine granular
                                                                structure; friable; 20 percent cherty gravel; slightly
                          Setting                               acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                            BE—7 to 11 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) gravelly
Landform: Flood plains
                                                                silt loam; moderate very fine angular blocky
Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
                                                                structure; firm; few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/3)
            Soil Properties and Qualities                       organic coats throughout; 20 percent cherty
                                                                gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
Drainage class: Poorly drained
                                                            2Bt1—11 to 19 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) very
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                                gravelly silty clay; moderate very fine angular
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such       blocky structure; firm; common distinct reddish
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil        brown (5YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds and
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.             few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/3) organic coats
                                                                throughout; 50 percent cherty gravel and cobbles;
                      Composition
                                                                moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Gorham and similar soils: 90 percent                        2Bt2—19 to 30 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) very
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                    gravelly silty clay; moderate very fine angular
                                                                blocky structure; firm; common distinct reddish
Similar soils:
                                                                brown (5YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; 50
• Beaucoup soils, which have more clay in the
                                                                percent cherty gravel and cobbles; strongly acid;
underlying material than the Gorham soil
                                                                gradual wavy boundary.
Dissimilar soils:                                           2Bt3—30 to 47 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) very
• The somewhat poorly drained Riley soils in the                gravelly clay; moderate very fine angular blocky
slightly higher positions on the landform                       structure; firm; few distinct reddish brown (2.5YR
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the                 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 50 percent cherty
Gorham soil                                                     gravel and cobbles; strongly acid; gradual wavy
• The somewhat poorly drained Tice soils, which have            boundary.
more clay in the underlying material than the Gorham        2Bt4—47 to 62 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) very
soil; in the slightly higher positions on the landform          gravelly clay; moderate very fine angular blocky
                                                                structure; firm; few distinct reddish brown (5YR
                      Management
                                                                4/3) clay films on faces of peds; 55 percent cherty
  For general and detailed information about                    gravel and cobbles; strongly acid; gradual wavy
managing this map unit, see the following sections in           boundary.
Part II of this publication:                                2Bt5—62 to 80 inches; 50 percent yellowish red (5YR
                                                                5/6) and 50 percent dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                                very gravelly clay; moderate very fine angular
•   “Forestland” section
                                                                blocky structure; firm; few distinct reddish brown
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                                (5YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; 55 percent
•   “Engineering” section
                                                                cherty gravel and cobbles; strongly acid.
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Goss Series                                                 Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 60
                                                                inches
Taxonomic classification: Clayey-skeletal, mixed,
                                                            Slope range: 18 to 60 percent
   active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                                Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes, at an         Value—2 to 4
elevation of 615 feet; 2,560 feet east and 25 feet south        Chroma—2 to 4
of the northwest corner of sec. 30, T. 3 S., R. 6 W.;           Texture—silt loam or loam
USGS Payson, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39          Content of rock fragments—0 to 60 percent
72                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




E horizon (if it occurs):                                   • “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR                                       • “Engineering” section
    Value—4 to 6                                            • “Soil Properties” section
    Chroma—3 or 4
    Texture—silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam
    Content of rock fragments—15 to more than 60            606G—Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60
       percent                                                 percent slopes
2Bt horizon:                                                                          Setting
    Hue—10YR to 5YR
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
    Value—3 to 5
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
    Chroma—4 to 8
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
    Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
    Content of rock fragments—15 to more than 60                        Soil Properties and Qualities
      percent
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Limestone residuum
606F—Goss gravelly silt loam, 18 to 35                         Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   percent slopes                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                         Setting
                                                                                  Composition
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        Goss and similar soils: 90 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
          Soil Properties and Qualities                     Similar soils:
                                                            • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            surface layer than the Goss soil
Parent material: Limestone residuum
                                                            • Soils that have less clay throughout than the Goss
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            • Baylis soils, which have less clay and a lower
                    Composition                             content of rock fragments in the upper part of the
                                                            subsoil than the Goss soil; in areas upslope from the
Goss and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Goss soil
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            • Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock
Similar soils:
                                                                                  Management
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
surface layer than the Goss soil                              For general and detailed information about
• Soils that have less clay throughout than the Goss        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
soil                                                        Part II of this publication:
• Soils that have slopes of more than 35 percent
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
Dissimilar soils:                                           •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
• Baylis soils, which have less clay and a lower            •   “Engineering” section
content of rock fragments in the upper part of the          •   “Soil Properties” section
subsoil than the Goss soil; in areas upslope from the
Goss soil
• Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock             Greenbush Series
                    Management                              Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs
  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in                  Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
Part II of this publication:
                                                            Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
• “Forestland” section                                      elevation of 605 feet; 1,950 feet west and 1,400 feet
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    73




south of the northeast corner of sec. 1, T. 5 N., R. 3 E.;     channels and/or pores; common fine distinct
USGS St. David, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.         yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
40 degrees 26 minutes 52 seconds N. and long. 90               accumulation throughout, few fine distinct black
degrees 6 minutes 43 seconds W., NAD 27:                       (10YR 2/1) manganese concretions throughout,
                                                               and common fine distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                               iron depletions along root channels and/or pores;
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak fine
                                                               very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
   granular structure; friable; common very fine roots
                                                             BC—54 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
   throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm;
BE—9 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak
                                                               very few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on
   medium platy structure parting to weak fine
                                                               faces of peds and few distinct dark grayish brown
   granular; friable; few very fine roots throughout;
                                                               (10YR 4/2) clay films in root channels and/or
   common fine faint light gray (10YR 7/2) clay
                                                               pores; common fine distinct yellowish brown
   depletions between peds; moderately acid;
                                                               (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   gradual smooth boundary.
                                                               throughout, few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)
Bt1—14 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                               manganese concretions throughout, and common
   clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                               fine distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron
   structure; firm; few very fine roots throughout;
                                                               depletions along root channels and/or pores; very
   common distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) silt coats on
                                                               strongly acid.
   faces of peds, few distinct very dark grayish brown
   (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on faces of peds,                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   and common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films
                                                             Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
   on faces of peds; common fine distinct black
                                                                 inches
   (10YR 2/1) manganese concretions throughout;
                                                             Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 42
   strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                                 inches
Bt2—18 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                             Slope range: 2 to 10 percent
   clay loam; moderate fine prismatic structure
   parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;             Ap or A horizon:
   firm; few very fine roots throughout; few distinct            Hue—10YR
   light gray (10YR 7/2) silt coats on faces of peds,            Value—2 or 3
   many distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces            Chroma—1 or 2
   of peds, and few distinct very dark grayish brown             Texture—silt loam
   (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root channels and/or
                                                             E horizon:
   pores; common fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)
                                                                 Hue—10YR
   manganese concretions throughout; strongly acid;
                                                                 Value—3 to 5
   gradual smooth boundary.
                                                                 Chroma—2 or 3
Bt3—24 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                                 Texture—silt loam
   clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
   parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;             Bt horizon:
   firm; few very fine roots throughout; few distinct            Hue—10YR
   light gray (10YR 7/2) silt coats on faces of peds,            Value—4 or 5
   common distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on                Chroma—3 to 6
   faces of peds, and few distinct very dark grayish             Texture—silty clay loam
   brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root channels
   and/or pores; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)
   manganese concretions throughout and few fine             675B—Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions            slopes
   along root channels and/or pores; very strongly
                                                                                     Setting
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt4—38 to 54 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty        Landform: Ridges
   clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting        Position on the landform: Summits
   to weak coarse subangular blocky; firm; few very          Type of landscape: Uplands
   fine roots throughout; few distinct brown (10YR
                                                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
   4/3) clay films on faces of peds and few distinct
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films in root          Drainage class: Well drained
74                                                                                                      Soil Survey of




Parent material: Loess                                        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                              Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil                            Composition
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                              Greenbush and similar soils: 90 percent
                      Composition                             Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Greenbush and similar soils: 90 percent                       Similar soils:
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                  • Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
                                                              depth of more than 72 inches
Similar soils:
                                                              • Osco soils, which have a thicker dark surface soil
• Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
                                                              than that of the Greenbush soil
depth of more than 72 inches
                                                              • Rozetta soils, which have a light-colored surface
• Osco soils, which have a thicker dark surface soil
                                                              layer
than that of the Greenbush soil
• Rozetta soils, which have a light-colored surface           Dissimilar soils:
layer                                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                              have a light-colored surface layer and have more sand
Dissimilar soils:
                                                              in the lower part of the subsoil than the Greenbush
• The somewhat poorly drained Clarksdale soils,
                                                              soil; in areas downslope from the Greenbush soil
which have more clay in the subsoil than the
                                                              • The somewhat poorly drained Emery soils, which
Greenbush soil; in the slightly lower positions on the
                                                              have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
landform
                                                              the Greenbush soil; in areas downslope from the
• The somewhat poorly drained Timewell and Ipava
                                                              Greenbush soil
soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than the
Greenbush soil and have a thicker dark surface soil;                                Management
on broad summits
                                                                For general and detailed information about
                      Management                              managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                              Part II of this publication:
  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in         •   “Agronomy” section
Part II of this publication:                                  •   “Forestland” section
                                                              •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                              •   “Engineering” section
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                                 Haymond Series
                                                              Taxonomic classification: Coarse-silty, mixed,
675C2—Greenbush silt loam, 5 to 10                               superactive, mesic Fluventic Dystrudepts
   percent slopes, eroded
                                                                         Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                          Setting
                                                              Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently
Landform: Interfluves                                         flooded, at an elevation of 525 feet; 715 feet south and
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders               2,480 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 15, T. 2
Type of landscape: Uplands                                    N., R. 8 W.; USGS Tioga, Illinois, topographic
                                                              quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 9 minutes 52 seconds N.
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                              and long. 91 degrees 18 minutes 26 seconds W., NAD
Drainage class: Well drained                                  27:
Parent material: Loess
                                                              Ap—0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
Special feature: The Greenbush soil in this map unit
                                                                 brown (10YR 6/3) dry; moderate fine granular
    has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
                                                                 structure; friable; common fine and few very fine
    pedon.
                                                                 roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
     Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Bw1—7 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  75




   moderate fine granular structure; friable; common     Type of landscape: Flood plains
   fine and many very fine roots; neutral; clear
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
   smooth boundary.
Bw2—14 to 25 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;         Drainage class: Well drained
   weak fine granular structure; friable; common very    Parent material: Alluvium
   fine and fine roots; few distinct very dark grayish
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces of peds;
                                                         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Bw3—25 to 39 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
   weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine and                         Composition
   common very fine roots; few distinct very dark
                                                         Haymond and similar soils: 90 percent
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces
                                                         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   of peds; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Bw4—39 to 58 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;         Similar soils:
   weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine and   • The moderately well drained Blyton soils in positions
   common very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy           on the landform similar to those of the Haymond soil
   boundary.                                             • Soils that have a buried soil
Bw5—58 to 69 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
   weak medium granular structure; friable; few fine
                                                         • Drury soils, which have more clay in the upper part
   and common very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
                                                         than the Haymond soil; in the higher positions on
   boundary.
                                                         footslopes
C—69 to 86 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;
                                                         • Elsah soils, which have rock fragments throughout
   massive; friable; few fine and common very fine
                                                         • Soils that have carbonates throughout
   roots; neutral.
                                                         • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 Haymond soil
                                                         • The poorly drained Twomile soils, which have more
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 30 to 70 inches
                                                         clay in the upper part than the Haymond soil; in the
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                         slightly higher positions
Ap or A horizon:                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils in the
    Hue—10YR                                             slightly lower positions on the landform
    Value—4 or 5
                                                                               Management
    Chroma—2 to 4
    Texture—silt loam or silt                              For general and detailed information about
                                                         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Bw horizon:
                                                         Part II of this publication:
   Hue—10YR
   Value—4 or 5                                          •   “Agronomy” section
   Chroma—3 or 4                                         •   “Forestland” section
   Texture—silt loam                                     •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                         •   “Engineering” section
C horizon:
                                                         •   “Soil Properties” section
   Hue—10YR
   Value—4 or 5
   Chroma—3 or 4                                         Hickory Series
   Texture—silt loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam,
       or loam                                           Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active,
   Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent                 mesic Typic Hapludalfs
                                                                    Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
3331A—Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                  Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes, at an
   slopes, frequently flooded                            elevation of 565 feet; 1,935 feet north and 2,130 feet
                                                         west of the southeast corner of sec. 27, T. 18 N., R. 9
                       Setting
                                                         W.; USGS Ashland, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
Landform: Rises                                          lat. 39 degrees 58 minutes 47.5 seconds N. and long.
Position on the landform: Summits                        90 degrees 5 minutes 38 seconds W., NAD 27:
76                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




A1—0 to 1 inch; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)           black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
   silt loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry;            accumulation throughout; 5 percent gravel;
   moderate medium granular structure; friable; many         moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.
   very fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth          BCt—53 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   boundary.                                                 loam; weak medium prismatic and weak medium
A2—1 to 4 inches; 90 percent dark grayish brown              and coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few
   (10YR 4/2) and 10 percent brown (10YR 4/3) silt           very fine roots; common distinct brown (7.5YR
   loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak fine                4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine prominent
   subangular blocky and weak fine granular                  black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
   structure; friable; many very fine roots; moderately      accumulation and common distinct brown (10YR
   acid; abrupt smooth boundary.                             5/3) iron depletions throughout; 5 percent gravel;
E—4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, light gray           neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
   (10YR 7/2) dry; moderate thin platy structure;         C—58 to 63 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam;
   friable; few very fine and fine roots; few distinct       massive; firm; very few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4)
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats          clay films in root channels and/or pores; few
   in root channels and/or pores; common fine                prominent fine black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron
   distinct very pale brown (10YR 8/2) clay                  and manganese accumulation and many fine
   depletions between peds; 3 percent gravel;                distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron
   strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.                    depletions throughout; 3 percent gravel; slightly
BE—8 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam,          alkaline.
   light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; moderate very fine and
                                                              MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few very
   fine roots; very few faint brown (10YR 5/3) and        Thickness of the loess: 0 to 20 inches
   very few distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)        Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40
   organic coats in root channels and/or pores;               inches
   common fine distinct very pale brown (10YR 8/2)        Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 40
   clay depletions between peds; 3 percent gravel;            inches
   strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.                  Slope range: 18 to 60 percent
Bt1—12 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
                                                          Ap or A horizon:
   loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
                                                              Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   blocky structure; firm; few very fine roots; common
                                                              Value—2 to 5
   faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films
                                                              Chroma—2 to 4
   and common distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
                                                              Texture—silt loam, loam, clay loam, or silty clay
   silt coats on faces of peds; 5 percent gravel; very
                                                                 loam
   strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent
Bt2—22 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
   loam; moderate fine and medium subangular              E horizon:
   blocky structure; firm; few very fine roots; many          Hue—10YR
   faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films           Value—4 to 6
   and few distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt           Chroma—2 to 4
   coats on faces of peds; 5 percent gravel; strongly         Texture—silt loam or loam
   acid; clear smooth boundary.                               Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent
Bt3—29 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
                                                          Bt horizon:
   loam; moderate medium prismatic and moderate
                                                              Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y
   medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
                                                              Value—4 to 6
   very fine roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4)
                                                              Chroma—3 to 6
   clay films and very few distinct very pale brown
                                                              Texture—clay loam, silty clay loam, loam, or
   (10YR 7/3) silt coats on faces of peds; 5 percent
                                                                 gravelly silt loam
   gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Content of rock fragments—0 to 20 percent
Bt4—40 to 53 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay
   loam; weak medium prismatic and weak medium            C horizon:
   and coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few         Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
   very fine roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4)          Value—5 to 7
   clay films on faces of peds; few prominent fine           Chroma—1 to 8
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     77




     Texture—loam, clay loam, or sandy loam                             Soil Properties and Qualities
     Content of rock fragments—2 to 20 percent
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Glacial till
8E2—Hickory loam, 18 to 25 percent                             Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   slopes, eroded                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                          Setting
                                                                                  Composition
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Hickory and similar soils: 90 percent
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Similar soils:
            Soil Properties and Qualities                   • Ursa soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than
                                                            the Hickory soil
Drainage class: Well drained
Parent material: Glacial till                               Dissimilar soils:
Special feature: The Hickory soil in this map unit has a    • Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.   downslope from the Hickory soil
                                                            • Lacrescent soils, which formed in limestone
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            colluvium; in areas downslope from the Hickory soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            • Rozetta soils, which have less sand in the subsoil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            than the Hickory soil; in areas upslope from the
                      Composition                           Hickory soil
                                                            • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
Hickory and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                                      Management
Similar soils:                                                For general and detailed information about
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          managing this map unit, see the following sections in
surface layer than the Hickory soil                         Part II of this publication:
• Ursa soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
the Hickory soil
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Dissimilar soils:                                           •   “Engineering” section
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas         •   “Soil Properties” section
downslope from the Hickory soil
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                            8G—Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent
                      Management                              slopes
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                                      Setting
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                                Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                               Soil Properties and Qualities
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Glacial till
8F—Hickory silt loam, 18 to 35 percent                         Additional information specific to this map unit, such
  slopes                                                    as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                          Setting
                                                                                  Composition
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        Hickory and similar soils: 90 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
78                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




Similar soils:                                                  blocky structure; friable; few very fine roots;
• Ursa soils, which have more clay in the subsoil than          common faint very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
the Hickory soil                                                organic coats on faces of peds; slightly acid; clear
                                                                smooth boundary.
Dissimilar soils:
                                                             AC—32 to 42 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
                                                                brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak coarse subangular
downslope from the Hickory soil
                                                                blocky structure; friable; few distinct very dark
• Rozetta soils, which have less sand in the subsoil
                                                                grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root
than the Hickory soil; in areas upslope from the
                                                                channels and/or pores; slightly acid; gradual
Hickory soil
                                                                smooth boundary.
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                             C—42 to 56 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
                      Management                                massive; friable; few faint dark brown (10YR 3/3)
                                                                organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                             Ab—56 to 80 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
Part II of this publication:
                                                                silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
•   “Forestland” section                                        structure; firm; common distinct light gray (10YR
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  7/1) silt coats and common distinct very dark
•   “Engineering” section                                       grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   of peds; slightly acid.
                                                                 MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Huntsville Series                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 54 inches
                                                             Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 24 to 57 inches
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                 Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
   superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls
                                                             Ap or A horizon:
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                           Hue—10YR
                                                                 Value—2 or 3
Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally
                                                                 Chroma—1 to 3
flooded, at an elevation of 480 feet; 145 feet west and
                                                                 Texture—silt loam or loam
936 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 35, T. 2
N., R. 9 W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois, topographic         C horizon:
quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 6 minutes 47 seconds N.             Hue—10YR
and long. 91 degrees 24 minutes 32 seconds W., NAD              Value—3 to 5
27:                                                             Chroma—3 or 4
                                                                Texture—silt loam (loam or strata of very fine
Ap—0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam, dark
                                                                    sandy loam below a depth of 40 inches in some
   gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak fine and medium
                                                                    pedons)
   subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
   medium granular; friable; few very fine roots;
   slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                     8077A—Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2
A1—10 to 20 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt             percent slopes, occasionally flooded
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry;
   moderate fine and medium subangular blocky                                        Setting
   structure; friable; few very fine roots; slightly acid;
                                                             Landform: Rises
   clear smooth boundary.
                                                             Position on the landform: Summits
A2—20 to 27 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                             Type of landscape: Flood plains
   3/2) silt loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry;
   weak fine and medium subangular blocky                              Soil Properties and Qualities
   structure; friable; few very fine roots; many faint
                                                             Drainage class: Well drained
   very dark brown (10YR 2/2) organic coats on
                                                             Parent material: Alluvium
   faces of peds; slightly acid; clear smooth
   boundary.                                                    Additional information specific to this map unit, such
A3—27 to 32 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam,         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak medium subangular              Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   79




                      Composition                              2/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds; slightly
                                                               acid; clear smooth boundary.
Huntsville and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                           BA—14 to 19 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam;
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
Similar soils:                                                 common fine roots; few very fine pores; common
• Ross soils, which have more sand throughout than             distinct black (10YR 2/1) organo-clay films on
the Huntsville soil                                            faces of peds; few fine distinct yellowish brown
• Soils that are subject to frequent flooding                  (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and few
                                                               fine distinct grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear
• The poorly drained Beaucoup soils, which have
                                                               smooth boundary.
more clay in the upper part than the Huntsville soil; in
                                                           Bt—19 to 32 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay; weak
the lower positions on the landform
                                                               medium prismatic structure parting to moderate
• The somewhat poorly drained Lawson soils in the
                                                               fine and medium subangular blocky; friable;
slightly lower positions on the landform
                                                               common fine roots; few very fine pores; common
• Worthen soils, which are not subject to flooding; in
                                                               distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films and few
the slightly higher positions
                                                               prominent black (10YR 2/1) organo-clay films on
                      Management                               faces of peds and in pores; common fine distinct
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               accumulation and common fine faint light brownish
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions throughout;
Part II of this publication:
                                                               moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Agronomy” section                                     Btg1—32 to 41 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
•   “Forestland” section                                       clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
•   “Engineering” section                                      friable; few fine roots; many very fine pores; few
•   “Soil Properties” section                                  prominent dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films
                                                               throughout and common prominent black (10YR
                                                               2/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and in
Ipava Series                                                   pores; common fine prominent yellowish brown
                                                               (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                               throughout, few fine distinct very dark grayish
   Aquic Argiudolls
                                                               brown (2.5Y 3/2) iron and manganese concretions
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         throughout, and common fine and medium light
                                                               brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions
Ipava silt loam, in an area of Timewell and Ipava soils,
                                                               throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
0 to 2 percent slopes, at an elevation of 690 feet; 500
                                                               boundary.
feet west and 2,800 feet south of the northeast corner
                                                           Btg2—41 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
of sec. 9, T. 2 N., R. 5 W.; USGS Augusta, Illinois,
                                                               silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 10 minutes
                                                               few very fine roots; many very fine pores; few faint
16.7 seconds N. and long. 90 degrees 58 minutes 22
                                                               dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films in root channels
seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                               and/or pores; common fine prominent yellowish
Ap—0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silt loam, dark             brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate medium               throughout, common fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
   subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine            masses of iron and manganese accumulation
   granular; friable; common very fine and fine roots;         throughout, few fine distinct very dark grayish
   few very fine pores; neutral; abrupt smooth                 brown (2.5Y 3/2) iron and manganese concretions
   boundary.                                                   throughout, and common medium faint light
A—9 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,         brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; moderate                 throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
   medium subangular blocky structure parting to               boundary.
   moderate fine granular; friable; common fine roots;     BCg1—48 to 57 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt
   few very fine pores; common distinct black (10YR            loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
80                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




   common very fine pores; few faint dark gray                Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   (10YR 4/1) clay films in root channels and/or
   pores; common fine and medium prominent
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron             855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2
   accumulation throughout, few fine faint very dark        percent slopes
   grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) iron and manganese
                                                                                   Setting
   concretions throughout, and common fine faint
   light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions        Landform: Drainage divides
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth             Position on the landform: Broad summits
   boundary.                                             Type of landscape: Uplands
BCg2—57 to 69 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt
   loam; moderate coarse prismatic structure; friable;               Soil Properties and Qualities
   few very fine pores; common faint dark gray
                                                         Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
   (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and in
                                                         Parent material: Loess
   pores; few fine faint very dark grayish brown (2.5Y
   3/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout,
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   common fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR
                                                         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   5/8) masses of iron accumulation throughout, and
                                                         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   common fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) iron
   depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear
                                                                               Composition
   smooth boundary.
C—69 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt       Timewell and Ipava soils and similar soils: 90 percent
   loam; massive; friable; many very fine pores;         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   common fine and medium distinct yellowish brown       Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
   (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and                either the Timewell or Ipava soil, or it may consist
   common fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) iron           of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
   depletions throughout; slightly acid.                     characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
                                                             the survey area, and mapping them separately
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                    was not considered practical or necessary.
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches        Similar soils:
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 40        • Clarksdale soils, which have a thinner dark surface
    inches                                               layer than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 70 inches
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
                                                         • The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in
                                                         the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in the
Ap or A horizon:
                                                         higher positions on the landform
    Hue—10YR
                                                         • The poorly drained Rubio soils, which have a thinner
    Value—2 or 3
                                                         dark surface soil than that of the Timewell and Ipava
    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                         soils; in the slightly lower positions on the landform
    Texture—silt loam
                                                         • The poorly drained Virden soils in the lower positions
                                                         on the landform
Bt or Btg horizon:
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                                           Management
    Value—3 to 6
                                                           For general and detailed information about
    Chroma—2 to 4
                                                         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or silt loam
                                                         Part II of this publication:
Cg or C horizon:                                         •   “Agronomy” section
   Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                      •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   Value—5 or 6                                          •   “Engineering” section
   Chroma—1 to 4                                         •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      81




855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5                       • “Engineering” section
   percent slopes                                           • “Soil Properties” section

                        Setting
Landform: Ridges                                            Keller Series
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                               superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
          Soil Properties and Qualities                     Taxadjunct features: The Keller soils in map units
                                                               470B2 and 470C2 have a thinner dark surface soil
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                               than is defined as the range for the series. This
Parent material: Loess
                                                               difference, however, does not significantly affect
Special feature: The Ipava soil in this map unit has a
                                                               the use and management of the soils. These soils
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                               are classified as fine-silty, mixed, superactive,
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      mesic Aquollic Hapludalfs.
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                         Series Description)
                    Composition
                                                            Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, at an elevation
Timewell and Ipava soils and similar soils: 90 percent      of 736 feet; 2,460 feet north and 980 feet east of the
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                southwest corner of sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 4 W.; USGS Mt.
Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of         Sterling, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
    either the Timewell or Ipava soil, or it may consist    degrees 59 minutes 41.2 seconds N. and long. 90
    of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral    degrees 52 minutes 13.6 seconds W., NAD 27:
    characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
    the survey area, and mapping them separately
                                                                gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine granular structure;
    was not considered practical or necessary.
                                                                friable; common fine roots throughout; slightly
Similar soils:                                                  acid; clear smooth boundary.
• Clarksdale soils, which have a thinner dark surface       A—8 to 15 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
layer than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils                 gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine granular structure;
                                                                friable; common fine roots throughout; moderately
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                acid; clear smooth boundary.
• The well drained Greenbush soils, which have a
                                                            BA—15 to 19 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
thinner dark surface soil than that of the Timewell and
                                                                3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak
Ipava soils and have less clay in the subsoil; in the
                                                                fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak
higher positions on the landform
                                                                fine granular; friable; common fine roots
• Emery soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil
                                                                throughout; common fine continuous tubular
than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils and have less
                                                                pores; common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
clay in the subsoil; in areas downslope from the
                                                                organo-clay films on faces of peds; common fine
Timewell and Ipava soils
                                                                faint brown (10YR 5/3) masses of iron
• Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part
                                                                accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear
of the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in
                                                                smooth boundary.
areas downslope from the Timewell and Ipava soils
                                                            Btg1—19 to 24 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
• The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in
                                                                silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky
the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in the
                                                                structure; friable; common fine roots throughout;
higher positions on the landform
                                                                common fine continuous tubular pores; common
                    Management                                  distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                                organo-clay films on faces of peds; common fine
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                faint brown (10YR 5/3) masses of iron
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                accumulation and common fine distinct yellowish
Part II of this publication:
                                                                brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
• “Agronomy” section                                            throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                    boundary.
82                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




2Btg2—24 to 33 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)           Value—4 to 6
    silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky             Chroma—2 to 4
    structure; firm; few fine roots throughout; few fine       Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
    continuous tubular pores; many distinct dark gray
                                                           2Btg or 2Bt horizon:
    (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; many fine
                                                               Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
    distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
                                                               Value—3 to 6
    accumulation and common fine and medium faint
                                                               Chroma—0 to 3
    black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                               Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, clay, or silty
    accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear
                                                                 clay
    smooth boundary.
2Btg3—33 to 51 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
    silty clay loam; moderate fine prismatic structure;    470B2—Keller silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    firm; few fine roots in cracks; few fine constricted      slopes, eroded
    tubular pores; many distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
    clay films on faces of peds; many fine distinct dark                            Setting
    yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron
                                                           Landform: Interfluves
    accumulation throughout, common fine faint black
                                                           Position on the landform: Head slopes
    (2.5Y 2/1) iron and manganese concretions
                                                           Type of landscape: Uplands
    throughout, and common fine prominent white
    (10YR 8/1) masses of barite throughout; slightly                  Soil Properties and Qualities
    acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
2Btg4—51 to 61 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay
                                                           Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
    loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; few
                                                               formed in glacial till
    fine roots in cracks; few fine constricted tubular
                                                           Special feature: The Keller soil in this map unit has a
    pores; common distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay
                                                               thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
    films on faces of peds and in pores; many fine
    distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    accumulation throughout, common fine distinct          as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite throughout, and      Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    common fine faint black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron
                                                                                Composition
    and manganese accumulation throughout;
    moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.                Keller and similar soils: 90 percent
2BCg—61 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    loam; very weak coarse prismatic structure; firm;
                                                           Similar soils:
    common fine prominent light olive brown (2.5Y
                                                           • Emery soils, which have less clay in the lower part of
    5/6) masses of iron accumulation and common
                                                           the subsoil than the Keller soil; in areas upslope from
    fine distinct white (10YR 8/1) masses of barite
                                                           the Keller soil
    throughout; slightly acid.
                                                           • Fishhook soils, which have a light-colored surface
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                  layer
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 20 inches          Dissimilar soils:
Thickness of the loess: 20 to 40 inches                    • The well drained Greenbush soils, which have less
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 50 to 70 inches       clay in the lower part of the subsoil than the Keller soil;
Slope range: 2 to 10 percent                               in areas upslope from the Keller soil
                                                           • The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in
Ap or A horizon:
                                                           the lower part of the subsoil than the Keller soil and
    Hue—10YR
                                                           have a thicker dark surface soil; in areas upslope from
    Value—2 or 3
                                                           the Keller soil
    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                           • Timewell and Ipava soils, which have a thicker dark
    Texture—silt loam
                                                           surface soil than that of the Keller soil and have less
Bt or Btg horizon:                                         clay in the lower part of the subsoil; in areas upslope
    Hue—10YR                                               from the Keller soil
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                         83




                      Management                               •   “Agronomy” section
                                                               •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               •   “Engineering” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               •   “Soil Properties” section
Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 470C2—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
•   “Engineering” section                                         slopes, eroded
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                         Setting
                                                               Landform: Interfluves
470C—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                         Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
   slopes                                                      Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting
                                                                           Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Interfluves
                                                               Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                               Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                   formed in glacial till
            Soil Properties and Qualities                      Special feature: The Keller soil in this map unit has a
                                                                   thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Parent material: Loess and the underlying paleosol                Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    formed in glacial till                                     as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil                             Composition
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               Keller and similar soils: 90 percent
                      Composition                              Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Keller and similar soils: 90 percent                           Similar soils:
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   • Emery soils, which have less clay in the lower part of
                                                               the subsoil than the Keller soil; in areas upslope from
Similar soils:
                                                               the Keller soil
• Emery soils, which have a thinner dark surface layer
                                                               • Soils that have a thicker dark surface soil than that
than that of the Keller soil and have less clay in the lower
                                                               of the Keller soil
part of the subsoil; in areas upslope from the Keller soil
• Fishhook soils, which have a light-colored surface           Dissimilar soils:
layer                                                          • Atlas soils, which have more clay in the upper part of
                                                               the subsoil than the Keller soil and have a light-colored
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               surface layer; in areas downslope from the Keller soil
• The well drained Greenbush soils, which have less
                                                               • The poorly drained Coatsburg soils, which have a
clay in the lower part of the subsoil than the Keller soil
                                                               thicker dark surface soil than that of the Keller soil and
and have a thinner dark surface layer; in areas
                                                               have more clay in the upper part of the subsoil; in
upslope from the Keller soil
                                                               areas downslope from the Keller soil
• The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in
                                                               • Greenbush soils, which have less clay in the lower
the lower part of the subsoil than the Keller soil; in
                                                               part of the subsoil than the Keller soil; in areas
areas upslope from the Keller soil
                                                               upslope from the Keller soil
• Timewell and Ipava soils, which have less clay in the
                                                               • Lawson soils on flood plains along drainageways
lower part of the subsoil than the Keller soil; in areas
upslope from the Keller soil                                                         Management
                      Management                                 For general and detailed information about
                                                               managing this map unit, see the following sections in
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               Part II of this publication:
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                                   • “Agronomy” section
84                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                   fine roots; many distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
• “Engineering” section                                        clay films on faces of peds and few faint pressure
• “Soil Properties” section                                    faces; common distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
                                                               iron and manganese accumulation and many
                                                               distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron
Keomah Series                                                  accumulation throughout; strongly acid; clear
                                                               smooth boundary.
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                            Bt3—33 to 44 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
   Aeric Endoaqualfs
                                                               loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                          moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few
                                                               very fine roots; common distinct grayish brown
Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
                                                               (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds; many
elevation of 655 feet; 2,495 feet south and 300 feet
                                                               distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron
west of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 2 N., R. 7 W.;
                                                               accumulation throughout, common distinct black
USGS Loraine, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40
                                                               (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
degrees 11 minutes 22 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                               accumulation throughout, and common faint light
degrees 12 minutes 11 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                               brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
Ap1—0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt          throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
   loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak              boundary.
   thick platy structure parting to weak fine               Bt4—44 to 51 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   subangular blocky; friable; many very fine and fine         silty clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure;
   roots; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.             firm; few fine roots; few distinct dark grayish brown
Ap2—6 to 11 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)              (10YR 4/2) clay films in root channels and/or
   silt loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak         pores; few distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron
   medium platy structure parting to weak fine                 and manganese accumulation and many distinct
   subangular blocky; friable; common very fine and            strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron
   fine roots; few distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses           accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear
   of iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;           smooth boundary.
   abrupt smooth boundary.                                  BC1—51 to 63 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
E—11 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt               silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
   loam, light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; weak medium                few very fine roots; common prominent very dark
   platy structure parting to weak fine subangular             grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films in root
   blocky; friable; common fine roots; few faint dark          channels and/or pores; many distinct strong brown
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic coats on faces             (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and few
   of peds and in pores; few distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)         distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                   manganese accumulation throughout; slightly acid;
   throughout, few distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)           clear smooth boundary.
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and few          BC2—63 to 76 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   faint light gray (10YR 7/2) clay depletions                 silt loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; friable;
   throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.           common prominent very dark grayish brown
Bt1—18 to 25 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay               (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films in root channels
   loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to            and/or pores; few distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses
   moderate fine subangular blocky; firm; common               of iron and manganese accumulation and many
   fine roots; many distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)          distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron
   clay films on faces of peds; many distinct strong           accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear
   brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation               smooth boundary.
   throughout, common distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)             C—76 to 89 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                   loam; massive; friable; few faint strong brown
   throughout, and few faint grayish brown (10YR               (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   5/2) iron depletions throughout; strongly acid; clear       throughout, few prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
   smooth boundary.                                            masses of iron and manganese accumulation
Bt2—25 to 33 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay               throughout, and common distinct light brownish
   loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to            gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions throughout;
   moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few                slightly acid.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       85




    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                                          Management
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 76 inches          For general and detailed information about
Slope range: 0 to 5 percent                                 managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Part II of this publication:
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                                •   “Agronomy” section
    Value—3 or 4                                            •   “Forestland” section
    Chroma—1 or 2                                           •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Texture—silt loam                                       •   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
E horizon:
    Hue—10YR
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—1 to 3                                           17B—Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
    Texture—silt loam                                          slopes
                                                                                      Setting
Bt horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                   Landform: Ridges
    Value—4 to 6                                            Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
    Chroma—2 to 4                                           Type of landscape: Uplands
    Texture—silty clay loam or silty clay
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
C horizon:
                                                            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                            Parent material: Loess
   Value—4 to 6
                                                            Special feature: The Keomah soil in this map unit has
   Chroma—2 to 4
                                                                a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
   Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
                                                                pedon.
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
17A—Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   slopes                                                   Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
                                                                                  Composition
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Keomah and similar soils: 90 percent
Position on the landform: Broad summits
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Similar soils:
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            • Bunkum soils, which have more sand in the lower
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     part of the subsoil than the Keomah soil; in areas
Parent material: Loess                                      downslope from the Keomah soil
                                                            • Clarksdale soils, which have a darker surface layer
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            than that of the Keomah soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            • Passport soils, which have less clay and more sand
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            in the subsoil than the Keomah soil; in areas
                    Composition                             downslope from the Keomah soil
                                                            • Soils on terraces
Keomah and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                Dissimilar soils:
                                                            • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
Similar soils:
                                                            part of the subsoil than the Keomah soil; in areas
• Clarksdale soils, which have a darker surface layer
                                                            downslope from the Keomah soil
than that of the Keomah soil
                                                            • Rozetta and Winfield soils, which have less clay in
• Soils on terraces
                                                            the subsoil than the Keomah soil
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                                  Management
• The poorly drained Rushville soils in the slightly
lower positions on the landform                                 For general and detailed information about
86                                                                                                 Soil Survey of




managing this map unit, see the following sections in     2Bt4—21 to 28 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) silty clay;
Part II of this publication:                                  weak fine prismatic structure; firm; common fine
                                                              and medium roots throughout; many fine and
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                              medium tubular pores; few distinct reddish brown
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              (5YR 5/4) clay films on faces of peds; common
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                              fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) masses of
•   “Engineering” section
                                                              iron accumulation between peds; 1 percent
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                              subangular gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth
                                                              boundary.
Keswick Series                                            2Bt5—28 to 39 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                              clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure; firm;
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic              few fine and medium roots throughout; few distinct
   Aquertic Chromic Hapludalfs                                brown (7.5YR 5/3) clay films on faces of peds;
Taxadjunct features: The Keswick soils in this survey         common fine prominent black (7.5YR 2/1) masses
   area have gray colors at a lower depth than is             of manganese accumulation between peds; 1
   defined as the range for the series. This difference       percent subangular gravel; strongly acid; clear
   does not significantly affect the use and                  smooth boundary.
   management of the soils. These soils are               2Bt6—39 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
   classified as fine, smectitic, mesic Oxyaquic              clay loam; weak fine prismatic structure; firm; few
   Hapludalfs.                                                fine and medium roots throughout; few distinct
                                                              brown (7.5YR 5/2) clay films on faces of peds and
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                              in pores and few distinct brown (7.5YR 5/3) clay
Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded, at an          films on faces of peds; common fine distinct black
elevation of 650 feet; 2,550 feet west and 900 feet           (7.5YR 2/1) masses of manganese accumulation
north of the southeast corner of sec. 24, T. 2 N., R. 8       between peds; 3 percent subangular gravel;
W.; USGS Tioga, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.        moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
40 degrees 8 minutes 28.7 seconds N. and long. 91         2BC—47 to 52 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay loam;
degrees 16 minutes 8.5 seconds W., NAD 27:                    weak medium prismatic structure; firm; few very
                                                              fine roots throughout; few distinct brown (7.5YR
Ap—0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              5/2) clay films in root channels and/or pores;
    loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak
                                                              common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
    fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
                                                              masses of iron accumulation and many fine
    medium roots throughout; many very fine and fine
                                                              distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) masses of manganese
    tubular pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              accumulation throughout; 3 percent subangular
Bt1—8 to 12 inches; 75 percent strong brown (7.5YR
                                                              gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
    4/6) and 25 percent reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silty
                                                          2Cg—52 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay
    clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                              loam; massive; firm; 1 percent subangular gravel;
    friable; common fine and medium roots
                                                              moderately acid.
    throughout; many fine and medium tubular pores;
    slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
2Bt2—12 to 16 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty
    clay; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm;    Depth to carbonates: 42 to 75 inches
    common fine and medium roots throughout; many         Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 75 inches
    fine and medium tubular pores; few distinct           Slope range: 5 to 25 percent
    reddish brown (5YR 5/4) clay films on faces of
                                                          Ap or A horizon:
    peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Hue—10YR
2Bt3—16 to 21 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) silty clay;
                                                              Value—2 to 4
    weak fine prismatic structure; firm; common fine
                                                              Chroma—1 or 2
    and medium roots throughout; many fine and
                                                              Texture—clay loam, silt loam, or loam
    medium tubular pores; few distinct reddish brown
    (5YR 5/4) clay films on faces of peds; common         E horizon (if it occurs):
    fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) masses of          Hue—10YR
    iron accumulation throughout; 1 percent                   Value—4 or 5
    subangular gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth            Chroma—2 or 3
    boundary.                                                 Texture—clay loam, silt loam, or loam
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     87




2Bt horizon:                                                • “Engineering” section
    Hue—5YR, 7.5YR, 10YR, or 5Y                             • “Soil Properties” section
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—1 to 6
    Texture—clay loam, clay, or silty clay                  651C3—Keswick clay loam, 5 to 10
                                                               percent slopes, severely eroded
                                                                                    Setting
651C2—Keswick loam, 5 to 10 percent
   slopes, eroded                                           Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Side slopes and head slopes
                        Setting                             Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves                                                 Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Side slopes and head slopes
                                                            Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
           Soil Properties and Qualities                    Special feature: The Keswick soil in this map unit has a
                                                                thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.                             Composition
                     Composition                            Keswick and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Keswick and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                Similar soils:
                                                            • Lindley soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
Similar soils:
                                                            than the Keswick soil; in the more sloping positions on
• Lindley soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            the landform
than the Keswick soil; in the more sloping positions on
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
the landform
                                                            surface layer than the Keswick soil
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
surface layer than the Keswick soil                         Dissimilar soils:
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            have less clay than the Keswick soil; in areas upslope
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            from the Keswick soil
have less clay than the Keswick soil; in areas upslope
                                                            • El Dara soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
from the Keswick soil
                                                            than the Keswick soil; in areas downslope from the
• El Dara soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            Keswick soil
than the Keswick soil; in areas downslope from the
                                                            • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained
Keswick soil
                                                            • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
• Soils that are somewhat poorly drained
                                                            Keswick soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
flood plains along drainageways
                                                            flood plains along drainageways
                     Management                                                 Management
  For general and detailed information about                  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                                Part II of this publication:
• “Agronomy” section                                        • “Agronomy” section
• “Forestland” section                                      • “Forestland” section
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                • “Wildlife Habitat” section
88                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




• “Engineering” section                                     651D3—Keswick clay loam, 10 to 18
• “Soil Properties” section                                    percent slopes, severely eroded
                                                                                      Setting
651D2—Keswick loam, 10 to 18 percent
   slopes, eroded                                           Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                          Setting                           Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                                                            Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Special feature: The Keswick soil in this map unit has a
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                         thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                                  Composition
                      Composition
                                                            Keswick and similar soils: 90 percent
Keswick and similar soils: 90 percent                       Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Similar soils:
Similar soils:                                              • Lindley soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
• Lindley soils, which have less clay in the subsoil        than the Keswick soil; in the more sloping positions on
than the Keswick soil; in the more sloping positions on     the landform
the landform                                                • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          surface layer than the Keswick soil
surface layer than the Keswick soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
Dissimilar soils:                                           • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which           have less clay than the Keswick soil; in areas upslope
have less clay than the Keswick soil; in areas upslope      from the Keswick soil
from the Keswick soil                                       • El Dara soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
• El Dara soils, which have less clay in the subsoil        than the Keswick soil; in areas downslope from the
than the Keswick soil; in areas downslope from the          Keswick soil
Keswick soil                                                • Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
• Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;     in areas downslope from the Keswick soil
in areas downslope from the Keswick soil                    • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained
• Soils that are somewhat poorly drained                    • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on             Keswick soil
flood plains along drainageways                             • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
                                                            flood plains along drainageways
                      Management
                                                                                  Management
  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in         For general and detailed information about
Part II of this publication:                                managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section                                    •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      89




651E2—Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent                        slopes, at an elevation of 580 feet; 2,600 feet east and
   slopes, eroded                                           1,550 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 31, T.
                                                            4 S., R. 6 W.; USGS Hull, Illinois, topographic
                          Setting                           quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 40 minutes 42 seconds N.
                                                            and long. 91 degrees 8 minutes 20 seconds W., NAD
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            27:
Position on the landform: Backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  A1—0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                               channery silt loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               medium granular structure; friable; many fine and
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                        few coarse roots throughout; strongly effervescent;
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till               30 percent channers and 5 percent flagstones;
                                                               slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            A2—7 to 21 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) gravelly
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               silt loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate medium
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
                      Composition                              medium granular; friable; common medium and
                                                               few coarse roots throughout; strongly effervescent;
Keswick and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                               30 percent gravel; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               boundary.
Similar soils:                                              Bw—21 to 38 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) very
• Lindley soils, which have less clay in the subsoil           gravelly silt loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; moderate
than the Keswick soil                                          medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the             common medium and few coarse roots
surface layer than the Keswick soil                            throughout; many distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3)
                                                               organic coats on faces of peds; violently
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               effervescent; 40 percent gravel; moderately
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                               alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
have less clay than the Keswick soil; in areas upslope
                                                            C—38 to 60 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
from the Keswick soil
                                                               very flaggy silt loam; massive; friable; common
• El Dara soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                               medium roots throughout; common distinct dark
than the Keswick soil; in areas downslope from the
                                                               brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats in root channels
Keswick soil
                                                               and/or pores; violently effervescent; 30 percent
• Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
                                                               flagstones and 25 percent channers; moderately
in areas downslope from the Keswick soil
                                                               alkaline.
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
flood plains along drainageways                                 MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                      Management                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 21 inches
                                                            Depth to lithic contact: More than 42 inches
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            Depth to carbonates: 0 to 36 inches
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 20 to 38 inches
Part II of this publication:
                                                            Slope range: 35 to 60 percent
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            A horizon:
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                                Hue—10YR
•   “Engineering” section
                                                                Value—2 or 3
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                Chroma—1 to 3
                                                                Texture—silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam
                                                                Content of rock fragments—0 to 70 percent
Lacrescent Series
                                                            Bw horizon:
Taxonomic classification: Loamy-skeletal, mixed,               Hue—10YR
   superactive, mesic Typic Hapludolls                         Value—4
                                                               Chroma—3 or 4
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                               Texture—loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or
Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35 to 60 percent                   silt loam
90                                                                                                            Soil Survey of




     Content of rock fragments—35 to 70 percent                              Soil Properties and Qualities
C horizon:                                                       Drainage class: Well drained
   Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                              Parent material: Colluvium (fig. 4)
   Value—4 or 5
                                                                    Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   Chroma—3 or 4
                                                                 as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   Texture—loam, fine sandy loam, or silt loam
                                                                 Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Content of rock fragments—35 to 70 percent
                                                                                       Composition
785G—Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35                           Lacrescent soil: 90 percent
   to 60 percent slopes                                          Dissimilar components: 10 percent
                                                                 Dissimilar components:
                       Setting
                                                                 • Elsah soils on flood plains along drainageways
Landform: Interfluves                                            • Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
Position on the landform: Backslopes                             in areas upslope from the Lacrescent soil
Type of landscape: Uplands                                       • Outcrops of limestone bedrock; on shoulders




                  Figure 4.—A forested area of Lacrescent soils. These soils formed in limestone colluvium.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    91




• Lindley soils, which have a lower content of rock          medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
fragments throughout than the Lacrescent soil and            masses of iron accumulation throughout; strongly
have a light-colored surface layer; in areas upslope         acid; clear smooth boundary.
from the Lacrescent soil                                  Bt3—24 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
• Orthents in the less sloping areas where the soils         sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
have been altered by human activities                        structure; friable; few fine roots throughout;
• Stookey soils, which do not have rock fragments; in        common distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
areas upslope from the Lacrescent soil                       bridges between sand grains; common fine
                                                             distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
                      Management
                                                             accumulation throughout; strongly acid; clear
  For general and detailed information about                 smooth boundary.
managing this map unit, see the following sections in     Bt4—32 to 45 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Part II of this publication:                                 loamy sand; weak medium subangular blocky
                                                             structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; few
•   “Forestland” section
                                                             distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay bridges
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                             between sand grains; strongly acid; clear smooth
•   “Engineering” section
                                                             boundary.
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                          Bt5—45 to 50 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
                                                             clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
Lamont Series                                                blocky structure; firm; few fine roots throughout;
                                                             many distinct brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay films
Taxonomic classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed,               between sand grains; strongly acid; clear smooth
   superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs                       boundary.
                                                          C—50 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                             clay loam and loamy sand; single grain; friable;
Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes, at an            strongly acid.
elevation of 640 feet; 400 feet east and 1,300 feet
south of the northwest corner of sec. 24, T. 2 S., R. 5       MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
W.; USGS Kellerville, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                                                          Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 30 to 60 inches
lat. 39 degrees 52 minutes 34 seconds N. and long. 90
                                                          Slope range: 18 to 60 percent
degrees 56 minutes 3 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                          A horizon:
A—0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                              Hue—10YR
   sandy loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry;
                                                              Value—3 or 4
   moderate fine granular structure; very friable;
                                                              Chroma—1 or 2
   common fine roots throughout; slightly acid; clear
                                                              Texture—fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam
   smooth boundary.
E—3 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam,        E horizon:
   very pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; weak fine                  Hue—10YR
   granular structure; very friable; common fine roots        Value—4 or 5
   throughout; very few distinct very dark grayish            Chroma—2 or 3
   brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats in root channels            Texture—fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand
   and/or pores; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                          Bt horizon:
   boundary.
                                                              Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
Bt1—6 to 11 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
                                                              Value—4 to 6
   sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
                                                              Chroma—3 to 6
   structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; few
                                                              Texture—fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam,
   faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films
                                                                 loamy sand, or sandy loam
   between sand grains; moderately acid; clear
   smooth boundary.                                       2E and Bt horizon (if it occurs):
Bt2—11 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine          Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky                  Value—5 or 6
   structure; friable; few fine roots throughout;             Chroma—5 or 6
   common distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay            Texture—fine sandy loam, loamy fine sand, loamy
   bridges between sand grains; many fine and                   sand, or sand
92                                                                                                    Soil Survey of




C or 2C horizon:                                            • “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR                                       • “Soil Properties” section
    Value—5 or 6
    Chroma—5 or 6
    Texture—fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam,         175G—Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60
      or loamy sand                                            percent slopes
                                                                                      Setting
175F—Lamont sandy loam, 18 to 35
   percent slopes                                           Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
                        Setting                             Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Position on the landform: Backslopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Eolian deposits
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Parent material: Eolian deposits
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil                          Composition
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Lamont and similar soils: 90 percent
                    Composition                             Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Lamont and similar soils: 90 percent                        Similar soils:
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
                                                            Lamont soil
Similar soils:
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the             Dissimilar soils:
Lamont soil                                                 • Bunkum soils, which have more clay throughout than
                                                            the Lamont soil; in the higher, less sloping positions on
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            the landform
• Bunkum soils, which have more clay throughout than
                                                            • El Dara soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
the Lamont soil; in the higher, less sloping positions on
                                                            than the Lamont soil
the landform
                                                            • Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
• El Dara soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
                                                            downslope from the Lamont soil
than the Lamont soil
                                                            • Keswick and Lindley soils, which have more clay
• Marseilles soils, which formed in shale; in areas
                                                            throughout than the Lamont soil; in areas upslope from
downslope from the Lamont soil
                                                            the Lamont soil
• Keswick and Lindley soils, which have more clay
                                                            • Winfield and Menfro soils, which have less sand
throughout than the Lamont soil; in areas upslope from
                                                            throughout than the Lamont soil; on the higher, less
the Lamont soil
                                                            sloping summits
• Winfield and Menfro soils, which have less sand
throughout than the Lamont soil; on the higher, less
                                                                                  Management
sloping summits
                                                              For general and detailed information about
                    Management
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
  For general and detailed information about                Part II of this publication:
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
• “Forestland” section                                      •   “Engineering” section
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                       93




Lawson Series                                                 prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of
                                                              iron accumulation between peds, and many
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed, mesic            medium faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) iron
   Aquic Cumulic Hapludolls                                   depletions throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth
                                                              boundary.
         Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                           C4—75 to 80 inches; stratified, 80 percent dark
Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently           grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and 10 percent very
flooded, at an elevation of 685 feet; 1,900 feet east         dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam; massive;
and 265 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 3, T.      friable; common medium and coarse distinct
1 S., R. 5 W.; USGS Clayton, Illinois, topographic            yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 1 minute 5 seconds N. and         accumulation throughout, common fine prominent
long. 90 degrees 57 minutes 53 seconds W., NAD 27:            strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron
                                                              accumulation throughout, and common fine faint
Ap—0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                              dark gray (10YR 4/1) iron depletions throughout;
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate
                                                              neutral.
   fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots;
   neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.                            MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
A1—6 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                           Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 36 inches
   3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
   moderate fine granular structure; friable; common
   fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.             Ap or A horizon:
A2—14 to 22 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR              Hue—10YR
   3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak          Value—2 or 3
   fine granular structure; friable; common fine roots;        Chroma—1 or 2
   common fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) masses of                Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   iron accumulation throughout; neutral; clear
                                                           C horizon:
   smooth boundary.
                                                              Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
A3—22 to 33 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
                                                              Value—3 to 6
   3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak
                                                              Chroma—1 to 3
   fine granular structure; friable; common fine roots;
                                                              Texture—stratified silt loam or silty clay loam
   common fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) masses of
   iron accumulation throughout; neutral; clear
   smooth boundary.
C1—33 to 40 inches; stratified, 70 percent very dark       3451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 20 percent dark               slopes, frequently flooded
   brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam; massive; friable;
                                                                                   Setting
   common fine roots; common fine and medium
   distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron      Landform: Rises
   accumulation and common fine and medium faint           Position on the landform: Summits
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) iron depletions           Type of landscape: Flood plains
   throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
C2—40 to 56 inches; stratified, 60 percent very dark
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 30 percent dark            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
   brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam; massive; friable; few       Parent material: Alluvium
   fine roots; common fine and medium distinct
                                                              Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
                                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   accumulation and common medium faint dark
                                                           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) iron depletions
   throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                           Composition
C3—56 to 75 inches; stratified, 80 percent very dark
                                                           Lawson and similar soils: 90 percent
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) and 10 percent dark
                                                           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam; massive; friable; few
   fine roots; common fine and medium distinct             Similar soils:
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron               • Soils that have a buried soil at a depth of 20 to 40
   accumulation between peds, common medium                inches
94                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




• Wakeland soils, which have a light-colored surface        Dissimilar soils:
layer and have less clay in the upper part than the         • The moderately well drained Blyton soils, which
Lawson soil                                                 have a light-colored surface soil; in the slightly higher
                                                            positions on the landform
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            • The well drained Huntsville soils in the slightly higher
• The moderately well drained Blyton soils, which
                                                            positions on the landform
have a light-colored surface layer and have less clay in
                                                            • The well drained Ross soils, which have more sand
the upper part than the Lawson soil; in the slightly
                                                            throughout than the Lawson soil; in the slightly higher
higher positions on the landform
                                                            positions on the landform
• Soils that are poorly drained
                                                            • The poorly drained Vesser soils, which have a gray
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the
                                                            subsurface layer; in the lower positions on the
Lawson soil
                                                            landform
                      Management
                                                                                  Management
  For general and detailed information about
                                                              For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section

8451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   slopes, occasionally flooded                             Lenzburg Series
                          Setting                           Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active,
                                                               calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents
Landform: Rises
                                                            Taxadjunct features: The Lenzburg soils in this
Position on the landform: Summits
                                                               survey area are more acid in the upper part of the
Type of landscape: Flood plains
                                                               profile than is defined as the range for the series.
            Soil Properties and Qualities                      This difference, however, does not significantly
                                                               affect the use and management of the soils. These
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
                                                               soils are classified as fine-loamy, mixed, active,
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                               nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                       Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60 percent slopes, at
                                                            an elevation of 680 feet; 50 feet south and 1,420 feet
                      Composition
                                                            west of the northeast corner of sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 1
Lawson and similar soils: 90 percent                        W.; USGS Beardstown, Illinois, topographic
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 7 minutes 0 seconds N.
                                                            and lat. 90 degrees 27 minutes 29 seconds W., NAD
Similar soils:
                                                            27:
• Riley soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil
than the Lawson soil and have more sand throughout          A—0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
• Soils that have a buried soil at a depth of 20 to 40         silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine
inches                                                         subangular blocky structure; very firm; many very
• Tice soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil           fine and fine roots throughout; few fine distinct
than that of the Lawson soil                                   black (10YR 2/1) iron and manganese concretions
• Wakeland soils, which have a light-colored surface           throughout; 12 percent coal fragments; slightly
soil and have less clay in the upper part than the             alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
Lawson soil                                                 C1—5 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam,
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   95




   dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) dry; massive;          C horizon:
   firm; many very fine and fine roots throughout; few       Hue—7.5YR or 10YR
   fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of        Value—2 to 6
   iron accumulation and few fine distinct grayish           Chroma—1 to 4
   brown (10YR 5/2) clay depletions between peds;            Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam, loam, silty clay,
   20 percent coal fragments occurring as a stratum              or clay loam
   1 inch thick; neutral; clear smooth boundary.             Content of rock fragments—0 to 25 percent
C2—16 to 23 inches; 48 percent brown (10YR 4/3)
   and 30 percent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay
   loam; massive with pockets of structured B             871G—Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60
   material; firm; common very fine and fine roots           percent slopes
   throughout; many medium dark faint yellowish
   brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation                                     Setting
   and few fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) iron and
                                                          Landform: Spoil banks
   manganese concretions between peds; neutral;
                                                          Position on the landform: Backslopes
   clear smooth boundary.
C3—23 to 27 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay loam;                  Soil Properties and Qualities
   massive; firm; common very fine and fine roots in
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
   cracks; common medium distinct brown (10YR
                                                          Parent material: Cast overburden from surface mining
   4/3) masses of iron accumulation between peds,
   common medium prominent yellowish brown                   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation                 as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   between peds, and few fine faint grayish brown         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   (10YR 5/2) iron depletions between peds; 2
                                                                                Composition
   percent fine gravel; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
   boundary.                                              Lenzburg and similar soils: 90 percent
C4—27 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay       Dissimilar components: 10 percent
   loam; massive; friable; common very fine roots in
                                                          Similar soils:
   cracks; common medium distinct yellowish brown
                                                          • Soils that have slopes of less than 20 percent
   (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation between
   peds; 3 percent fine gravel and 8 percent coal         Dissimilar components:
   fragments; slightly alkaline; clear smooth             • Areas of undisturbed soils
   boundary.                                              • Lawson soils on undisturbed flood plains along
C5—38 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay       drainageways
   loam; massive; very friable; common very fine          • Pools of water less than 3 acres in size
   roots in cracks; common medium distinct gray
                                                                                Management
   (10YR 5/1) iron depletions between peds and
   common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR             For general and detailed information about
   5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout; 4         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
   percent fine gravel and 5 percent coal fragments;      Part II of this publication:
   slightly alkaline.
                                                          •   “Forestland” section
                                                          •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                          •   “Engineering” section
Depth to paralithic or lithic contact: More than 60       •   “Soil Properties” section
    inches
Slope range: 20 to 60 percent
                                                          Lindley Series
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                 Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed,
    Value—2 to 5                                             superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
    Chroma—1 to 6
                                                                     Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
    Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, or
       loam                                               Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes, at an elevation
    Content of rock fragments—10 to 25 percent            of 615 feet; 2,200 feet east and 1,980 feet north of the
96                                                                                                       Soil Survey of




southwest corner of sec. 2, T. 2 S., R. 8 W.; USGS       Ap or A horizon:
Quincy East, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39       Hue—10YR
degrees 55 minutes 26 seconds N. and long. 91                Value—3 to 5
degrees 17 minutes 40 seconds W., NAD 27:                    Chroma—1 to 5
                                                             Texture—loam, silt loam, or clay loam
A—0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loam,
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine     E or BE horizon (if it occurs):
   granular structure; friable; few very fine roots          Hue—10YR
   throughout; 1 percent gravel; strongly acid; abrupt       Value—4 to 6
   smooth boundary.                                          Chroma—2 to 4
BE—6 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam;          Texture—loam, silt loam, or clay loam
   weak thick platy structure parting to moderate fine
                                                         Bt horizon:
   subangular blocky; friable; few very fine roots
                                                             Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   throughout; common distinct dark grayish brown
                                                             Value—4 or 5
   (10YR 4/2) organic coats on faces of peds; 1
                                                             Chroma—4 to 6
   percent gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth
                                                             Texture—clay loam or loam
   boundary.
                                                             Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent
Bt1—12 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to      C horizon:
   weak medium subangular blocky; firm; few very            Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   fine roots throughout; few distinct brown (10YR          Value—4 to 6
   4/3) clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent gravel;      Chroma—1 to 6
   strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.                  Texture—loam or clay loam
Bt2—22 to 31 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay        Content of rock fragments—1 to 5 percent
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
   moderate medium subangular blocky; firm;
   common distinct brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on        559F—Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent
   faces of peds; 1 percent gravel; moderately acid;        slopes
   gradual smooth boundary.
                                                                                   Setting
Bt3—31 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to      Landform: Interfluves
   weak coarse subangular blocky; firm; common           Position on the landform: Backslopes
   distinct brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on faces of      Type of landscape: Uplands
   peds; few fine prominent gray (10YR 6/1) iron
   depletions in root channels and/or pores; 1                      Soil Properties and Qualities
   percent gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
   boundary.
                                                         Parent material: Glacial till (pre-Illinoian)
Bt4—42 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay
   loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; many        Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   distinct brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on faces of      as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   peds; few medium prominent black (10YR 2/1)           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   masses of manganese accumulation throughout
                                                                               Composition
   and common fine prominent gray (10YR 6/1) iron
   depletions between peds; 1 percent gravel; slightly   Lindley and similar soils: 90 percent
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.                        Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
C—58 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam;
                                                         Similar soils:
   massive; friable; very few faint brown (10YR 5/3)
                                                         • Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
   clay films in root channels and/or pores; 1 percent
                                                         than the Lindley soil
   gravel; slightly alkaline.
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                         • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 60 inches     • Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
Slope range: 18 to 60 percent                            in areas downslope from the Lindley soil
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    97




• Lacrescent soils, which formed in limestone               • Stookey and Timula soils, which have less clay in the
colluvium; in areas downslope from the Lindley soil         subsoil than the Lindley soil; in areas upslope from the
• Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil         Lindley soil
than the Lindley soil; in areas downslope from the          • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
Lindley soil                                                flood plains along drainageways
• Stookey and Timula soils, which have less clay in the
                                                                                  Management
subsoil than the Lindley soil; in areas upslope from the
Lindley soil                                                  For general and detailed information about
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
flood plains along drainageways                             Part II of this publication:
                      Management                            •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section                                    Littleton Series
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
•   “Engineering” section
                                                               superactive, mesic Aquic Cumulic Hapludolls
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                       Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
559G—Lindley loam, 35 to 60 percent                         Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
   slopes                                                   elevation of 470 feet; 1,000 feet east and 1,200 feet
                                                            north of the southwest corner of sec. 26, T. 3 S., R. 8
                          Setting
                                                            W.; USGS Marblehead, Illinois, topographic
Landform: Interfluves                                       quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 46 minutes 31 seconds N.
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        and long. 91 degrees 18 minutes 4 seconds W., NAD
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  27:
            Soil Properties and Qualities                   Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
                                                               dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate fine granular
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               structure; friable; few very fine roots throughout;
Parent material: Glacial till (pre-Illinoian)
                                                               neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   A—9 to 19 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       silt loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate very
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            fine and fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
                                                               few very fine roots throughout; many faint very
                      Composition
                                                               dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats on faces of
Lindley and similar soils: 90 percent                          peds; few fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   iron accumulation between peds; slightly acid;
                                                               clear smooth boundary.
Similar soils:
                                                            AB—19 to 32 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
• Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
                                                               3/2) silt loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak medium
than the Lindley soil; in areas upslope from the Lindley
                                                               subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine
soil
                                                               roots throughout; many faint very dark gray (10YR
Dissimilar soils:                                              3/1) organic coats on faces of peds; few fine faint
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways              brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron accumulation
• Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;        between peds; slightly acid; clear smooth
in areas downslope from the Lindley soil                       boundary.
• Lacrescent soils, which formed in limestone               Bw1—32 to 45 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
colluvium; in areas downslope from the Lindley soil            silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
• Lamont soils, which have less clay in the subsoil            structure; friable; common faint very dark grayish
than the Lindley soil; in areas downslope from the             brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on faces of
Lindley soil                                                   peds; few fine distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses
98                                                                                                 Soil Survey of




   of iron accumulation and common fine faint               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions              as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   throughout; slightly acid; gradual smooth             Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   boundary.
                                                                               Composition
Bw2—45 to 53 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
   silt loam; weak coarse subangular blocky              Littleton and similar soils: 90 percent
   structure; friable; common faint very dark grayish    Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on faces of
                                                         Similar soils:
   peds and very few distinct very dark gray (10YR
                                                         • Soils in which the dark surface soil is less than 24
   3/1) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
                                                         inches thick
   few fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron
   accumulation throughout and few fine faint gray       Dissimilar soils:
   (10YR 5/1) iron depletions between peds; slightly     • The poorly drained Vesser soils, which have a gray
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.                        subsurface layer and have more clay in the subsoil
C—53 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt         than the Littleton soil
   loam; massive; friable; very few distinct very dark   • Wakeland soils, which formed in light-colored
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats lining         alluvium; in the lower positions on the landform
   pores; many medium distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4)         • The well drained Worthen soils in the slightly higher
   masses of iron accumulation throughout; slightly      positions on the landform
   acid.
                                                                               Management
     MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                           For general and detailed information about
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 36 inches        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 30 to 62 inches     Part II of this publication:
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                         •   “Agronomy” section
Ap or A horizon:                                         •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR                                             •   “Engineering” section
    Value—2 or 3                                         •   “Soil Properties” section
    Chroma—1 to 3
    Texture—silt loam
Bw horizon:                                              Mannon Series
   Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
                                                         Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
   Value—3 to 5
                                                            superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs
   Chroma—2 or 3
   Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                             Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
C horizon:                                               Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                 elevation of 615 feet; 1,055 feet west and 200 feet
   Value—4 to 6                                          south of the northeast corner of sec. 26, T. 2 N., R. 9
   Chroma—1 to 4                                         W., USGS Lima, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
   Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                  40 degrees 8 minutes 23 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                         degrees 24 minutes 5.1 seconds W., NAD 27:

81A—Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                  Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
   slopes                                                   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate
                                                            fine granular structure; friable; many very fine and
                        Setting
                                                            fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth
Landform: Alluvial fans                                     boundary.
Position on the landform: Footslopes and stream          BE—7 to 10 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
    terraces                                                silt loam; moderate thin platy structure parting to
                                                            moderate fine subangular blocky; friable; many
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            very fine and fine roots; very few distinct very dark
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on
Parent material: Alluvium                                   faces of peds; few fine distinct very pale brown
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    99




   (10YR 7/3) clay depletions between peds;                E horizon (if it occurs):
   moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.                     Hue—10YR
Bt1—10 to 23 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)           Value—3 or 4
   silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;           Chroma—2 or 3
   friable; many very fine and fine roots; few distinct        Texture—silt loam
   dark brown (10YR 3/3) clay films on faces of peds
                                                           Bt horizon:
   and very few prominent very dark grayish brown
                                                               Hue—10YR
   (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on faces of peds and
                                                               Value—4 or 5
   in pores; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Chroma—3 to 6
Bt2—23 to 36 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
                                                               Texture—silt loam
   silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky
   structure; friable; common very fine roots; few faint   C horizon:
   dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) clay films on              Hue—2.5Y or 10YR
   faces of peds and few distinct very dark grayish           Value—4 to 6
   brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films on faces of             Chroma—2 to 6
   peds and in pores; slightly acid; clear smooth             Texture—silt loam
   boundary.
Bt3—36 to 50 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;          678A—Mannon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   friable; few faint brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on          slopes
   faces of peds; common fine distinct yellowish                                       Setting
   brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
                                                           Landform: Interfluves
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                           Position on the landform: Broad summits
   boundary.
                                                           Type of landscape: Uplands
BC—50 to 59 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;                     Soil Properties and Qualities
   friable; common medium distinct yellowish brown
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation and
                                                           Parent material: Loess
   many fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   iron depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear         Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   smooth boundary.                                        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
C1—59 to 72 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   silt loam; massive; friable; many fine and medium
                                                                                Composition
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of
   iron accumulation and few fine distinct black (2.5Y     Mannon and similar soils: 90 percent
   2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation          Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                           Similar soils:
   boundary.
                                                           • Downsouth soils, which have more clay in the upper
C2—72 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                           part of the subsoil than the Mannon soil
   silt loam; massive; friable; many fine and medium
                                                           • Biggsville soils, which have a thicker dark surface
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of
                                                           soil than that of the Mannon soil
   iron accumulation and many fine distinct black
                                                           • Stookey soils, which have a light-colored surface soil
   (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron accumulation
   throughout; moderately acid.                            Dissimilar soils:
                                                           • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained; in the lower
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                           positions on the landform
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 45 to 60 inches
                                                                                Management
Slope range: 0 to 7 percent
                                                             For general and detailed information about
Ap or A horizon:
                                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR
                                                           Part II of this publication:
    Value—2 or 3
    Chroma—1 or 2                                          • “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam                                      • “Forestland” section
100                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                     landscapes in areas of urban development in or
• “Engineering” section                                          near Quincy. They are used as sites for buildings,
• “Soil Properties” section                                      streets, sidewalks, and other structures.
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
678B—Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                       Drainage class: Well drained
   slopes                                                   Parent material: Loess
                          Setting
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Landform: Interfluves                                       as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Position on the landform: Summits and head slopes           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                                  Composition
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Biggsville and similar soils: 45 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                                Mannon and similar soils: 45 percent
Parent material: Loess                                      Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                intermingled that mapping them separately was
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                not practical.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Similar soils:
                      Composition
                                                            • Soils that have slopes of more than 7 percent
Mannon and similar soils: 90 percent                        • Stookey soils, which have a light-colored surface
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                layer
Similar soils:                                              Dissimilar soils:
• Downsouth soils, which have more clay in the upper        • Orthents in areas where the soils have been
part of the subsoil than the Mannon soil                    disturbed
• Biggsville soils, which have a thicker dark surface       • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained; in the lower
soil than that of the Mannon soil                           positions on the landform
• Stookey soils, which have a light-colored surface soil
                                                                                  Management
Dissimilar soils:
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• Soils that are somewhat poorly drained; in the lower
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
positions on the landform
                                                            Part II of this publication:
                      Management
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:                                •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              Marseilles Series
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active,
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                               mesic Typic Hapludalfs
                                                                       Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to
   7 percent slopes                                         Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes, at an
                                                            elevation of 685 feet; 1,400 feet south and 1,150 feet
                          Setting                           east of the northwest corner of sec. 14, T. 2 S., R. 6
                                                            W.; USGS Liberty, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            39 degrees 53 minutes 57 seconds N. and long. 91
Position on the landform: Biggsville—broad summits;
                                                            degrees 3 minutes 53 seconds W., NAD 27:
    Mannon—summits and head slopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  A—0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Special features: These soils occur on upland                 silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    101




    very fine granular structure; friable; strongly acid;   Bt or 2Bt horizon:
    abrupt smooth boundary.                                     Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
E—3 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, very               Value—4 to 6
    pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; moderate thin platy              Chroma—3 to 6
    and moderate very fine granular structure; friable;         Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
    very few faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                            Cr horizon:
    organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
                                                                Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                Value—4 to 6
BE—7 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                                Chroma—0 to 4
    loam; weak medium platy and moderate very fine
    and fine subangular blocky structure; friable; very
    few faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic
    coats in root channels and/or pores; strongly acid;     549D2—Marseilles silt loam, 10 to 18
    clear smooth boundary.                                     percent slopes, eroded
2Bt1—10 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                                                    Setting
    silty clay loam; moderate fine and medium
    subangular blocky structure; firm; very few faint       Landform: Interfluves
    dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic coats in          Position on the landform: Backslopes
    root channels and/or pores and few distinct brown       Type of landscape: Uplands
    (10YR 5/3) clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent
                                                                      Soil Properties and Qualities
    gravel; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
2Bt2—17 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)            Drainage class: Well drained
    silty clay loam; strong medium subangular blocky        Parent material: Shale residuum
    structure; firm; common distinct brown (10YR 5/3)       Special feature: The Marseilles soil in this map unit
    clay films and very few faint very pale brown               has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
    (10YR 7/3) silt coats on faces of peds; 1 percent           pedon.
    gravel; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
2Bt3—22 to 35 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) silty
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    clay loam; moderate medium and coarse
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    subangular blocky structure; firm; very few faint
    brown (10YR 5/3) clay films and very few distinct                           Composition
    very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt coats on faces of
                                                            Marseilles and similar soils: 90 percent
    peds; 1 percent gravel; very strongly acid; gradual
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    smooth boundary.
2Cr—35 to 60 inches; 70 percent light olive brown           Similar soils:
    (2.5Y 5/4) and 30 percent olive (5Y 5/3) silty clay     • Soils that have shale bedrock at a depth of more
    and unweathered bedrock; massive; firm; 10              than 40 inches
    percent shale gravel; very strongly acid.
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                    • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                            • El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil
Thickness of the loess or silty material: 0 to 15 inches
                                                            than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the
Depth to paralithic contact: 20 to 40 inches
                                                            Marseilles soil
Slope range: 10 to 60 percent
                                                            • Keswick and Ursa soils in areas upslope from the
Ap or A horizon:                                            Marseilles soil
    Hue—10YR                                                • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
    Value—2 to 5                                            flood plains along drainageways
    Chroma—2 or 3
                                                                                Management
    Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam, or loam
                                                              For general and detailed information about
E or BE horizon:
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR
                                                            Part II of this publication:
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—2 to 4                                           • “Forestland” section
    Texture—silt loam                                       • “Wildlife Habitat” section
102                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




• “Engineering” section                                    • “Soil Properties” section
• “Soil Properties” section

                                                           549F—Marseilles silt loam, 18 to 35
549D3—Marseilles silty clay loam, 10 to                       percent slopes
   18 percent slopes, severely eroded                                                Setting
                                                           Landform: Interfluves
                        Setting
                                                           Position on the landform: Backslopes
Landform: Interfluves                                      Type of landscape: Uplands
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
          Soil Properties and Qualities                    Parent material: Shale residuum
Drainage class: Well drained                                  Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Parent material: Shale residuum                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Special feature: The Marseilles soil in this map unit      Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    has a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
                                                                                 Composition
    pedon.
                                                           Marseilles soil: 90 percent
   Additional information specific to this map unit,
                                                           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this           Dissimilar soils:
publication.                                               • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                           • El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil
                    Composition
                                                           than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the
Marseilles and similar soils: 90 percent                   Marseilles soil
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                               • Hickory and Lindley soils, which have more sand
                                                           than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the
Similar soils:                                             Marseilles soil
• Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the       • Lacrescent soils, which formed in limestone
surface layer than the Marseilles soil                     colluvium and have a darker surface soil than that of
• Soils that have shale bedrock at a depth of more         the Marseilles soil; in areas downslope from the
than 40 inches                                             Marseilles soil
                                                           • Soils that have outcrops of shale or sandstone
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                                 Management
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
• El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil         For general and detailed information about
than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Marseilles soil                                            Part II of this publication:
• Keswick and Ursa soils in areas upslope from the
                                                           •   “Forestland” section
Marseilles soil
                                                           •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
                                                           •   “Engineering” section
flood plains along drainageways
                                                           •   “Soil Properties” section
                    Management
  For general and detailed information about               549G—Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60
managing this map unit, see the following sections in         percent slopes
Part II of this publication:
                                                                                     Setting
• “Forestland” section                                     Landform: Interfluves
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                               Position on the landform: Backslopes
• “Engineering” section                                    Type of landscape: Uplands
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  103




            Soil Properties and Qualities                      structure; friable; common fine and medium roots
                                                               throughout; few very fine pores; moderately acid;
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               abrupt smooth boundary.
Parent material: Shale residuum
                                                            BE—8 to 14 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      silt loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            roots throughout; common fine pores; few distinct
                                                               brown (10YR 4/3) clay films in root channels
                      Composition
                                                               and/or pores; few distinct light gray (10YR 7/2)
Marseilles soil: 90 percent                                    clay depletions between peds; moderately acid;
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt1—14 to 25 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                               blocky structure; firm; few fine roots throughout;
• El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil
                                                               common fine pores; common distinct brown (10YR
than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the
                                                               4/3) clay films and few distinct light brownish gray
Marseilles soil
                                                               (10YR 6/2) silt coats on faces of peds; moderately
• Hickory and Lindley soils, which have more sand
                                                               acid; clear smooth boundary.
than the Marseilles soil; in areas upslope from the
                                                            Bt2—25 to 33 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
Marseilles soil
                                                               clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
• Lacrescent soils, which formed in limestone
                                                               parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
colluvium and have a darker surface soil than that of
                                                               firm; few fine roots throughout; many very fine and
the Marseilles soil; in areas downslope from the
                                                               fine pores; few distinct dark yellowish brown
Marseilles soil
                                                               (10YR 4/4) clay films and few distinct light
• Soils that have outcrops of shale, limestone, or
                                                               brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats on faces of
sandstone
                                                               peds; common medium distinct strong brown
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils on
                                                               (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
flood plains along drainageways
                                                               throughout; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                      Management                            Bt3—33 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                               clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               parting to weak medium subangular blocky; firm;
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               few fine roots throughout; many very fine and fine
Part II of this publication:
                                                               pores; common distinct very pale brown (10YR
•   “Forestland” section                                       7/3) silt coats and common distinct dark yellowish
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds;
•   “Engineering” section                                      common fine and medium distinct strong brown
•   “Soil Properties” section                                  (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
                                                               throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                               boundary.
Menfro Series                                               BC—40 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                               loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; few
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               very fine roots throughout; common very fine and
   superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
                                                               fine pores; few distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         silt coats on faces of peds and few distinct dark
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films in root
Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an elevation
                                                               channels and/or pores; common fine and medium
of 675 feet; 310 feet west and 240 feet south of the
                                                               distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron
northeast corner of sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 8 W.; USGS
                                                               accumulation throughout; moderately acid; gradual
Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40
                                                               wavy boundary.
degrees 6 minutes 35 seconds N. and long. 90
                                                            C1—58 to 74 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
degrees 20 minutes 32 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                               loam; massive; firm; common very fine and fine
Ap—0 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale             pores; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films in
   brown (10YR 6/3) dry; moderate fine granular                root channels and/or pores; few fine distinct strong
104                                                                                               Soil Survey of




   brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation                    Soil Properties and Qualities
   throughout; moderately acid; gradual wavy
                                                        Drainage class: Well drained
   boundary.
                                                        Parent material: Loess
C2—74 to 92 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
   silt loam; massive; firm; few very fine pores; few      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) masses of   as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;       Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   gradual wavy boundary.
                                                                              Composition
C3—92 to 95 inches; 75 percent pale brown (10YR
   6/3) and 15 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;      Menfro and similar soils: 90 percent
   massive; firm; few very fine pores; common           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   medium and coarse prominent strong brown
                                                        Similar soils:
   (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
                                                        • The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
   throughout, common medium distinct black (2.5Y
                                                        have a darker surface layer than that of the Menfro soil
   2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                        • Soils on terraces
   throughout, and common medium and coarse faint
                                                        • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
                                                        Menfro soil
   throughout; moderately acid.
                                                        • The moderately well drained Winfield soils
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                        Dissimilar soils:
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 30 to 100 inches   • The somewhat poorly drained Bethalto soils, which
Slope range: 2 to 18 percent                            have a darker surface layer than that of the Menfro soil
                                                        • The somewhat poorly drained Caseyville soils
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                                                  Management
    Value—2 to 5
                                                          For general and detailed information about
    Chroma—2 to 4
                                                        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                        Part II of this publication:
E horizon (if it occurs):
                                                        •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR
                                                        •   “Forestland” section
    Value—4 or 5
                                                        •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Chroma—3 or 4
                                                        •   “Engineering” section
    Texture—silt loam
                                                        •   “Soil Properties” section
Bt horizon:
    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
    Value—4 or 5                                        79C2—Menfro silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
    Chroma—3 to 6                                          slopes, eroded
    Texture—silty clay loam
                                                                                  Setting
C horizon:
   Hue—10YR or 7.5YR                                    Landform: Interfluves
   Value—4 to 6                                         Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
   Chroma—3 or 4                                        Type of landscape: Uplands
   Texture—silt loam
                                                                    Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                        Drainage class: Well drained
79B—Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                    Parent material: Loess
   slopes                                               Special feature: The Menfro soil in this map unit has a
                            Setting                         thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Landform: Interfluves                                      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Position on the landform: Summits                       as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Type of landscape: Uplands                              Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     105




                      Composition                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                             Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Menfro and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                                       Composition
Similar soils:                                               Menfro and similar soils: 90 percent
• The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
have a darker surface layer than that of the Menfro soil
                                                             Similar soils:
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                             • The moderately well drained Downsouth soils, which
surface layer than the Menfro soil
                                                             have a darker surface layer than that of the Menfro soil
• Soils on terraces
                                                             • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
• Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
                                                             surface layer than the Menfro soil
Menfro soil
                                                             • Soils on terraces
• The moderately well drained Winfield soils
                                                             • The moderately well drained Winfield soils
Dissimilar soils:
                                                             Dissimilar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                             • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                             have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
                                                             the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
soil
                                                             soil
• Crider soils, which have more clay in the lower part
                                                             • Crider soils, which have more clay in the lower part
than the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the
                                                             than the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the
Menfro soil
                                                             Menfro soil
• Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
                                                             • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
fragments throughout than the Menfro soil; in areas
                                                             fragments throughout than the Menfro soil; in areas
downslope from the Menfro soil
                                                             downslope from the Menfro soil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than
                                                             • Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than
the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
                                                             the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
soil
                                                             soil
                      Management
                                                                                   Management
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:
                                                             Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                             •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
                                                             •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                             •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
                                                             •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                             •   “Soil Properties” section

79C3—Menfro silty clay loam, 5 to 10                         79D2—Menfro silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
   percent slopes, severely eroded                              slopes, eroded
                          Setting
                                                                                       Setting
Landform: Interfluves
                                                             Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                             Position on the landform: Shoulders
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                             Type of landscape: Uplands
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                         Soil Properties and Qualities
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                             Drainage class: Well drained
Parent material: Loess
                                                             Parent material: Loess
Special feature: The Menfro soil in this map unit has a
                                                             Special feature: The Menfro soil in this map unit has
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                                 a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
    Additional information specific to this map unit, such       pedon.
106                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                      Composition
                                                                                  Composition
Menfro and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Menfro and similar soils: 90 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Similar soils:
                                                            Similar soils:
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
surface layer than the Menfro soil
                                                            surface layer than the Menfro soil
• The moderately well drained Winfield soils in the
                                                            • The moderately well drained Winfield soils in the
less sloping positions
                                                            less sloping positions
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                            have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
                                                            the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
soil
                                                            soil
• Crider soils, which have more clay in the lower part
                                                            • Crider soils, which have more clay in the lower part
than the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the
                                                            than the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the
Menfro soil
                                                            Menfro soil
• Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
                                                            • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
fragments throughout than the Menfro soil; in areas
                                                            fragments throughout than the Menfro soil; in areas
downslope from the Menfro soil
                                                            downslope from the Menfro soil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than
                                                            • Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than
the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
                                                            the Menfro soil; in areas downslope from the Menfro
soil
                                                            soil
                      Management
                                                                                  Management
  For general and detailed information about
                                                              For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section

79D3—Menfro silty clay loam, 10 to 18
   percent slopes, severely eroded                          801B—Orthents, silty, undulating
                          Setting                                                     Setting
Landform: Interfluves                                       • Orthents occur in cut and filled areas and in borrow
Position on the landform: Shoulders                         areas, where the soils have been excavated or
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  disturbed. They are on uplands, stream terraces, and
                                                            flood plains.
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Drainage class: Well drained
Parent material: Loess                                      Drainage class: Well drained
Special feature: The Menfro soil in this map unit has       General description: This map unit generally consists
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical            of silty material derived from former soil layers and
    pedon.                                                      silty underlying material.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  107




   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   BA—12 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam;
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            few very fine roots throughout; many distinct very
                                                               dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on
                      Composition
                                                               faces of peds and in pores; neutral; clear smooth
Orthents: 90 percent                                           boundary.
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                Bt1—16 to 23 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
                                                               loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               friable; few very fine roots throughout; common
• Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
                                                               distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3) organo-clay films
in the higher positions on side slopes in areas that
                                                               on faces of peds and very few distinct very dark
have not been altered by human activity
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces
• Lacrescent soils, which have limestone rock
                                                               of peds and in pores; slightly acid; clear smooth
fragments in the subsoil; in the more sloping areas
                                                               boundary.
that have not been altered by human activity
                                                            Bt2—23 to 36 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silty clay
• Soils that have more gravel throughout than the
                                                               loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
Orthents
                                                               structure; friable; few very fine roots throughout;
• Stookey soils in undisturbed areas
                                                               common distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
• Timewell and Ipava soils, which have a dark surface
                                                               clay films on faces of peds; many fine faint
soil; in undisturbed areas
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron and
• Wakeland soils in undisturbed areas along
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout and
drainageways
                                                               common fine grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron
                      Management                               depletions in cracks; moderately acid; clear
                                                               smooth boundary.
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            BC—36 to 47 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam;
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
Part II of this publication:
                                                               very few distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
•   “Agronomy” section                                         clay films in root channels and/or pores; many
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
•   “Engineering” section                                      masses of iron and manganese accumulation and
•   “Soil Properties” section                                  common fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron and
                                                               manganese concretions throughout; slightly acid;
                                                               gradual smooth boundary.
Osco Series                                                 C—47 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt
                                                               loam; massive; friable; common medium distinct
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
   superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls
                                                               accumulation and few fine distinct yellowish brown
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation
                                                               throughout; neutral.
Osco silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an elevation
of 645 feet; 1,440 feet south and 300 feet west of the          MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
northeast corner of sec. 17, T. 7 N., R. 1 E.; USGS
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 18 inches
Bushnell East, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40
                                                            Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 48
degrees 35 minutes 18 seconds N. and long. 90
                                                                inches
degrees 25 minutes 3 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 36 to 66 inches
Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,      Slope range: 2 to 5 percent
   gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine granular structure;
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
   friable; few very fine roots throughout; neutral;
                                                                Hue—10YR
   abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                                Value—2 or 3
A—7 to 12 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
                                                                Chroma—1 or 2
   gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                                Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   structure parting to moderate fine granular; friable;
   few very fine roots throughout; neutral; clear           Bt horizon:
   smooth boundary.                                             Hue—10YR
108                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




      Value—4 to 6                                          of the southeast corner of sec. 24, T. 1 N., R. 7 W.;
      Chroma—3 or 4                                         USGS Coatsburg, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
      Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam                  42 degrees 3 minutes 30 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                            degrees 9 minutes 2.5 seconds W., NAD 27:
C or Cg horizon:
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                        Ap—0 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, light
    Value—4 to 6                                               yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) dry; weak fine
    Chroma—2 to 6                                              granular structure; friable; many fine and medium
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                       roots; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of
                                                               iron and manganese accumulation and common
                                                               fine faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of
86B—Osco silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                             iron accumulation throughout; neutral; abrupt
   slopes                                                      smooth boundary.
                          Setting                           Bt1—5 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
                                                               clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
Landform: Ridges
                                                               structure; firm; common fine and medium roots;
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                               few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                               of peds; common fine distinct yellowish brown
            Soil Properties and Qualities                      (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and
                                                               common fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear
Parent material: Loess
                                                               smooth boundary.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Bt2—13 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            firm; common fine and medium roots; few distinct
                                                               brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds;
                      Composition
                                                               common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
Osco and similar soils: 90 percent                             5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout, and
Similar soils:
                                                               common fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR
• Greenbush soils, which have a thinner dark surface
                                                               6/2) iron depletions throughout; moderately acid;
layer than that of the Osco soil
                                                               clear smooth boundary.
Dissimilar soils:                                           Bt3—19 to 30 inches; 80 percent brown (10YR 5/3)
• The somewhat poorly drained Timewell and Ipava               and 10 percent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay
soils in the slightly lower positions on the landform          loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
                                                               parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
                      Management
                                                               firm; common fine and medium roots; few distinct
  For general and detailed information about                   brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds;
managing this map unit, see the following sections in          common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
Part II of this publication:                                   5/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few
                                                               fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout, and
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                               common fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
•   “Engineering” section
                                                               iron depletions throughout; slightly acid; gradual
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                               smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt4—30 to 45 inches; 80 percent yellowish brown
Passport Series                                                (10YR 5/4) and 10 percent brown (10YR 5/3) clay
                                                               loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to
Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed,                   moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few
   superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs                         fine roots; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films
                                                               on faces of peds; common medium distinct
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
Passport silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, at an              accumulation throughout, common medium
elevation of 645 feet; 470 feet west and 315 feet north        distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     109




    manganese accumulation throughout, and                  Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
    common fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR              inches
    6/2) iron depletions in cracks; neutral; gradual        Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 80 inches
    smooth boundary.                                        Slope range: 5 to 10 percent
2Btg1—45 to 58 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
    clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
                                                                Hue—10YR
    blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; few prominent
                                                                Value—3 to 5
    gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds;
                                                                Chroma—2 to 4
    common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                                Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam, or clay loam
    masses of iron accumulation and common
                                                                Content of rock fragments—less than 1 percent
    medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) iron and
    manganese concretions throughout; 2 percent             Bt or Btg horizon:
    mixed-noncalcareous gravel; neutral; clear smooth           Hue—10YR
    boundary.                                                   Value—4 to 6
2Btg2—58 to 68 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay            Chroma—1 to 6
    loam; moderate fine and medium subangular                   Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or
    blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; few prominent          loam
    gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds;                Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent
    common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
                                                            2Bt or 2Btg horizon:
    5/6) masses of iron accumulation between peds,
                                                                Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 7.5YR
    common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6)
                                                                Value—4 to 6
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, and few
                                                                Chroma—1 to 8
    medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron
                                                                Texture—clay loam, loam, silty clay loam, silty
    and manganese accumulation throughout; 1
                                                                   clay, or silt loam
    percent mixed-noncalcareous gravel; neutral; clear
                                                                Content of rock fragments—1 to 5 percent
    smooth boundary.
2Btg3—68 to 78 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay        2Btgb, 2C, or 2Cg horizon:
    loam; moderate medium subangular blocky                     Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    structure; firm; few fine roots; few prominent gray         Value—4 to 6
    (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds; common              Chroma—1 to 8
    medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron             Texture—clay loam or loam
    and manganese accumulation throughout and                   Content of rock fragments—1 to 10 percent
    common medium and coarse distinct yellowish
    brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
    between peds; 2 percent mixed-noncalcareous             652C2—Passport silt loam, 5 to 10
    gravel and 2 percent mixed-noncalcareous                   percent slopes, eroded
    cobbles; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                                    Setting
2BCg—78 to 84 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay
    loam; moderate medium prismatic structure               Landform: Interfluves
    parting to moderate coarse angular blocky; firm;        Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
    very few prominent dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films      Type of landscape: Uplands
    in root channels and/or pores and few distinct gray
                                                                      Soil Properties and Qualities
    (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds; common
    medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6)            Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
    masses of iron accumulation between peds, few           Parent material: Pedisediment and the underlying
    medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)                  paleosol formed in glacial till
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, and few
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    masses of iron accumulation throughout; 1
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    percent mixed-noncalcareous gravel; neutral.
                                                                                Composition
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                            Passport and similar soils: 90 percent
Thickness of the loamy materials: 20 to 45 inches           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
110                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




Similar soils:                                                                    Composition
• Bunkum soils, which have less sand in the upper
                                                            Passport and similar soils: 90 percent
part of the subsoil than the Passport soil; in areas
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
upslope from the Passport soil
• The moderately well drained El Dara soils, which          Similar soils:
formed in Cretaceous deposits; in areas downslope           • Bunkum soils, which have less sand in the upper
from the Passport soil                                      part of the subsoil than the Passport soil; in areas
• Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower         upslope from the Passport soil
part of the subsoil than the Passport soil                  • The moderately well drained El Dara soils, which
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          formed in Cretaceous deposits; in areas downslope
surface layer than the Passport soil                        from the Passport soil
• Soils that have less sand in the subsoil than the         • Fishhook soils, which have more clay in the lower
Passport soil                                               part of the subsoil than the Passport soil
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            surface layer than the Passport soil
• The well drained Baylis soils in areas downslope
                                                            • Soils that have less sand in the subsoil than the
from the Passport soil
                                                            Passport soil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay in the upper
part of the subsoil than the Passport soil; in areas        Dissimilar soils:
downslope from the Passport soil                            • The well drained Baylis soils in areas downslope
• The moderately well drained Winfield soils, which         from the Passport soil
have less sand in the subsoil than the Passport soil; in    • Keswick soils, which have more clay in the upper
areas upslope from the Passport soil                        part of the subsoil than the Passport soil; in areas
                                                            downslope from the Passport soil
                      Management
                                                            • The moderately well drained Winfield soils, which
  For general and detailed information about                have less sand in the subsoil than the Passport soil; in
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       areas upslope from the Passport soil
Part II of this publication:
                                                                                  Management
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                              For general and detailed information about
•   “Forestland” section
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
652C3—Passport silty clay loam, 5 to 10                     •   “Engineering” section
   percent slopes, severely eroded                          •   “Soil Properties” section
                          Setting
Landform: Interfluves                                       864—Pits, quarries
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                                                      Setting
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            • This map unit consists of open excavations from
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            which limestone, sand, gravel, or soil material has
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     been removed or is currently being removed.
Parent material: Pedisediment and the underlying
                                                                                  Composition
    paleosol formed in glacial till
Special feature: The Passport soil in this map unit has     Pits: 90 percent
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical        Dissimilar components: 10 percent
    pedon.
                                                            Dissimilar components:
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   • Areas of machinery
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    • Areas of undisturbed soils along the outer edges of
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.         the quarries
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      111




• Orthents along quarry boundaries where spoil                  (10YR 5/3) silt loam; moderate very fine and fine
material has been placed                                        subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine
• Pools of water less than 3 acres in size                      roots; few distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR
• Stockpiles of crushed rock                                    3/2) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
                                                                few fine prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of
                                                                iron accumulation between peds and few fine
Raveenwash Series                                               distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
                                                                accumulation throughout; very slightly
Taxonomic classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed,
                                                                effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth
   superactive, calcareous, mesic Aquic Udifluvents
                                                                boundary.
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                        C4—46 to 60 inches; stratified, 95 percent dark
                                                                grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) and 5 percent brown
Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
                                                                (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine and medium
frequently flooded, long duration, at an elevation of
                                                                subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine
470 feet; 2,200 feet north and 320 feet east of the
                                                                roots; few distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR
southwest corner of sec. 16, T. 1 S., R. 9 W.; USGS
                                                                3/2) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
Quincy West, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39
                                                                few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
degrees 58 minutes 53.5 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                                masses of iron accumulation throughout; very
degrees 26 minutes 59 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                                slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline.
AC—0 to 8 inches; stratified, 80 percent dark grayish
                                                                 MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   brown (10YR 4/2), 15 percent very dark grayish
   brown (10YR 3/2), and 5 percent yellowish brown           Depth to carbonates: Less than 10 inches
   (10YR 5/4) silt loam; 60 percent grayish brown            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 0 to 15 inches
   (10YR 5/2) and 40 percent light brownish gray             Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
   (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium platy structure
                                                             AC, Ap, or A horizon:
   parting to moderate medium granular; friable; few
                                                                 Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
   very fine roots; slightly effervescent; slightly
                                                                 Value—2 to 4
   alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                                 Chroma—1 to 3
C1—8 to 16 inches; stratified, 90 percent dark grayish
                                                                 Texture—silt loam
   brown (10YR 4/2) and 10 percent brown (10YR
   5/3) silt loam; moderate medium platy structure           C horizon:
   parting to moderate very fine subangular blocky;             Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   friable; few very fine roots; few distinct very dark         Value—2 to 7
   grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces              Chroma—1 to 8
   of peds; common medium distinct brown (7.5YR                 Texture—stratified silt loam, loam, sandy loam,
   4/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout, few                 loamy sand, or sand
   fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
   iron accumulation throughout, and few fine faint
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions in               3368L—Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2
   cracks; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear      percent slopes, frequently flooded,
   smooth boundary.
C2—16 to 31 inches; stratified, 80 percent olive brown
                                                                long duration
   (2.5Y 4/3) and 20 percent brown (10YR 5/3) loam;                                  Setting
   weak medium platy and weak very fine
                                                             Landform: Alluvial ridges
   subangular blocky structure; very friable; few very
                                                             Position on the landform: Summits
   fine roots; few distinct very dark grayish brown
                                                             Type of landscape: Flood plains
   (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces of peds; few
   fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of                  Soil Properties and Qualities
   iron accumulation throughout and few fine faint
                                                             Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions along
                                                             Parent material: Alluvium
   root channels; very slightly effervescent; slightly
   alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.                           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
C3—31 to 46 inches; stratified, 90 percent dark              as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) and 10 percent brown             Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
112                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




                      Composition                             common fine roots throughout; moderately acid;
                                                              abrupt smooth boundary.
Raveenwash and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                           Bw1—13 to 19 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                              silty clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
Similar soils:                                                structure; firm; common fine roots throughout and
• Blake soils, which have more clay and less sand             common very fine and fine roots in cracks; very
throughout than the Raveenwash soil; in positions             few distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
away from the stream channel                                  organic coats on faces of peds; many fine distinct
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the               brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron accumulation
Raveenwash soil                                               throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                                                              boundary.
Dissimilar soils:
                                                           Bw2—19 to 27 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam;
• The poorly drained Slacwater soils, which have
                                                              moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
more clay and less sand throughout than the
                                                              firm; common very fine and fine roots in cracks;
Raveenwash soil; in the lower positions on the
                                                              many fine and medium distinct dark yellowish
landform
                                                              brown (10YR 3/6) masses of iron accumulation
• Soils that do not have carbonates throughout
                                                              throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
                      Management                              boundary.
                                                           2C1—27 to 36 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand;
  For general and detailed information about
                                                              weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                              few fine faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
Part II of this publication:
                                                              masses of iron accumulation throughout;
•   “Forestland” section                                      moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                             2C2—36 to 60 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
•   “Engineering” section                                     grain; loose; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
•   “Soil Properties” section                              2C3—60 to 80 inches; 60 percent brown (10YR 5/3)
                                                              and 40 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
                                                              single grain; loose; neutral.
Riley Series                                                   MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy over sandy or         Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 20 inches
   sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic               Depth to sandy water-laid sediments: 16 to 40 inches
   Fluvaquentic Hapludolls                                 Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 18 to 40 inches
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
               Series Description)                         Ap or A horizon:
                                                               Hue—10YR
Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
                                                               Value—2 or 3
occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 470 feet; 1,595
                                                               Chroma—1 to 3
feet east and 340 feet south of the northwest corner of
                                                               Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, or
sec. 2, T. 3 S., R. 9 W.; USGS Quincy Southwest,
                                                                  loam
Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 50
minutes 35 seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 24              Bw horizon:
minutes 30.2 seconds W., NAD 27:                              Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
                                                              Value—4 to 6
Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                              Chroma—2 to 4
   silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate fine
                                                              Texture—silty clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay
   granular structure; firm; common fine roots
                                                                 loam, loam, or silt loam
   throughout; very few distinct very dark gray (10YR
   3/1) organic coats on faces of peds; slightly acid;     2C horizon:
   abrupt smooth boundary.                                     Hue—10YR
A—7 to 13 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)           Value—4 to 7
   silty clay loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; moderate fine         Chroma—2 to 4
   and medium subangular blocky structure; firm;               Texture—loamy sand, sand, or loamy fine sand
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    113




8452A—Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2                         and 2,200 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 24,
   percent slopes, occasionally flooded                     T. 2 N., R. 10 W.; USGS Canton, Illinois, topographic
                                                            quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 8 minutes 41 seconds N.
                          Setting                           and long. 91 degrees 30 minutes 3 seconds W., NAD
                                                            27:
Landform: Rises
Position on the landform: Summits                           Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt
Type of landscape: Flood plains                                loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak
                                                               fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots;
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                     A1—7 to 15 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
Parent material: Alluvium                                      3/2) loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry;
                                                               weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots;
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                               neutral; clear smooth boundary.
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            A2—15 to 21 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               3/2) loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak
                      Composition                              fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine
                                                               roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Riley and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            AB—21 to 30 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sandy
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               clay loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak fine
Similar soils:                                                 subangular blocky structure; friable; few distinct
• Tice soils, which have less sand throughout than the         very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay
Riley soil                                                     films on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth
                                                               boundary.
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Bt1—30 to 38 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
• The poorly drained Beaucoup soils, which have less
                                                               sandy clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky
sand throughout than the Riley soil; in the lower
                                                               structure; friable; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3)
positions on the landform
                                                               clay films on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth
• The poorly drained Gorham soils, which have less
                                                               boundary.
sand in the upper part of the subsoil than the Riley
                                                            Bt2—38 to 48 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
soil; in the lower positions on the landform
                                                               sandy clay loam; weak very fine subangular blocky
• The well drained Ross soils, which have a thicker
                                                               structure; friable; few faint brown (10YR 4/3) clay
dark surface soil than that of the Riley soil; in the
                                                               films on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth
higher positions on the landform
                                                               boundary.
• Soils that have more sand in the upper part of the
                                                            C1—48 to 56 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
subsoil than the Riley soil
                                                               sandy loam; massive; very friable; 1 percent
                      Management                               gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            C2—56 to 75 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               sandy loam; massive; very friable; 1 percent
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               gravel; neutral.
Part II of this publication:
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 40 inches
•   “Engineering” section                                   Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 24
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   inches
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 24 to 48 inches
                                                            Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
Ross Series
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
Taxonomic classification: Fine-loamy, mixed,                    Hue—10YR
   superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls                        Value—2 or 3
                                                                Chroma—1 to 3
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                                Texture—loam, silt loam, sandy loam, fine sandy
Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally                loam, silty clay loam, or sandy clay loam
flooded, at an elevation of 460 feet; 1,500 feet north          Content of rock fragments—0 to 5 percent
114                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




Bt or Bw horizon:                                           • “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR                                                • “Soil Properties” section
    Value—2 to 5
    Chroma—1 to 4
    Texture—silt loam, loam, sandy clay loam, silty         Rozetta Series
       clay loam, sandy loam, or clay loam
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
    Content of rock fragments—0 to 10 percent
                                                               superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
C horizon:
                                                                      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
   Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y
   Value—4 to 6                                             Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an elevation
   Chroma—1 to 4                                            of 605 feet; 2,574 feet west and 429 feet north of the
   Texture—sandy loam, loam, silt loam, or sandy            southeast corner of sec. 15, T. 4 N., R. 2 E.; USGS
       clay loam                                            Ipava, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees
   Content of rock fragments—0 to 45 percent                19 minutes 14 seconds N. and long. 90 degrees 15
                                                            minutes 59 seconds W., NAD 27:

8073A—Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                        Ap—0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
   slopes, occasionally flooded                                brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak very fine granular
                                                               structure; friable; common very fine roots; few fine
                        Setting                                roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            E—7 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak
Landform: Rises
                                                               medium platy structure parting to weak very fine
Position on the landform: Summits
                                                               subangular blocky; friable; common very fine
Type of landscape: Flood plains
                                                               roots; few distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) (dry) silt
          Soil Properties and Qualities                        coats on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth
                                                               boundary.
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Bt1—11 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                               clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      structure; friable; common very fine roots;
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            clay films and few distinct light gray (10YR 7/2)
                                                               (dry) silt coats on faces of peds; few fine black
                    Composition
                                                               (10YR 2/1) manganese concretions with sharp
Ross and similar soils: 90 percent                             boundaries in ped interiors; moderately acid; clear
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                   smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt2—19 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
Similar soils:
                                                               clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure
• Soils that are moderately well drained
                                                               parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
• Soils that have a thinner dark surface soil than that
                                                               friable; common very fine roots; few distinct dark
of the Ross soil
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films and few
• Soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent
                                                               distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) (dry) silt coats on
Dissimilar soils:                                              faces of peds; few fine distinct dark yellowish
• Soils that are not subject to flooding                       brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the Ross           with diffuse boundaries and few fine black (10YR
soil                                                           2/1) manganese concretions with sharp
                    Management                                 boundaries in ped interiors; moderately acid;
                                                               gradual smooth boundary.
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            Bt3—29 to 39 inches; 80 percent yellowish brown
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               (10YR 5/4), 15 percent yellowish brown (10YR
Part II of this publication:
                                                               5/6), and 5 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty
• “Agronomy” section                                           clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
• “Forestland” section                                         parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                   friable; few very fine roots; common distinct dark
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   115




   yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of           Chroma—2 or 3
   peds; few fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR          Texture—silt loam
   4/6) masses of iron accumulation with diffuse
                                                           Bt horizon:
   boundaries and common fine black (10YR 2/1)
                                                               Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
   manganese concretions with sharp boundaries in
                                                               Value—4 to 6
   ped interiors; strongly acid; gradual smooth
                                                               Chroma—3 to 6
   boundary.
                                                               Texture—silty clay loam
Bt4—39 to 45 inches; 60 percent yellowish brown
   (10YR 5/4), 20 percent yellowish brown (10YR            C horizon:
   5/6), and 20 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty           Hue—10YR
   clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting         Value—4 to 6
   to moderate coarse subangular blocky; friable; few         Chroma—2 to 6
   very fine roots; few distinct dark yellowish brown         Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine
   distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses
   of iron accumulation with diffuse boundaries and        279B—Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   few fine black (10YR 2/1) manganese concretions            slopes
   with sharp boundaries in ped interiors; moderately                              Setting
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                           Landform: Interfluves
BC—45 to 55 inches; 70 percent yellowish brown
                                                           Position on the landform: Summits
   (10YR 5/4) and 30 percent yellowish brown (10YR
                                                           Type of landscape: Uplands
   5/6) silty clay loam; weak coarse prismatic
   structure; friable; few very fine roots; few distinct             Soil Properties and Qualities
   dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   faces of peds; common fine distinct dark yellowish
                                                           Parent material: Loess
   brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
   with diffuse boundaries and few fine black (10YR           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   2/1) manganese concretions with sharp                   as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   boundaries in ped interiors; common fine distinct       Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions
                                                                               Composition
   along root channels and pores; moderately acid;
   gradual smooth boundary.                                Rozetta and similar soils: 90 percent
C—55 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   loam; massive; friable; few very fine roots;
                                                           Similar soils:
   common fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                           • Greenbush soils, which have a darker surface layer
   4/6) masses of iron accumulation with diffuse
                                                           than that of the Rozetta soil
   boundaries and few fine black (10YR 2/1)
                                                           • Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
   manganese concretions with sharp boundaries in
                                                           depth of more than 72 inches
   ped interiors; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
                                                           • Soils on terraces
   depletions along pores; moderately acid.
                                                           • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                   Rozetta soil
Depth to carbonates: 42 to more than 72 inches             Dissimilar soils:
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 72 inches       • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
Slope range: 2 to 10 percent                               have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                           the Rozetta soil; in areas downslope from the Rozetta
Ap or A horizon:
                                                           soil
    Hue—10YR
                                                           • The somewhat poorly drained Clarksdale soils,
    Value—3 to 5
                                                           which have a darker surface layer than that of the
    Chroma—1 to 3
                                                           Rozetta soil and have more clay in the subsoil; in the
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                           slightly lower positions on the landform
E horizon:                                                 • The somewhat poorly drained Keomah soils, which
    Hue—10YR                                               have more clay in the subsoil than the Rozetta soil; in
    Value—4 to 6                                           the slightly lower positions on the landform
116                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




                      Management                            •   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              279C3—Rozetta silty clay loam, 5 to 10
•   “Engineering” section                                      percent slopes, severely eroded
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                      Setting
279C2—Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                    Landform: Interfluves
   slopes, eroded                                           Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                            Parent material: Loess
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Special feature: The Rozetta soil in this map unit has a
            Soil Properties and Qualities                       thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Drainage class: Well drained                                   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Parent material: Loess                                      as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Special feature: The Rozetta soil in this map unit has a    Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                                                  Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Rozetta and similar soils: 90 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Similar soils:
                      Composition
                                                            • Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
Rozetta and similar soils: 90 percent                       depth of more than 60 inches
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
                                                            surface layer than the Rozetta soil
Similar soils:
                                                            • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
• Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a
                                                            Rozetta soil
depth of more than 72 inches
• Soils on terraces                                         Dissimilar soils:
• Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the         • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
Rozetta soil                                                have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                            the Rozetta soil; in areas downslope from the Rozetta
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Fishhook soils, which
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
                                                            have more clay in the lower part of the subsoil than the
the Rozetta soil; in areas downslope from the Rozetta
                                                            Rozetta soil; in areas downslope from the Rozetta soil
soil
• Greenbush soils, which have a darker surface layer                              Management
than that of the Rozetta soil
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• The somewhat poorly drained Fishhook soils, which
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
have more clay in the lower part of the subsoil than the
                                                            Part II of this publication:
Rozetta soil; in areas downslope from the Rozetta soil
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
                      Management
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:                                •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                 117




Rubio Series                                                  iron accumulation and common medium distinct
                                                              black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic              accumulation between peds and in pores; slightly
   Vertic Albaqualfs                                          acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           BCg—45 to 55 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                              loam; weak medium prismatic structure; friable;
Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an elevation       many medium prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4)
of 690 feet; 400 feet east and 1,750 feet south of the        masses of iron accumulation and many medium
northwest corner of sec. 8, T. 2 N., R. 5 W.; USGS            distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
Bowen, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40              manganese accumulation between peds and in
degrees 10 minutes 23 seconds N. and long. 91                 pores; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
degrees 0 minutes 20.2 seconds W., NAD 27:                 Cg—55 to 74 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay
                                                              loam; massive; friable; common fine prominent
Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
                                                              yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
    light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine
                                                              accumulation lining root channels and/or pores;
    granular structure; friable; few fine roots
                                                              neutral.
    throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Eg—9 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam, light            MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
    gray (10YR 7/1) dry; moderate thin platy structure;
                                                           Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 42 to 72 inches
    friable; few fine roots throughout; few fine brown
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
    (10YR 4/3) masses of iron accumulation between
    peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.          Ap or A horizon:
Btg1—16 to 24 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)            Hue—10YR
    silty clay; weak fine prismatic structure; firm; few       Value—3
    very fine roots throughout; few distinct very dark         Chroma—1 or 2
    gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of              Texture—silt loam
    peds; few fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                           Eg horizon:
    4/6) masses of iron accumulation and few fine
                                                               Hue—10YR
    faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions
                                                               Value—4 or 5
    between peds; strongly acid; clear smooth
                                                               Chroma—1 or 2
    boundary.
                                                               Texture—silt loam
Btg2—24 to 30 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
    clay; weak fine prismatic structure; firm; few very    Btg horizon:
    fine roots throughout; few distinct dark gray (10YR        Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common fine              Value—4 or 5
    distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses            Chroma—1 or 2
    of iron accumulation and common fine faint gray            Texture—silty clay loam or silty clay
    (10YR 5/1) iron depletions between peds;
                                                           Cg horizon:
    moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Hue—5Y
Btg3—30 to 36 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
                                                               Value—4 or 5
    clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure; firm;
                                                               Chroma—1 or 2
    few very fine roots throughout; common faint
                                                               Texture—silty clay loam
    distinct gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of
    peds; common fine distinct dark yellowish brown
    (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation between         111A—Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    peds, common fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)               slopes
    masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                                                   Setting
    between peds, and common medium faint grayish
    brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions between peds;         Landform: Drainage divides
    slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                  Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
Btg4—36 to 45 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty       Type of landscape: Uplands
    clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure; firm;
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
    few very fine roots throughout; few distinct gray
    (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds; common         Drainage class: Poorly drained
    medium prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of           Parent material: Loess
118                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




   Additional information specific to this map unit, such       loam, very pale brown (10YR 8/2) dry; weak thick
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil        platy structure parting to moderate medium
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.             subangular blocky; friable; common fine roots;
                                                                common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                      Composition
                                                                masses of iron accumulation throughout, many
Rubio and similar soils: 90 percent                             fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and manganese
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                    nodules throughout, and many distinct white
                                                                (10YR 8/1) clay depletions throughout; neutral;
Similar soils:
                                                                clear smooth boundary.
• Rushville soils, which have a lighter colored surface
                                                            Btg1—13 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
layer than that of the Rubio soil
                                                                silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic
• Virden soils, which have a thicker dark surface soil
                                                                structure parting to moderate fine subangular
than that of the Rubio soil and do not have a gray
                                                                blocky; friable; common fine and medium roots;
subsurface layer
                                                                many prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay
Dissimilar soils:                                               films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y
• The somewhat poorly drained Timewell and Ipava                2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation
soils, which have a thicker dark surface soil than the          throughout, common fine distinct yellowish brown
Rubio soil; in the slightly higher positions on the             (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
landform                                                        throughout, and few distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron
                      Management                                and manganese nodules throughout; strongly acid;
                                                                clear wavy boundary.
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            Btg2—21 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic
Part II of this publication:
                                                                structure parting to moderate medium subangular
•   “Agronomy” section                                          blocky; firm; few fine roots; many prominent
•   “Forestland” section                                        grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films on faces of
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  peds; common fine prominent yellowish brown
•   “Engineering” section                                       (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
•   “Soil Properties” section                                   throughout, few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
                                                                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                                throughout, and few distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron
Rushville Series                                                and manganese nodules throughout; moderately
                                                                acid; clear wavy boundary.
Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                            Btg3—26 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   Typic Albaqualfs
                                                                silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                          structure parting to moderate medium subangular
                                                                blocky; firm; few fine roots; many prominent
Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
                                                                grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay films and many
elevation of 695 feet; 2,150 feet east and 250 feet
                                                                prominent white (10YR 8/1) silt coats on faces of
south of the northwest corner of sec. 23, T. 1 S., R. 6
                                                                peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
W.; USGS Liberty, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat.
                                                                iron and manganese accumulation throughout,
39 degrees 58 minutes 28.7 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                                many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
degrees 3 minutes 36.8 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                                masses of iron accumulation throughout, and
Ap—0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt            common fine faint gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions
   loam, light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; weak thin                   throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
   prismatic structure parting to moderate fine             Btg4—32 to 43 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   granular; friable; common fine roots; many fine              silty clay loam; moderate coarse prismatic
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and                 structure parting to moderate medium and coarse
   manganese accumulation throughout, few fine and              subangular blocky; firm; few distinct grayish brown
   medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and                    (10YR 5/2) clay films in root channels and/or
   manganese nodules throughout, and many distinct              pores and very few prominent white (10YR 8/1) silt
   very pale brown (10YR 8/2) clay depletions                   coats on vertical faces of peds; many fine and
   between peds; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
Eg—7 to 13 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt                masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    119




   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and          Chroma—1 or 2
   manganese accumulation throughout, and few fine            Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   faint gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions throughout;
   moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
BCtg—43 to 50 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)     16A—Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   silty clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure;        slopes
   firm; few prominent grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay                               Setting
   films in root channels and/or pores; common
                                                         Landform: Interfluves
   medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
                                                         Position on the landform: Broad summits
   masses of iron accumulation and common fine
                                                         Type of landscape: Uplands
   prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) masses of
   iron accumulation throughout; moderately acid;                    Soil Properties and Qualities
   clear wavy boundary.
                                                         Drainage class: Poorly drained
Cg1—50 to 74 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                         Parent material: Loess
   silt loam; massive; firm; few prominent dark
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay films in root              Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   channels and/or pores; many medium and coarse         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of          Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   iron accumulation and common medium distinct
                                                                               Composition
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron
   accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear wavy    Rushville and similar soils: 90 percent
   boundary.                                             Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Cg2—74 to 85 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                         Similar soils:
   silt loam; massive; firm; few distinct dark grayish
                                                         • Rubio soils, which have a darker surface layer than
   brown (10YR 4/2) clay films on faces of peds;
                                                         that of the Rushville soil
   many coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
                                                         • Soils on terraces
   masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral.
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 • The somewhat poorly drained Clarksdale soils,
                                                         which have a darker surface layer than that of the
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 50
                                                         Rushville soil; in the slightly higher positions on the
    inches
                                                         landform
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 60 inches
                                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Keomah soils in the
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                         slightly higher positions on the landform
Ap or A horizon:
                                                                               Management
    Hue—10YR
    Value—2 to 5                                           For general and detailed information about
    Chroma—1 or 2                                        managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Texture—silt loam                                    Part II of this publication:
Eg horizon:                                              •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR                                             •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Value—5 or 6                                         •   “Engineering” section
    Chroma—1 or 2                                        •   “Soil Properties” section
    Texture—silt loam or silt
Btg horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                Sarpy Series
    Value—4 to 6
                                                         Taxonomic classification: Mixed, mesic Typic
    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                            Udipsamments
    Texture—silty clay loam or silty clay
                                                                    Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
Cg horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally
    Value—4 to 6                                         flooded, at an elevation of 473 feet; 2,290 feet east
120                                                                                                Soil Survey of




and 1,100 feet south of the northwest corner of sec.     C horizon:
22, T. 2 N., R. 9 W.; USGS Lima, Illinois, topographic      Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 9 minutes 9 seconds N.          Value—4 to 6
and long. 91 degrees 25 minutes 40 seconds W., NAD          Chroma—2 to 4
27:                                                         Texture—loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand,
                                                                sand, silt loam, or sandy loam
Ap—0 to 9 inches; 70 percent brown (10YR 4/3) and
   30 percent dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand,
   pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak fine subangular
   blocky structure parting to single grain; very        8092A—Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent
   friable; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                 slopes, occasionally flooded
C1—9 to 17 inches; stratified, 90 percent brown (10YR
                                                                                   Setting
   5/3) and 10 percent very dark grayish brown
   (10YR 3/2) loamy sand; single grain; loose;           Landform: Alluvial ridges
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.                       Position on the landform: Summits
C2—17 to 28 inches; 55 percent brown (10YR 5/3)          Type of landscape: Flood plains
   and 35 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
   single grain; loose; common medium faint dark                     Soil Properties and Qualities
   yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
   accumulation and few fine distinct very dark brown
                                                         Parent material: Alluvium
   (10YR 2/2) masses of iron accumulation
   throughout; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
C3—28 to 41 inches; 55 percent pale brown (10YR          as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   6/3) and 40 percent brown (10YR 5/3) loamy            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   sand; single grain; loose; common medium distinct
   brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation                               Composition
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                         Sarpy and similar soils: 90 percent
C4—41 to 48 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam;
                                                         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   massive; very friable; few faint brown (10YR 5/3)
   sand coats in root channels and/or pores; many
                                                         Similar soils:
   medium distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                         • Soils that are stratified at the surface
   accumulation throughout and few fine distinct gray
                                                         • Soils that have more clay below a depth of 40 inches
   (10YR 5/1) iron depletions between peds; neutral;
                                                         than the Sarpy soil
   clear smooth boundary.
                                                         • Soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent
C5—48 to 59 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3)
                                                         • Zumbro soils, which have a darker surface soil than
   loamy sand; single grain; loose; many medium
                                                         that of the Sarpy soil
   distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
   accumulation throughout; neutral; clear smooth
                                                         Dissimilar soils:
   boundary.
                                                         • Soils that are not subject to flooding
C6—59 to 65 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3)
                                                         • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained
   loamy sand; single grain; loose; many medium
                                                         • Soils that have more clay throughout than the Sarpy
   distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                         soil
   accumulation throughout; neutral.
                                                                               Management
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                           For general and detailed information about
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 4 to 9 inches       managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                              Part II of this publication:
Ap or A horizon:                                         •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                     •   “Forestland” section
    Value—3 to 5                                         •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Chroma—1 to 3                                        •   “Engineering” section
    Texture—sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, fine      •   “Soil Properties” section
       sand, or fine sandy loam
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   121




Slacwater Series                                              masses of iron accumulation between peds;
                                                              slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                  boundary.
   superactive, calcareous, mesic Mollic Fluvaquents       Cg5—76 to 80 inches; stratified, 64 percent very dark
                                                              gray (2.5Y 3/1) and 35 percent dark grayish brown
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                              (2.5Y 4/2) silty clay loam; massive; very friable;
Slacwater silt loam, in an area of Blake-Slacwater silt       few prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
loams, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded, long        accumulation between peds; slightly effervescent;
duration, at an elevation of 470 feet; 120 feet east and      slightly alkaline.
50 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 15, T. 2
                                                               MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
S., R. 9 W.; USGS Quincy West, Illinois, topographic
quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 53 minutes 33 seconds N.       Depth to carbonates: Less than 10 inches
and long. 91 degrees 26 minutes 3 seconds W., NAD          Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
27:
                                                           AC, Ap, or A horizon:
AC—0 to 12 inches; stratified, 90 percent very dark            Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
   gray (2.5Y 3/1) and 5 percent grayish brown (2.5Y           Value—2 to 4
   5/2) silt loam, light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) dry;         Chroma—1 to 3
   weak medium platy structure parting to moderate             Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   fine granular; friable; few very fine roots; common
                                                           C or Cg horizon:
   prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                               Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   accumulation between peds; slightly effervescent;
                                                               Value—2 to 7
   slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Chroma—1 to 6
Cg1—12 to 25 inches; stratified, 89 percent very dark
                                                               Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
   gray (2.5Y 3/1) and 5 percent grayish brown (2.5Y
   5/2) silty clay loam; moderate medium platy
   structure parting to moderate very fine subangular
   blocky; friable; few very fine roots; very few faint    3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2
   black (10YR 2/1) organic coats in root channels            percent slopes, frequently flooded,
   and/or pores; common prominent brown (7.5YR                long duration
   4/3) masses of iron accumulation and few
                                                                                   Setting
   prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron
   accumulation between peds; slightly effervescent;       Landform: Blake—rises; Slacwater—flood plains
   slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.               Position on the landform: Blake—summits;
Cg2—25 to 35 inches; stratified, 94 percent very dark          Slacwater—low-lying areas
   gray (5Y 3/1) and 1 percent grayish brown (2.5Y         Type of landscape: Flood plains
   5/2) silty clay loam; weak medium platy structure
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
   parting to moderate very fine subangular blocky;
   friable; very few faint black (10YR 2/1) organic        Drainage class: Blake—somewhat poorly drained;
   coats in root channels and/or pores; common                 Slacwater—poorly drained
   prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron              Parent material: Alluvium
   accumulation between peds; slightly effervescent;
                                                              Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   slightly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Cg3—35 to 64 inches; stratified, 94 percent very dark
                                                           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   gray (5Y 3/1) and 1 percent grayish brown (2.5Y
   5/2) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular                            Composition
   blocky structure; friable; very few faint black (10YR
                                                           Blake and similar soils: 45 percent
   2/1) organic coats in root channels and/or pores;
                                                           Slacwater and similar soils: 45 percent
   common prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of
                                                           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   iron accumulation between peds; slightly
                                                           Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                               intermingled that mapping them separately was
   boundary.
                                                               not practical.
Cg4—64 to 76 inches; very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) silty
   clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky            Similar soils:
   structure; friable; few prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4)     • Raveenwash soils, which have a lighter colored
122                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




surface soil and have more sand and less clay                  brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats on faces of peds;
throughout the profile; in positions adjacent to the           slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
stream channel                                              C1—34 to 39 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
• Soils that are not stratified in the surface layer           sand; single grain; loose; 1 percent gravel; slightly
• Soils that are in the slightly higher positions and are      acid; clear smooth boundary.
subject to occasional flooding                              C2—39 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
• Soils that have more clay in the upper part                  sand; single grain; loose; 5 percent gravel; neutral.
• Soils that have more sand in the underlying material
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
• Soils that are moderately well drained
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 24 to 45 inches
• Soils that do not have carbonates
                                                            Slope range: 1 to 6 percent
                      Management
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
  For general and detailed information about                    Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
managing this map unit, see the following sections in           Value—2 or 3
Part II of this publication:                                    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                                Texture—loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand,
•   “Forestland” section
                                                                   or sand
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                                Content of rock fragments—0 to 10 percent
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               Bw horizon:
                                                               Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
                                                               Value—3 to 6
Sparta Series                                                  Chroma—3 to 6
                                                               Texture—loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand,
Taxonomic classification: Sandy, mixed, mesic Entic
                                                                  or sand
   Hapludolls
                                                               Content of rock fragments—0 to 10 percent
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                            C horizon:
Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent slopes, at an                Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
elevation of 487 feet; 1,510 feet north and 2,290 feet         Value—4 to 6
east of the southwest corner of sec. 21, T. 3 S., R. 8         Chroma—3 to 6
W.; USGS Marblehead, Illinois, topographic                     Texture—sand or fine sand
quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 47 minutes 28 seconds N.           Content of rock fragments—0 to 10 percent
and long. 91 degrees 19 minutes 55 seconds W., NAD
27:
Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loamy          88B—Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent
   sand, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak               slopes
   fine granular structure; very friable; common very                               Setting
   fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Landform: Ridges
A—9 to 18 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loamy
                                                            Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
   sand, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak
                                                            Type of landscape: Stream terraces
   fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak
   fine granular; very friable; common very fine roots;               Soil Properties and Qualities
   slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
AB—18 to 23 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) loamy
                                                            Parent material: Sandy outwash
   sand, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak fine subangular
   blocky structure parting to weak fine granular; very        Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   friable; common black (10YR 2/1) organic coats on        as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   faces of peds; slightly acid; clear smooth               Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   boundary.
                                                                                Composition
Bw—23 to 34 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand;
   weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to         Sparta and similar soils: 90 percent
   weak fine granular; very friable; few faint dark         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                 123




Similar soils:                                                 silt loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting
• Soils that have a lighter colored surface soil than          to moderate medium subangular blocky; friable;
that of the Sparta soil                                        common medium roots; common distinct brown
• Soils that have slopes of more than 5 percent                (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds and
                                                               common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
Dissimilar soils:
                                                               clay films in root channels and/or pores; few fine
• Soils that have more clay in the surface layer and
                                                               distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
subsoil than the Sparta soil
                                                               manganese accumulation throughout; moderately
                      Management                               acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                            Bt3—27 to 34 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
  For general and detailed information about
                                                               silt loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               weak medium subangular blocky; friable; few fine
Part II of this publication:
                                                               roots; few distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
•   “Agronomy” section                                         clay films lining pores and few distinct brown
•   “Forestland” section                                       (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; common
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                 fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletions
•   “Engineering” section                                      throughout; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
•   “Soil Properties” section                               Bt4—34 to 43 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                               loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to
                                                               weak medium subangular blocky; friable; few very
Stookey Series                                                 fine roots; few faint dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                               4/4) clay films in root channels and/or pores; few
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
   superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
                                                               iron accumulation and few fine faint pale brown
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                         (10YR 6/3) iron depletions throughout; moderately
                                                               acid; clear wavy boundary.
Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
                                                            Bt5—43 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
elevation of 595 feet; 2,100 feet south and 1,125 feet
                                                               loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
east of the northwest corner of sec. 6, T. 1 N., R. 8 W.;
                                                               very friable; few very fine roots; few faint dark
USGS Long Island, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of
lat. 40 degrees 6 minutes 10 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                               peds; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
degrees 22 minutes 32.6 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                               5/6) masses of iron accumulation and common
Ap—0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, light            fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletions
   yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) dry; moderate thin               throughout; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
   platy structure parting to weak fine granular;           BC1—48 to 56 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   friable; many fine and medium roots; slightly acid;         loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
   abrupt smooth boundary.                                     very friable; few very fine roots; common distinct
BE—7 to 10 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)             dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films lining
   silt loam; moderate fine subangular blocky                  pores; common fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3)
   structure; friable; many fine roots; few faint brown        iron depletions and few fine distinct yellowish
   (10YR 4/3) clay films lining pores and few distinct         brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron and manganese
   dark brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats on faces of             accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear
   peds; common fine distinct light brownish gray              wavy boundary.
   (10YR 6/2) clay depletions between peds; neutral;        BC2—56 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   clear smooth boundary.                                      loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
Bt1—10 to 18 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)           friable; common fine distinct yellowish brown
   silt loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting          (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   to moderate fine and medium subangular blocky;              throughout, common fine faint dark yellowish
   friable; many medium and common coarse roots;               brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
   few faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) clay              throughout, common fine faint light yellowish
   films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y       brown (10YR 6/4) masses of iron accumulation
   2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation              throughout, and common fine distinct black (2.5Y
   throughout; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.           2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation
Bt2—18 to 27 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)           throughout; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
124                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




C—65 to 84 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
  loam; massive; friable; common fine faint dark           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
  yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron
                                                                                 Composition
  accumulation throughout, common fine distinct
  yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron                Stookey and similar soils: 90 percent
  accumulation throughout, common fine faint light         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
  yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of iron
                                                           Similar soils:
  accumulation throughout, and few fine distinct
                                                           • Mannon soils, which have a darker surface layer
  black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
                                                           than that of the Stookey soil
  accumulation throughout; slightly acid.
                                                           • Winfield soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                 than the Stookey soil
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60          Dissimilar soils:
    inches                                                 • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained; in the less
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 40          sloping positions on the landform
    inches
                                                                                 Management
Slope range: 1 to 60 percent
                                                             For general and detailed information about
Ap or A horizon:
                                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR
                                                           Part II of this publication:
    Value—3 to 5
    Chroma—1 to 3                                          •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam or silt                              •   “Forestland” section
                                                           •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
E or BE horizon:
                                                           •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR
                                                           •   “Soil Properties” section
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—2 to 4
    Texture—silt loam or silt
                                                           216C2—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
Bt horizon:                                                   slopes, eroded
    Hue—5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR
    Value—4 to 6                                                                     Setting
    Chroma—3 to 6
                                                           Landform: Interfluves
    Texture—silt loam
                                                           Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
C horizon:                                                 Type of landscape: Uplands
   Hue—7.5YR or 10YR
                                                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
   Value—4 to 6
   Chroma—2 to 6                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   Texture—silt loam or silt                               Parent material: Loess
                                                           Special feature: The Stookey soil in this map unit has a
                                                               thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
216B—Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   slopes                                                     Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                           as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                       Setting
                                                           Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                                 Composition
Position on the landform: Summits and head slopes
Type of landscape: Uplands                                 Stookey and similar soils: 100 percent
          Soil Properties and Qualities                    Similar soils:
                                                           • Mannon soils, which have a darker surface layer
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           than that of the Stookey soil
Parent material: Loess
                                                           • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
  Additional information specific to this map unit, such   surface layer than the Stookey soil
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                125




• Timula soils, which have carbonates at a depth of 20   216D2—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18
to 40 inches                                                percent slopes, eroded
                      Management
                                                                                   Setting
  For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in    Landform: Interfluves
Part II of this publication:                             Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                         Type of landscape: Uplands
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                Drainage class: Well drained
•   “Soil Properties” section                            Parent material: Loess
                                                         Special feature: The Stookey soil in this map unit has
                                                             a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
216C3—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                     pedon.
   slopes, severely eroded                                  Additional information specific to this map unit,
                                                         such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
                          Setting
                                                         the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
Landform: Interfluves                                    publication.
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                                               Composition
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                         Stookey and similar soils: 90 percent
            Soil Properties and Qualities                Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                         Similar soils:
Parent material: Loess
                                                         • Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
Special feature: The Stookey soil in this map unit has
                                                         surface layer than the Stookey soil
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
                                                         • Timula soils, which have carbonates at a depth of 20
    pedon.
                                                         to 40 inches
   Additional information specific to this map unit,
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in      Dissimilar soils:
the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this         • Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than
publication.                                             the Stookey soil; in areas downslope from the Stookey
                      Composition                        soil
                                                         • Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20
Stookey and similar soils: 100 percent
                                                         inches
Similar soils:                                           • Soils that have more sand in the lower part of the
• Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the     subsoil than the Stookey soil; in areas downslope from
surface layer than the Stookey soil                      the Stookey soil
• Timula soils, which have carbonates at a depth of 20   • Wakeland soils on flood plains along
to 40 inches                                             drainageways
                      Management                                               Management
  For general and detailed information about               For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in    managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                             Part II of this publication:
•   “Agronomy” section                                   •   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section                                 •   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                           •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                •   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                            •   “Soil Properties” section
126                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




216D3—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18                           Position on the landform: Stookey—summits and head
   percent slopes, severely eroded                              slopes; Timula—shoulders and backslopes;
                                                                Orthents—cut and filled areas and borrow areas
                          Setting                           Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Special features: These soils occur in areas of urban
Landform: Interfluves
                                                                development in or near Quincy. They are used as
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                                sites for buildings, streets, sidewalks, and other
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                                structures.
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
Parent material: Loess
                                                            Parent material: Stookey and Timula—loess;
Special feature: The Stookey soil in this map unit has a
                                                                Orthents—silty material derived from former soil
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                                layers and silty underlying material
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                      Composition
                                                                                  Composition
Stookey and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Stookey and similar soils: 45 percent
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            Timula and similar soils: 25 percent
Similar soils:                                              Orthents and similar soils: 20 percent
• Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the        Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
surface layer than the Stookey soil                         Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately
• Timula soils, which have carbonates at a depth of 20          intermingled that mapping them separately was
to 40 inches                                                    not practical.
Dissimilar soils:                                           Similar soils:
• Keswick soils, which have more clay throughout than       • Mannon soils, which have a darker surface layer
the Stookey soil; in areas downslope from the Stookey       • Soils that have slopes of more than 7 percent
soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
• Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20
                                                            • Soils that are somewhat poorly drained
inches
• Soils that have more sand in the lower part of the
                                                                                  Management
subsoil than the Stookey soil; in areas downslope from
the Stookey soil                                              For general and detailed information about
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways         managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            Part II of this publication:
                      Management
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,
•   “Engineering” section                                      7 to 15 percent slopes
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                      Setting
                                                            Landform: Stookey and Timula—interfluves
816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,                       Position on the landform: Stookey—shoulders and
   1 to 7 percent slopes                                        backslopes; Timula—backslopes; Orthents—cut
                                                                and filled areas and borrow areas
                          Setting
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
Landform: Stookey and Timula—interfluves                    Special features: These soils occur in areas of urban
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     127




     development in or near Quincy. They are used as         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
     sites for buildings, streets, sidewalks, and other      Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
     structures.
                                                                                   Composition
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                             Stookey and Timula soils: 80 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                                 Dissimilar soils: 20 percent
Parent material: Stookey and Timula—loess;                   Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
    Orthents—silty material derived from former soil             either the Stookey or Timula soil, or it may consist
    layers and silty underlying material                         of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
                                                                 characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                 the survey area, and mapping them separately
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                 was not considered practical or necessary.
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                             Dissimilar soils:
                      Composition
                                                             • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
Stookey soil: 45 percent                                     • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
Timula soil: 25 percent                                      fragments throughout than the Stookey and Timula
Orthents: 20 percent                                         soils; in areas downslope from the Stookey and Timula
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                 soils
Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately              • Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments
    intermingled that mapping them separately was            throughout than the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas
    not practical.                                           downslope from the Stookey and Timula soils
                                                             • Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than
Dissimilar soils:
                                                             the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas downslope from
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                             the Stookey and Timula soils
• Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments
                                                             • Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20
throughout than the major soils; in areas downslope
                                                             inches
from the major soils
                                                             • Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock
• Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than
the major soils; in areas downslope from the major
                                                                                   Management
soils
                                                               For general and detailed information about
                      Management
                                                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
  For general and detailed information about                 Part II of this publication:
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                             •   “Forestland” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                             •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Forestland” section                                     •   “Engineering” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                               •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                             856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60
                                                                percent slopes
856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35
   percent slopes                                                                      Setting
                                                             Landform: Interfluves
                          Setting
                                                             Position on the landform: Backslopes
Landform: Interfluves                                        Type of landscape: Uplands
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                                         Soil Properties and Qualities
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                             Drainage class: Well drained
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                             Parent material: Loess
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                                Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Parent material: Loess
                                                             as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
128                                                                                                 Soil Survey of




                      Composition                             weak medium granular; firm; common very fine
                                                              roots throughout; neutral; abrupt smooth
Stookey and Timula soils: 80 percent
                                                              boundary.
Dissimilar soils: 20 percent
                                                           A—9 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
                                                              silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
    either the Stookey or Timula soil, or it may consist
                                                              moderate fine subangular blocky structure; firm;
    of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
                                                              few very fine roots throughout; few fine faint brown
    characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
                                                              (10YR 4/3) masses of iron accumulation
    the survey area, and mapping them separately
                                                              throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
    was not considered practical or necessary.
                                                           BA—14 to 19 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Dissimilar soils:                                             silty clay loam; weak fine prismatic structure
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways             parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
• Goss soils, which have more clay and rock                   firm; few very fine roots throughout; common
fragments throughout than the Stookey and Timula              distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
soils; in areas downslope from the Stookey and Timula         organic coats on faces of peds; common fine
soils                                                         distinct brown (7.5YR 4/3) masses of iron
• Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments            accumulation and few fine faint grayish brown
throughout than the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas        (10YR 5/2) iron depletions throughout; neutral;
downslope from the Stookey and Timula soils                   clear smooth boundary.
• Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than      Bw—19 to 35 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay
the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas downslope from         loam; weak medium prismatic structure parting to
the Stookey and Timula soils                                  moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few
• Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20       very fine roots throughout; common distinct very
inches                                                        dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organo-clay films
• Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock               on faces of peds; many medium distinct strong
                                                              brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
                      Management
                                                              and few fine distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron
  For general and detailed information about                  depletions throughout; moderately acid; clear
managing this map unit, see the following sections in         smooth boundary.
Part II of this publication:                               Bg1—35 to 44 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                              firm; few very fine roots; common distinct very
•   “Engineering” section
                                                              dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats on faces of
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                              peds; many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR
                                                              4/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout;
Tice Series                                                   moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                           Bg2—44 to 61 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,                  silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure;
   superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls                 firm; common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                              organic coats on faces of peds; common medium
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
                                                              prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of
               Series Description)
                                                              iron accumulation throughout; slightly acid; clear
Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,                  smooth boundary.
occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 470 feet; 1,670   Bg3—61 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
feet north and 990 feet west of the southeast corner of       silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure;
sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 9 W.; USGS Quincy West, Illinois,        firm; common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 52 minutes 56         organic coats on faces of peds; common medium
seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 25 minutes 7                  prominent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of
seconds W., NAD 27:                                           iron accumulation throughout; slightly acid.
Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                               MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
   weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to        Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     129




Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 30           Dissimilar soils:
    inches                                                  • The poorly drained Beaucoup soils in the lower
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                                 positions on the landform
Ap or A horizon:                                                                  Management
    Hue—10YR
                                                              For general and detailed information about
    Value—2 or 3
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Chroma—1 to 3
                                                            Part II of this publication:
    Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
Bw or Bg horizon:
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   Value—4 or 5
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
   Chroma—1 to 4
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
   Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
Cg or C horizon (if it occurs):
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                    Timewell Series
   Value—4 to 6
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
   Chroma—1 to 3
                                                               Aquic Argiudolls
   Texture—stratified silty clay loam, clay loam, loam,
      sandy loam, or silt loam                                    Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
                                                                           Series Description)
8284A—Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2                          Timewell silt loam, in an area of Timewell and Ipava
   percent slopes, occasionally flooded                     soils, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an elevation of 750 feet;
                                                            271 feet north and 1,808 feet east of the southwest
                        Setting                             corner of sec. 7, T. 1 S., R. 4 W.; USGS Kellerville,
                                                            Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 59
Landform: Rises
                                                            minutes 20 seconds N. and long. 90 degrees 54
Position on the landform: Summits
                                                            minutes 20 seconds W., NAD 27:
Type of landscape: Flood plains
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak fine
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                        granular structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral;
Parent material: Alluvium                                      abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                            A—8 to 12 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                               silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               medium platy structure parting to moderate fine
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               granular; friable; few fine roots; neutral; abrupt
                    Composition                                smooth boundary.
                                                            AE—12 to 18 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
Tice and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                               3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               moderate thin platy structure parting to weak fine
Similar soils:                                                 granular; friable; few fine roots; common fine
• Lawson soils, which have a thicker dark surface soil         distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) clay depletions
than that of the Tice soil                                     throughout, few fine prominent yellowish brown
• Riley soils, which have more sand throughout than            (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
the Tice soil                                                  throughout, and few fine distinct black (7.5YR 2/1)
• Soils that have less clay in the upper part than the         masses of iron and manganese accumulation
Tice soil                                                      throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
• Soils that have sand at the surface                          boundary.
• Wakeland soils, which have a light-colored surface        Bt1—18 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
layer and have less clay in the upper part than the Tice       clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky
soil                                                           structure; firm; few fine roots; many distinct very
130                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




    dark gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of       accumulation throughout, common fine prominent
    peds; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)       light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of iron
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine         accumulation throughout, and few fine prominent
    distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions        black (7.5YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
    throughout, and common fine distinct black (7.5YR        accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear
    2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation           smooth boundary.
    throughout; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.     BCtg—56 to 67 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Bt2—22 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty        silt loam; weak medium prismatic structure; friable;
    clay; weak medium prismatic structure parting to         few fine roots; few distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
    moderate fine subangular blocky; firm; few fine          clay films on faces of peds and few distinct very
    roots; many distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)           dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root
    organo-clay films on faces of peds; many fine            channels and/or pores; many fine distinct
    distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron       yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
    accumulation throughout, few fine distinct grayish       accumulation throughout, common fine distinct
    brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions throughout, and         light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of iron
    common fine distinct black (7.5YR 2/1) masses of         accumulation throughout, and few fine prominent
    iron and manganese accumulation throughout;              black (7.5YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
    strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.                    accumulation throughout; moderately acid; clear
Btg1—29 to 40 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty         smooth boundary.
    clay; moderate medium prismatic structure parting     Cg—67 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) silt loam;
    to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few          massive; friable; very few distinct very dark gray
    fine roots; many distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)      (10YR 3/1) organic coats in root channels and/or
    organo-clay films on faces of peds and in pores;         pores; many medium prominent yellowish brown
    common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)          (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and few
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, common           fine prominent black (7.5YR 2/1) masses of iron
    fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses           and manganese accumulation throughout; neutral.
    of iron accumulation throughout, and common fine
                                                              MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
    and medium prominent black (7.5YR 2/1) masses
    of iron and manganese accumulation throughout;        Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 21 inches
    moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.               Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
Btg2—40 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)          inches
    silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 45 to 70 inches
    structure parting to moderate medium subangular       Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
    blocky; firm; few fine roots; common distinct dark
                                                          Ap or A horizon:
    gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and
                                                              Hue—10YR
    common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                              Value—2 or 3
    organic coats in root channels and/or pores; many
                                                              Chroma—1 or 2
    medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                              Texture—silt loam
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
    medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)           E or AE horizon:
    masses of iron accumulation throughout, and               Hue—10YR
    common prominent fine and medium black (7.5YR             Value—3 or 4
    2/1) masses of iron and manganese accumulation            Chroma—1 or 2
    throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth                 Texture—silt loam
    boundary.
                                                          Bt or Btg horizon:
Btg3—48 to 56 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                              Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure
                                                              Value—4 to 6
    parting to weak medium subangular blocky;
                                                              Chroma—2 to 6
    friable; few fine roots; common distinct dark gray
                                                              Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or silt loam
    (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and few
    distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic coats in   C or Cg horizon:
    root channels and/or pores; few fine distinct             Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron                 Value—4 to 7
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    131




     Chroma—1 to 6                                          855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5
     Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                      percent slopes
                                                                                    Setting
855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2                       Landform: Ridges
   percent slopes                                           Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting
                                                                      Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Drainage divides
Position on the landform: Broad summits                     Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  Parent material: Loess
                                                            Special feature: The Ipava soil in this map unit has a
            Soil Properties and Qualities                       thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                        Additional information specific to this map unit, such
Parent material: Loess                                      as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil                        Composition
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Timewell and Ipava soils and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                      Composition
                                                            Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
Timewell and Ipava soils and similar soils: 90 percent          either the Timewell or Ipava soil, or it may consist
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                    of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of             characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
    either the Timewell or Ipava soil, or it may consist        the survey area, and mapping them separately
    of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral        was not considered practical or necessary.
    characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
                                                            Similar soils:
    the survey area, and mapping them separately
                                                            • Clarksdale soils, which have a thinner dark surface
    was not considered practical or necessary.
                                                            layer than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils
Similar soils:
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
• Clarksdale soils, which have a thinner dark surface
                                                            • The well drained Greenbush soils, which have a
layer than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils
                                                            thinner dark surface soil than that of the Timewell and
Dissimilar soils:                                           Ipava soils and have less clay in the subsoil; in the
• The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in      higher positions on the landform
the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in the       • Emery soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil
higher positions on the landform                            than that of the Timewell and Ipava soils and have less
• The poorly drained Rubio soils, which have a thinner      clay in the subsoil; in areas downslope from the
dark surface soil than that of the Timewell and Ipava       Timewell and Ipava soils
soils; in the slightly lower positions on the landform      • Keller soils, which have more clay in the lower part
• The poorly drained Virden soils in the lower positions    of the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in
on the landform                                             areas downslope from the Timewell and Ipava soils
                                                            • The well drained Osco soils, which have less clay in
                      Management
                                                            the subsoil than the Timewell and Ipava soils; in the
  For general and detailed information about                higher positions on the landform
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                                Management
Part II of this publication:
                                                              For general and detailed information about
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            Part II of this publication:
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               • “Agronomy” section
132                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




• “Wildlife Habitat” section                                   accumulation throughout, and common medium
• “Engineering” section                                        prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of
• “Soil Properties” section                                    iron accumulation throughout; the light brownish
                                                               gray matrix color and masses are relict
                                                               redoximorphic features; neutral; clear wavy
Timula Series                                                  boundary.
                                                            BC—17 to 22 inches; 50 percent yellowish brown
Taxonomic classification: Coarse-silty, mixed,
                                                               (10YR 5/6) and 40 percent light brownish gray
   superactive, mesic Typic Eutrudepts
                                                               (10YR 6/2) silt loam; weak coarse subangular
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                          blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots
                                                               throughout; common medium distinct yellowish
Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded, at
                                                               brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
an elevation of 585 feet; 2,500 feet west and 2,240 feet
                                                               throughout and few fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
south of the northeast corner of sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 9
                                                               masses of iron and manganese accumulation
W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois, topographic
                                                               lining root channels and/or pores; the light
quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 4 minutes 35 seconds N.
                                                               brownish gray matrix color and masses are relict
and long. 91 degrees 23 minutes 24 seconds W., NAD
                                                               redoximorphic features; slightly acid; clear wavy
27:
                                                               boundary.
Ap—0 to 5 inches; 90 percent brown (10YR 4/3) and           C1—22 to 39 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   10 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam,            silt loam; massive; very friable; few very fine roots
   brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) dry; moderate fine               throughout; few fine and medium distinct yellowish
   granular structure; friable; common fine roots              brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                 throughout, few fine and medium prominent
E—5 to 7 inches; 70 percent yellowish brown (10YR              yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
   5/4) and 29 percent light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)          accumulation throughout, few fine prominent
   silt loam, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; weak             strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron
   thin platy structure parting to weak fine                   accumulation throughout, few fine and medium
   subangular blocky; very friable; few fine roots             faint white (10YR 8/1) and medium faint pale
   throughout; few fine distinct yellowish brown               yellow (2.5Y 7/3) masses of carbonate throughout,
   (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation                      and few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
   throughout and few medium distinct black (2.5Y              iron and manganese accumulation throughout; the
   2/1) iron and manganese concretions lining root             light brownish gray matrix color and masses are
   channels and/or pores; the light brownish gray              relict redoximorphic features; slightly effervescent;
   matrix color and masses are relict redoximorphic            slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
   features; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                C2—39 to 84 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Bw1—7 to 10 inches; 75 percent yellowish brown                 silt loam; massive; very friable; common fine and
   (10YR 5/6) and 24 percent light brownish gray               medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
   (10YR 6/2) silt loam; weak medium subangular                masses of iron accumulation throughout, common
   blocky structure; very friable; few very fine and fine      fine and medium faint white (10YR 8/1) masses of
   roots throughout; few faint yellowish brown (10YR           carbonate throughout, and few fine distinct black
   5/4) clay films in root channels and/or pores; few          (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
   medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)                  accumulation throughout; the light brownish gray
   masses of iron and manganese accumulations                  matrix color and masses are relict redoximorphic
   and many medium prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)                  features; strongly effervescent; moderately
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                   alkaline.
   throughout; the light brownish gray matrix color
   and masses are relict redoximorphic features;                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
   neutral; clear wavy boundary.
                                                            Depth to carbonates: 18 to 36 inches
Bw2—10 to 17 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 18 to 36 inches
   silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                            Slope range: 1 to 60 percent
   very friable; few fine roots throughout; few fine
   distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) iron and manganese             Ap or A horizon:
   concretions throughout, common medium distinct               Hue—10YR
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron                    Value—3 or 4
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    133




    Chroma—2 or 3                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Texture—silt loam or silt                               Part II of this publication:
E horizon:                                                  •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR                                                •   “Forestland” section
    Value—4 or 5                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Chroma—2 to 4                                           •   “Engineering” section
    Texture—silt loam or silt                               •   “Soil Properties” section
Bw horizon:
   Hue—10YR                                                 271D2—Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent
   Value—4 to 6                                                slopes, eroded
   Chroma—2 to 6
   Texture—silt loam or silt                                                          Setting
C horizon:                                                  Landform: Interfluves
   Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                    Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
   Value—5 or 6                                             Type of landscape: Uplands
   Chroma—2 to 4
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
   Texture—silt loam or silt
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Loess
271C2—Timula silt loam, 5 to 10 percent
   slopes, eroded                                              Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                        Setting                             Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Landform: Interfluves                                                             Composition
Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
                                                            Timula and similar soils: 90 percent
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            Similar soils:
Drainage class: Well drained                                • Severely eroded soils that have less organic matter
Parent material: Loess                                      in the surface layer than the Timula soil
                                                            • Stookey soils, which do not have carbonates within a
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            depth of 60 inches and have more clay in the subsoil
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            than the Timula soil
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
                    Composition
                                                            • The moderately well drained Blyton and somewhat
Timula and similar soils: 100 percent                       poorly drained Wakeland soils on flood plains along
                                                            drainageways
Similar soils:
                                                            • Soils that have carbonates within a depth of 20
• Mannon soils, which have a darker surface layer
                                                            inches
than that of the Timula soil and have more clay in the
subsoil; in the higher, less sloping positions on the                             Management
landform
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• Severely eroded soils that have less organic matter
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
in the surface layer than the Timula soil
                                                            Part II of this publication:
• Stookey soils, which do not have carbonates within a
depth of 60 inches and have more clay in the subsoil        •   “Agronomy” section
than the Timula soil                                        •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                    Management
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Soil Properties” section
134                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,                          backslopes; Timula—backslopes; Orthents—cut
   1 to 7 percent slopes                                       and filled areas and borrow areas
                                                            Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting                           Special features: These soils occur in areas of urban
                                                               development in or near Quincy. They are used as
Landform: Stookey and Timula—interfluves
                                                               sites for buildings, streets, sidewalks, and other
Position on the landform: Stookey—summits and head
                                                               structures.
    slopes; Timula—shoulders and backslopes;
    Orthents—cut and filled areas and borrow areas                      Soil Properties and Qualities
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
Special features: These soils occur in areas of urban
                                                            Parent material: Stookey and Timula—loess;
    development in or near Quincy. They are used as
                                                                Orthents—silty material derived from former soil
    sites for buildings, streets, sidewalks, and other
                                                                layers and silty underlying material
    structures.
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Drainage class: Well drained                                Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Parent material: Stookey and Timula—loess;
                                                                                  Composition
    Orthents—silty material derived from former soil
    layers and silty underlying material                    Stookey soil: 45 percent
                                                            Timula soil: 25 percent
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Orthents: 20 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately mixed
                      Composition                               that mapping them separately was not practical.
Stookey and similar soils: 45 percent                       Dissimilar soils:
Timula and similar soils: 25 percent                        • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
Orthents and similar soils: 20 percent                      • Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                throughout than the major soils; in areas downslope
Note: These soils occur as areas so intricately mixed       from the major soils
    that mapping them separately was not practical.         • Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than
                                                            the major soils; in areas downslope from the major soils
Similar soils:
• Mannon soils, which have a darker surface layer                                 Management
• Soils that have slopes of more than 7 percent
                                                              For general and detailed information about
Dissimilar soils:                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
• Soils that are somewhat poorly drained                    Part II of this publication:
                      Management                            •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
Part II of this publication:
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35
•   “Engineering” section                                      percent slopes
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                      Setting
                                                            Landform: Interfluves
816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex,                       Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes
   7 to 15 percent slopes                                   Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Stookey and Timula—interfluves                    Drainage class: Well drained
Position on the landform: Stookey—shoulders and             Parent material: Loess
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   135




   Additional information specific to this map unit, such                         Composition
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Stookey and Timula soils and similar soils: 80 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 20 percent
                      Composition                           Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
                                                                either the Stookey or Timula soil, or it may consist
Stookey and Timula soils and similar soils: 80 percent
                                                                of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
Dissimilar soils: 20 percent
                                                                characteristics for present or anticipated uses in
Note: A single area of this map unit may consist of
                                                                the survey area, and mapping them separately
    either the Stookey or Timula soil, or it may consist
                                                                was not considered practical or necessary.
    of both soils. The two soils have similar behavioral
    characteristics for present or anticipated uses in      Dissimilar soils:
    the survey area, and mapping them separately            • Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
    was not considered practical or necessary.              • Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
                                                            fragments throughout than the Stookey and Timula
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            soils; in areas downslope from the Stookey and Timula
• Blyton soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                            soils
• Goss soils, which have more clay and rock
                                                            • Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments
fragments throughout than the Stookey and Timula
                                                            throughout than the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas
soils; in areas downslope from the Stookey and Timula
                                                            downslope from the Stookey and Timula soils
soils
                                                            • Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than
• Lacrescent soils, which have more rock fragments
                                                            the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas downslope from
throughout than the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas
                                                            the Stookey and Timula soils
downslope from the Stookey and Timula soils
                                                            • Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20
• Lindley soils, which have more sand throughout than
                                                            inches
the Stookey and Timula soils; in areas downslope from
                                                            • Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock
the Stookey and Timula soils
• Soils that have carbonates at a depth of less than 20                           Management
inches
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• Soils that have outcrops of limestone bedrock
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                      Management                            Part II of this publication:
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Forestland” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Part II of this publication:                                •   “Engineering” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   Titus Series
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                                                               Vertic Endoaquolls
856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60
   percent slopes                                                      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
                                                            Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
                          Setting
                                                            occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 470 feet; 2,650
Landform: Interfluves                                       feet west and 2,150 feet south of the northeast corner
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        of sec. 20, T. 2 N., R. 9 W.; USGS Lima, Illinois,
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 8 minutes 25
                                                            seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 27 minutes 55
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            seconds W., NAD 27:
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Parent material: Loess
                                                               silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry;
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      weak fine and medium subangular blocky
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       structure; very firm; few fine roots; neutral; clear
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            smooth boundary.
136                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




A—7 to 13 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay         Value—2 or 3
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak              Chroma—0 to 2
   medium subangular blocky structure; very firm;             Texture—silty clay loam or silty clay
   few fine roots; few fine dark prominent yellowish
                                                          Bg horizon:
   brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
                                                              Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Value—4 to 6
Bg1—13 to 25 inches; dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) silty clay;
                                                              Chroma—0 to 2
   weak fine prismatic structure; very firm; few fine
                                                              Texture—silty clay or silty clay loam
   roots; many distinct dark olive gray (5Y 3/2)
                                                              Content of rock fragments—0 to 2 percent
   organo-clay films on faces of peds; common fine
   prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)              Cg horizon:
   masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral;           Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   clear smooth boundary.                                     Value—4 to 6
Bg2—25 to 36 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;           Chroma—1 or 2
   weak medium prismatic structure; very firm; few            Texture—silty clay loam (strata of silt loam or loam
   very fine roots; many distinct gray (N 5/0) pressure         in some pedons)
   faces on faces of peds; common fine prominent              Content of gravel—0 to 15 percent
   brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
   and few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of
   iron accumulation throughout; neutral; clear           8404A—Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2
   smooth boundary.                                          percent slopes, occasionally flooded
Bg3—36 to 46 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;
                                                                                  Setting
   weak medium prismatic structure; very firm; few
   very fine roots; many distinct gray (N 5/0) pressure   Landform: Flood plains
   faces on faces of peds; common fine prominent          Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
   brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
                                                                    Soil Properties and Qualities
   and few fine prominent black (10YR 2/1) masses
   of iron accumulation throughout; neutral; clear        Drainage class: Poorly drained
   smooth boundary.                                       Parent material: Alluvium
Bg4—46 to 55 inches; dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) silty clay;
                                                             Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   weak fine prismatic structure; very firm; few very
                                                          as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   fine roots; many distinct gray (N 5/0) pressure
                                                          Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   faces on faces of peds; few fine prominent dark
   yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron                                  Composition
   accumulation throughout; neutral; clear smooth
                                                          Titus and similar soils: 90 percent
   boundary.
                                                          Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
BCg—55 to 68 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay
   loam; massive; very firm; few fine dark yellowish      Similar soils:
   brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation           • Beaucoup soils, which have less clay in the upper
   throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.            part than the Titus soil
Cg—68 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay         • Soils that have a thicker dark surface soil than that
   loam; massive; very firm; many fine prominent          of the Titus soil
   brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation          • Soils that have more clay in the upper part than the
   and few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) masses of       Titus soil
   iron accumulation throughout; neutral.
                                                          Dissimilar soils:
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                • The somewhat poorly drained Dupo soils, which
                                                          have a light-colored surface soil and have more clay in
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
                                                          the lower part than the Titus soil; in the higher
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 35 to 70 inches
                                                          positions on the landform
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                          • The somewhat poorly drained Tice soils, which have
Ap or A horizon:                                          less clay in the upper part than the Titus soil; in the
    Hue—10YR, 5Y, or N                                    higher positions on the landform
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  137




                      Management                          Btg1—26 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                              silt loam; moderate fine prismatic structure parting
  For general and detailed information about
                                                              to weak fine subangular blocky; friable; few very
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                              fine roots; common distinct dark gray (2.5Y 4/1)
Part II of this publication:
                                                              clay films and common prominent light gray (10YR
•   “Agronomy” section                                        7/1) silt coats on faces of peds; many fine and
•   “Forestland” section                                      medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                masses of iron accumulation and common fine
•   “Engineering” section                                     distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
•   “Soil Properties” section                                 manganese accumulation throughout; moderately
                                                              acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                          Btg2—32 to 38 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Twomile Series                                                silt loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to
                                                              weak medium subangular blocky; friable; few very
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active,
                                                              fine roots; krotovinas; common distinct dark gray
   mesic Typic Albaqualfs
                                                              (2.5Y 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and in pores
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                        and few prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats
                                                              on faces of peds; many fine and medium distinct
Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally
                                                              dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron
flooded, at an elevation of 660 feet; 977 feet west and
                                                              accumulation and common fine distinct black
530 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 27, T. 1
                                                              (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
S., R. 8 W.; USGS Quincy East, Illinois, topographic
                                                              accumulation throughout; very strongly acid; clear
quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 57 minutes 44.1 seconds
                                                              wavy boundary.
N. and long. 91 degrees 18 minutes 13.7 seconds W.,
                                                          Btg3—38 to 51 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
NAD 27:
                                                              silt loam; weak fine prismatic structure parting to
Ap—0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt          weak medium subangular blocky; friable; few very
   loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak fine              fine roots; few distinct dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) clay
   granular structure; friable; many fine and medium          films on faces of peds and in pores and few
   roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                     prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats on faces
A—7 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt          of peds; many fine and medium distinct dark
   loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; moderate thin          yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) masses of iron
   platy structure parting to moderate fine granular;         accumulation throughout, many fine and medium
   friable; common fine and medium roots; few fine            distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
   faint brown (10YR 5/3) clay depletions between             accumulation throughout, and common fine
   peds; neutral; clear wavy boundary.                        distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
Eg1—10 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt            manganese accumulation throughout; moderately
   loam, light gray (10YR 7/2) dry; moderate thin             acid; clear wavy boundary.
   platy structure; friable; common fine roots;           Btg4—51 to 58 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt
   common fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR            loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
   4/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout,               friable; few distinct dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) clay films
   common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)            and few prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) silt coats
   masses of iron accumulation throughout, and few            on faces of peds; many fine and medium distinct
   fine faint light gray (10YR 7/2) clay depletions           dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) masses of iron
   between peds; neutral; clear wavy boundary.                accumulation throughout, many fine and medium
Eg2—15 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)           distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
   silt loam, light gray (10YR 7/1) dry; moderate             accumulation throughout, and common fine
   medium platy structure; friable; few fine roots;           distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and
   many fine and medium distinct dark yellowish               manganese accumulation throughout; moderately
   brown (10YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation               acid; clear wavy boundary.
   throughout, common fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)      BCg—58 to 80 inches; dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) silt loam;
   masses of iron and manganese accumulation                  weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
   throughout, and few fine faint light gray (10YR 7/1)       common distinct dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) clay films
   clay depletions between peds; moderately acid;             lining pores and many prominent light gray (10YR
   clear wavy boundary.                                       7/1) silt coats on faces of peds; many fine and
138                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




      medium prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR           Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
      3/6) masses of iron accumulation throughout,
                                                            Similar soils:
      many fine and medium prominent yellowish brown
                                                            • Soils that are subject to frequent flooding
      (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation
                                                            • Soils in which the subsurface layer is not brittle
      throughout, and common fine faint black (2.5Y 2/1)
                                                            • Soils that have more clay in the subsoil than the
      masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                            Twomile soil
      throughout; strongly acid.
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils, which
Combined thickness of the A and E horizons: 24 to 36        have less clay in the upper part than the Twomile soil;
    inches                                                  in the lower positions on flood plains
Depth to 2B or 2C horizon: More than 40 inches
                                                                                  Management
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                              For general and detailed information about
Ap or A horizon:
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Hue—10YR
                                                            Part II of this publication:
    Value—4 or 5
    Chroma—1 to 3                                           •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam                                       •   “Forestland” section
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
E or Eg horizon:
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
    Value—4 to 6
    Chroma—1 or 2
    Texture—silt loam or silt
                                                            Ursa Series
Btg horizon:
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                        Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
    Value—4 to 6                                               Chromic Vertic Hapludalfs
    Chroma—1 or 2
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official
                                                                           Series Description)
Cg or 2Cg horizon (if it occurs):
   Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                         Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 10 to 18 percent
   Value—5 or 6                                             slopes, eroded, at an elevation of 665 feet; 1,000 feet
   Chroma—1 or 2                                            east and 740 feet north of the southwest corner of sec.
   Texture—silt loam, loam, silty clay loam, or clay        6, T. 1 N., R. 4 W.; USGS Clayton, Illinois, topographic
       loam                                                 quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 5 minutes 34.3 seconds N.
                                                            and long. 90 degrees 54 minutes 34.3 seconds W.,
                                                            NAD 27:
8217A—Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   slopes, occasionally flooded                             Ap—0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam,
                                                                light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine
                        Setting                                 granular structure; friable; many fine and medium
                                                                roots throughout; few fine prominent strong brown
Landform: Flood plains, second bottoms
                                                                (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation lining
Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
                                                                root channels and pores; slightly acid; abrupt
            Soil Properties and Qualities                       smooth boundary.
                                                            Bt1—6 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty
Drainage class: Poorly drained
                                                                clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                                structure; friable; few fine roots throughout;
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such       common distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil        films and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt coats on
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.             faces of peds; few fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)
                                                                masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                     Composition
                                                                throughout; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Twomile and similar soils: 90 percent                       2Bt2—10 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                         139




    silty clay loam; moderate medium prismatic                 and pores and few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
    structure parting to moderate medium subangular            masses of iron and manganese accumulation on
    blocky; firm; few fine roots throughout; many              faces of peds and between pores; 1 percent fine
    prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay films on faces of         rounded quartz pebbles; slight effervescence on
    peds; common fine faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)           faces of peds; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
    masses of iron accumulation throughout; 5               2BCt1—56 to 74 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y
    percent fine gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy             6/4) clay loam; strong medium and coarse
    boundary.                                                  subangular blocky structure; very firm; many
2Bt3—15 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)               distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay films
    clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;             on faces of peds; many medium and coarse
    firm; few fine roots throughout; few prominent             distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of
    brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films in root channels              iron accumulation throughout and common fine
    and/or pores; common fine faint strong brown               to coarse distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron
    (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation and few            and manganese accumulation on faces of peds;
    fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and         5 percent fine gravel; neutral; clear wavy
    manganese accumulation throughout; 5 percent               boundary.
    fine gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.      2BCt2—74 to 90 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
2Bt4—22 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)               clay loam; strong coarse prismatic structure; very
    clay; weak coarse prismatic structure; very firm;          firm; many prominent light brownish gray (2.5Y
    few fine roots throughout; common distinct pale            6/2) clay films on faces of peds; many medium
    brown (10YR 6/3) clay films and common distinct            and coarse prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of
    brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few         iron and manganese accumulation on faces of
    fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of iron and         peds; about 5 percent fine gravel; neutral.
    manganese accumulation throughout; 5 percent
    fine gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth                   MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
    boundary.
                                                            Thickness of the loess: Less than 20 inches
2Bt5—28 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                            Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
    clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure; very
                                                                inches
    firm; few fine roots in cracks; common prominent
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 50
    light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay films in root
                                                                inches
    channels and/or pores; common fine faint strong
                                                            Slope range: 5 to 18 percent
    brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation
    and common fine prominent black (2.5Y 2/1)              Ap or A horizon:
    masses of iron and manganese accumulation                   Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
    throughout; neutral; clear wavy boundary.                   Value—4 or 5
2Btg1—35 to 46 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Chroma—2 to 4
    clay loam; moderate coarse prismatic structure;             Texture—silt loam, loam, silty clay loam, or clay
    very firm; few fine roots in cracks; many faint light          loam
    brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay films on faces of
                                                            Bt, 2Bt, or 2Btg horizon:
    peds; few fine and medium prominent yellowish
                                                                 Hue—7.5YR, 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation
                                                                 Value—4 to 6
    and few medium distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses
                                                                 Chroma—1 to 8
    of iron and manganese accumulation throughout;
                                                                 Texture—clay loam, clay, silty clay, or silty clay
    5 percent fine gravel; neutral; clear wavy
                                                                   loam
    boundary.
                                                                 Content of rock fragments—0 to 10 percent
2Btg2—46 to 56 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
    clay loam; moderate coarse prismatic structure          C or 2C horizon (if it occurs):
    parting to strong medium subangular blocky; very            Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    firm; few very fine roots in cracks; many faint light       Value—4 to 6
    brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay films on faces of             Chroma—1 to 6
    peds; few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)           Texture—clay loam, clay, silty clay, or loam
    masses of iron accumulation lining root channels            Content of rock fragments—2 to 10 percent
140                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




655C2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 5                     Type of landscape: Uplands
   to 10 percent slopes, eroded                                         Soil Properties and Qualities
                          Setting                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Special feature: The Ursa soil in this map unit has a
Position on the landform: Backslopes
                                                                thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
Type of landscape: Uplands
                                                               Additional information specific to this map unit, such
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
Drainage class: Well drained                                Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
                                                                                  Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            Ursa and similar soils: 90 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                            Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Similar soils:
                      Composition
                                                            • Hickory soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
Ursa and similar soils: 90 percent                          than the Ursa soil; in the more sloping positions on the
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                landform
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
Similar soils:
                                                            surface layer than the Ursa soil
• Hickory soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
than the Ursa soil; in the more sloping positions           Dissimilar soils:
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the          • The somewhat poorly drained Atlas soils
surface layer than the Ursa soil                            • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            have less clay in the subsoil than the Ursa soil; in
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            areas upslope from the Ursa soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Atlas soils
                                                            • Fishhook soils, which have less clay in the upper
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
                                                            part of the subsoil than the Ursa soil
have less clay in the subsoil than the Ursa soil; in
                                                            • Soils that have more sand throughout than the Ursa
areas upslope from the Ursa soil
                                                            soil
• The poorly drained Coatsburg soils, which have a
                                                            • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
darker surface soil than that of the Ursa soil
• Fishhook soils, which have less clay in the upper                               Management
part of the subsoil than the Ursa soil
                                                              For general and detailed information about
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                      Management                            Part II of this publication:
  For general and detailed information about                •   “Agronomy” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in       •   “Forestland” section
Part II of this publication:                                •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Forestland” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               655D2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 10
                                                               to 18 percent slopes, eroded
                                                                                      Setting
655C3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately
   wet, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely                    Landform: Interfluves
                                                            Position on the landform: Backslopes
   eroded                                                   Type of landscape: Uplands
                          Setting
                                                                        Soil Properties and Qualities
Landform: Interfluves
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        Drainage class: Well drained
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   141




Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till                                  Composition
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such   Ursa and similar soils: 90 percent
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil    Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                            Similar soils:
                      Composition                           • Hickory soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            than the Ursa soil; in the more sloping positions on the
Ursa and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            landform
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                            • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
Similar soils:                                              surface layer than the Ursa soil
• Hickory soils, which have less clay in the subsoil
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
than the Ursa soil; in the more sloping positions on the
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Atlas soils
landform
                                                            • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the
                                                            have less clay in the subsoil than the Ursa soil; in
surface layer than the Ursa soil
                                                            areas upslope from the Ursa soil
Dissimilar soils:                                           • Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
• The somewhat poorly drained Atlas soils                   in areas downslope from the Ursa soil
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which           • Soils that have more sand throughout than the Ursa
have less clay in the subsoil than the Ursa soil; in        soil
areas upslope from the Ursa soil                            • Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways
• Marseilles soils, which have shale in the lower part;
                                                                                  Management
in areas downslope from the Ursa soil
• Wakeland soils on flood plains along drainageways           For general and detailed information about
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                      Management
                                                            Part II of this publication:
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                            •   “Forestland” section
Part II of this publication:
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Agronomy” section                                      •   “Engineering” section
•   “Forestland” section                                    •   “Soil Properties” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section
•   “Soil Properties” section                               Vesser Series
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
655D3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately                         superactive, mesic Argiaquic Argialbolls
   wet, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely                              Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
   eroded                                                   Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally
                          Setting
                                                            flooded, at an elevation of 480 feet; 360 feet west and
Landform: Interfluves                                       220 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 1
Position on the landform: Backslopes                        N., R. 9 W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois, topographic
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 6 minutes 37 seconds N.
                                                            and long. 91 degrees 26 minutes 15 seconds W., NAD
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                            27:
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Ap—0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
Parent material: Paleosol formed in glacial till
                                                               gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine granular structure;
Special feature: The Ursa soil in this map unit has a
                                                               friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
    thinner surface layer than that in the typical pedon.
                                                            A—8 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam,
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such      gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak fine subangular blocky
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil       structure parting to weak medium granular; friable;
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.            common fine distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/4)
142                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




    masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral;           MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
    gradual smooth boundary.
                                                           Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 20 inches
Eg1—14 to 20 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam,
                                                           Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 60
    gray (10YR 6/1) dry; weak medium platy structure
                                                               inches
    parting to weak very fine subangular blocky;
                                                           Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 45
    friable; very few distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                               inches
    organic coats on faces of peds; common medium
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
    faint gray (10YR 5/1) clay depletions between
    peds and common fine distinct dark brown (7.5YR        Ap or A horizon:
    3/4) masses of iron accumulation throughout;               Hue—10YR
    slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.                      Value—2 or 3
Eg2—20 to 26 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam,           Chroma—1 or 2
    gray (10YR 6/1) dry; weak thick platy structure            Texture—silt loam
    parting to weak very fine subangular blocky;
                                                           E or Eg horizon:
    friable; very few distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
                                                               Hue—10YR
    organic coats on faces of peds; common medium
                                                               Value—3 to 5
    faint gray (10YR 6/1) clay depletions between
                                                               Chroma—1 or 2
    peds and common fine distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4)
                                                               Texture—silt loam
    masses of iron accumulation throughout; slightly
    acid; gradual smooth boundary.                         Btg horizon:
Btg1—26 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay loam;         Hue—10YR or 2.5Y
    weak medium prismatic structure; friable; very few         Value—3 to 5
    distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay             Chroma—1 or 2
    films on faces of peds and few distinct gray (10YR         Texture—silty clay loam
    6/1) silt coats in root channels and/or pores;
    common medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/4)
    masses of iron accumulation throughout;                3396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
    moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.                 slopes, frequently flooded
Btg2—34 to 48 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay loam;
    weak medium prismatic structure; firm; very few                                Setting
    distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organo-clay
                                                           Landform: Flood plains
    films on faces of peds and very few distinct light
                                                           Position on the landform: Low-lying areas
    brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats in root
    channels and/or pores; common medium distinct                    Soil Properties and Qualities
    dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) masses of iron
                                                           Drainage class: Poorly drained
    accumulation throughout; moderately acid; gradual
                                                           Parent material: Alluvium
    smooth boundary.
Btg3—48 to 58 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay loam;        Additional information specific to this map unit, such
    weak medium prismatic structure; firm; few distinct    as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
    light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt coats in root      Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
    channels and/or pores and very few distinct very
                                                                                Composition
    dark gray (10YR 3/1) clay films on faces of peds;
    common medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/4)          Vesser and similar soils: 90 percent
    masses of iron accumulation throughout; slightly       Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
    acid; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Similar soils:
BCg—58 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay loam;
                                                           • Soils that do not have a gray subsurface layer
    weak coarse prismatic structure; firm; very few
                                                           • Soils that have a light-colored surface soil
    distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of
                                                           • Twomile soils, which have a light-colored surface
    peds and very few distinct light brownish gray
                                                           soil; in the slightly higher positions on the landform
    (10YR 6/2) silt coats in root channels and/or
    pores; common medium distinct dark brown               Dissimilar soils:
    (7.5YR 3/4) masses of iron accumulation                • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils, which
    throughout; slightly acid.                             have a light-colored surface soil and have less clay
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  143




throughout than the Vesser soil; in the slightly higher     Virden Series
positions on the landform
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Fine, smectitic, mesic
                      Management
                                                               Vertic Argiaquolls
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official Series
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                            Description)
Part II of this publication:
                                                            Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, at an
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                            elevation of 699 feet; 140 feet west and 54 feet north
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                            of the southeast corner of sec. 3, T. 2 N., R. 6 W.;
•   “Engineering” section
                                                            USGS Bowen, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 40
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                            degrees 10 minutes 52 seconds N. and long. 91
                                                            degrees 4 minutes 5 seconds W., NAD 27:
8396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                      Ap—0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam,
   slopes, occasionally flooded                                 dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate medium
                                                                granular structure; firm; slightly alkaline; abrupt
                          Setting
                                                                smooth boundary.
Landform: Flood plains                                      A—8 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam,
Position on the landform: Low-lying areas                       dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate fine granular
                                                                structure; firm; moderately acid; clear smooth
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                                boundary.
Drainage class: Poorly drained                              Btg1—16 to 23 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty
Parent material: Alluvium                                       clay, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; strong fine
                                                                angular blocky structure; firm; few faint black
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                                (10YR 2/1) clay films on faces of peds; few fine
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                                faint black (10YR 2/1) iron and manganese
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                                concretions throughout; slightly acid; clear smooth
                      Composition                               boundary.
                                                            Btg2—23 to 34 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
Vesser and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                                moderate medium angular blocky; firm; few distinct
Similar soils:                                                  dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds;
• Beaucoup soils, which do not have a gray                      many medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
subsurface layer                                                6/6) masses of iron accumulation and few fine
• Soils that have less clay in the upper part of the            prominent black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and
subsoil than the Vesser soil                                    manganese accumulation throughout; slightly acid;
• Soils that have a light-colored surface soil                  clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Btg3—34 to 42 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
Dissimilar soils:
                                                                weak and moderate coarse prismatic structure
• The somewhat poorly drained Tice soils, which do
                                                                parting to moderate coarse angular blocky; firm;
not have a gray subsurface layer; in the slightly higher
                                                                few distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) clay films on faces
positions on the landform
                                                                of peds; common medium prominent light olive
• The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils, which
                                                                brown (2.5Y 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and
have a light-colored surface soil; in the slightly higher
                                                                few fine prominent black (10YR 2/1) masses of
positions on the landform
                                                                iron and manganese accumulation throughout;
                      Management                                neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Btg4—42 to 49 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
  For general and detailed information about
                                                                moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                                weak coarse angular blocky; firm; very few distinct
Part II of this publication:
                                                                dark gray (N 4/0) clay films on faces of peds;
•   “Agronomy” section                                          many medium distinct olive brown (2.5Y 4/4)
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                                  masses of iron accumulation throughout; neutral;
•   “Engineering” section                                       gradual smooth boundary.
•   “Soil Properties” section                               BCg—49 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam;
144                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




      massive; firm; common medium distinct olive           • Soils that have a dark surface soil more than 24
      brown (2.5Y 4/4) masses of iron accumulation          inches thick
      throughout; neutral.
                                                            Dissimilar soils:
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics                  • The somewhat poorly drained Timewell and Ipava
                                                            soils in the slightly higher positions on the landform
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 24 inches
Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 50                                 Management
    inches
                                                              For general and detailed information about
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 40 to 60 inches
                                                            managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent
                                                            Part II of this publication:
Ap or A horizon:
                                                            •   “Agronomy” section
    Hue—10YR
                                                            •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Value—2 or 3
                                                            •   “Engineering” section
    Chroma—1 or 2
                                                            •   “Soil Properties” section
    Texture—silty clay loam
Btg horizon:
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N                                Wakeland Series
    Value—2 to 6
    Chroma—0 to 4                                           Taxonomic classification: Coarse-silty, mixed,
    Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, or silt loam          superactive, nonacid, mesic Aeric Fluvaquents
Cg horizon:                                                            Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
    Hue—10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or N
                                                            Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently
    Value—4 to 6
                                                            flooded, at an elevation of 645 feet; 1,240 feet east
    Chroma—0 to 4
                                                            and 840 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 5, T.
    Texture—silty clay loam or silt loam
                                                            1 S., R. 6 W.; USGS Camp Point, Illinois, topographic
                                                            quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 0 minutes 28 seconds N.
50A—Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2                          and long. 91 degrees 7 minutes 11 seconds W., NAD
   percent slopes                                           27:
                                                            Ap—0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
                        Setting
                                                               loam, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; weak fine
Landform: Drainage divides                                     granular structure; friable; common fine roots;
Position on the landform: Low-lying areas                      moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Type of landscape: Uplands                                  A—6 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, very
                                                               pale brown (10YR 7/3) dry; weak fine granular
           Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               structure; friable; few fine roots; common fine
Drainage class: Poorly drained                                 distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron
Parent material: Loess                                         accumulation throughout, common fine distinct
                                                               black (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                               accumulation throughout, and common fine faint
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               throughout; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
                     Composition                               boundary.
                                                            Cg1—10 to 21 inches; stratified, 88 percent dark
Virden and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and 2 percent light
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; weak fine
Similar soils:                                                 granular structure; friable; few very fine roots;
• Rubio soils, which have a thinner dark surface layer         common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
than that of the Virden soil and have a gray subsurface        masses of iron accumulation and common fine
layer                                                          faint gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout;
• Other soils that have a gray subsurface layer                slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
• Soils that have more clay in the surface layer than       Cg2—21 to 35 inches; stratified, 88 percent dark
the Virden soil                                                grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and 2 percent grayish
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                145




   brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; weak very fine          Parent material: Alluvium
   granular structure; friable; common fine and
                                                          Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
                                                       as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   masses of iron accumulation and common fine
                                                       Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   faint gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout;
   slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.                                   Composition
Cg3—35 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
                                                       Wakeland and similar soils: 90 percent
   massive; friable; common fine and medium
                                                       Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
   iron accumulation throughout, few fine distinct     Similar soils:
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron           • Lawson soils, which have a darker surface soil than
   accumulation throughout, and common fine faint      that of the Wakeland soil
   gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout;         • Soils that have a buried soil at a depth of 20 to 40
   moderately acid; gradual smooth boundary.           inches
Cg4—50 to 65 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
                                                       Dissimilar soils:
   massive; friable; common fine and medium
                                                       • The moderately well drained Blyton soils in the
   prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of
                                                       slightly higher positions on the landform
   iron accumulation and common fine faint gray
                                                       • The well drained Drury soils, which have more clay
   (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout; moderately
                                                       in the upper part of the surface soil than the Wakeland
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                       soil; in the higher positions on footslopes
Cg5—65 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
                                                       • The well drained Haymond soils in the slightly higher
   massive; friable; common fine and medium distinct
                                                       positions on the landform
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron
                                                       • Poorly drained soils in the slightly lower positions on
   accumulation throughout, few fine prominent
                                                       the landform
   yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
                                                       • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
   accumulation throughout, and common fine faint
                                                       Wakeland soil
   gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions throughout;
                                                       • The poorly drained Twomile soils, which have more
   slightly acid.
                                                       clay in the upper part than the Wakeland soil; in the
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics               slightly higher positions
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                                                  Management
Ap or A horizon:                                         For general and detailed information about
    Hue—10YR                                           managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Value—3 to 5                                       Part II of this publication:
    Chroma—1 to 4
                                                       •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam
                                                       •   “Forestland” section
Cg or C horizon:                                       •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
   Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y                            •   “Engineering” section
   Value—4 to 7                                        •   “Soil Properties” section
   Chroma—1 to 6
   Texture—silt loam or loam
                                                       8333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
                                                          slopes, occasionally flooded
3333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent                                         Setting
   slopes, frequently flooded
                                                       Landform: Rises
                        Setting                        Position on the landform: Summits
                                                       Type of landscape: Flood plains
Landform: Rises
Position on the landform: Summits                                  Soil Properties and Qualities
Type of landscape: Flood plains
                                                       Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained
          Soil Properties and Qualities                Parent material: Alluvium
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained                    Additional information specific to this map unit, such
146                                                                                                 Soil Survey of




as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil      medium platy and moderate medium granular
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.           structure; friable; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           AB—12 to 16 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam,
                      Composition
                                                              brown (10YR 5/3) dry; moderate fine subangular
Wakeland and similar soils: 90 percent                        blocky structure; friable; common distinct very
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent                                  dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats on
                                                              faces of peds; slightly acid; clear smooth
Similar soils:
                                                              boundary.
• Lawson soils, which have a darker surface soil than
                                                           Bt1—16 to 21 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay
that of the Wakeland soil and have more clay in the
                                                              loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
upper part
                                                              friable; common distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3)
• Soils that have a buried soil at a depth of 20 to 40
                                                              organo-clay films on faces of peds and few distinct
inches
                                                              very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) organic coats
Dissimilar soils:                                             in root channels and/or pores; moderately acid;
• The poorly drained Beaucoup soils, which have a             clear smooth boundary.
darker surface soil than that of the Wakeland soil; in     Bt2—21 to 30 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
the lower positions on the landform                           silty clay loam; moderate fine and medium
• The moderately well drained Blyton soils in the             subangular blocky structure; firm; many distinct
slightly higher positions on the landform                     brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds;
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the               moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
Wakeland soil                                              Bt3—30 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
• Soils that are poorly drained                               clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                              structure; firm; many distinct brown (10YR 4/3)
                      Management
                                                              clay films on faces of peds; few fine faint brown
  For general and detailed information about                  (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
managing this map unit, see the following sections in         throughout; moderately acid; clear smooth
Part II of this publication:                                  boundary.
                                                           Bt4—40 to 53 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                              clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky
•   “Forestland” section
                                                              structure; friable; common distinct brown (10YR
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                              4/3) clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct
•   “Engineering” section
                                                              yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                              accumulation throughout, few fine faint brown
                                                              (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
                                                              throughout, and few fine distinct light brownish
Wakenda Series                                                gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions lining root
                                                              channels and/or pores; moderately acid; gradual
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                              smooth boundary.
   superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls
                                                           Bt5—53 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
           Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                        loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                              friable; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on
Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
                                                              faces of peds; few fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/4)
elevation of 690 feet; 1,070 feet south and 600 feet
                                                              masses of iron accumulation throughout, few fine
east of the northwest corner of sec. 21, T. 1 N., R. 8
                                                              distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron
W.; USGS Mendon, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                                                              accumulation throughout, and few fine distinct light
lat. 40 degrees 4 minutes 42.5 seconds N. and long.
                                                              brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions lining
91 degrees 20 minutes 10 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                              root channels and/or pores; moderately acid;
Ap—0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)          gradual smooth boundary.
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak           BC—62 to 76 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   medium platy structure parting to moderate fine            loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
   granular; friable; neutral; clear smooth boundary.         friable; few distinct brown (10YR 4/3) clay films in
A—7 to 12 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)          root channels and/or pores; few fine faint brown
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak              (7.5YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                147




  throughout, few fine distinct yellowish brown           Additional information specific to this map unit, such
  (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation               as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
  throughout, few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1)       Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
  masses of iron and manganese accumulation
                                                                             Composition
  throughout, and few fine distinct light brownish
  gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions lining root          Wakenda and similar soils: 90 percent
  channels and/or pores; slightly acid; clear smooth   Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
  boundary.
                                                       Similar soils:
C—76 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                       • Downsouth soils, which have a thinner dark surface
  loam; massive; friable; few brown (10YR 4/3) clay
                                                       layer than that of the Wakenda soil
  films in root channels and/or pores; common fine
  distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of iron     Dissimilar soils:
  accumulation throughout, few fine distinct black     • The somewhat poorly drained Edwardsville soils in
  (10YR 2/1) masses of iron and manganese              the slightly lower positions on the landform
  accumulation throughout, and common fine
                                                                             Management
  distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron
  depletions lining root channels and/or pores;          For general and detailed information about
  slightly acid.                                       managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                       Part II of this publication:
    MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                       •   “Agronomy” section
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 12 to 24 inches
                                                       •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: More than 40
                                                       •   “Engineering” section
    inches
                                                       •   “Soil Properties” section
Slope range: 2 to 5 percent
Ap or A horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                           Winfield Series
    Value—2 or 3
                                                       Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
    Chroma—1 to 3
                                                          superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
    Texture—silt loam
                                                                  Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
Bt horizon:
    Hue—10YR                                           Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an
    Value—3 to 5                                       elevation of 810 feet; 3,300 feet west and 330 feet
    Chroma—2 to 4                                      north of the southeast corner of sec. 15, T. 5 S., R. 4
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam               W.; USGS Pittsfield, Illinois, topographic quadrangle;
                                                       lat. 39 degrees 37 minutes 17 seconds N. and long. 90
C horizon:
                                                       degrees 50 minutes and 56 seconds W., NAD 27:
   Hue—10YR
   Value—4 or 5                                        Ap—0 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale
   Chroma—2 to 4                                          brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak fine and medium
   Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                   subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
                                                          roots throughout; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                       BE—8 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;
441B—Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                    moderate fine and medium subangular blocky
   slopes                                                 structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; neutral;
                                                          clear smooth boundary.
                        Setting
                                                       Bt1—13 to 21 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
Landform: Ridges                                          silty clay loam; moderate fine and medium
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders           subangular blocky structure; firm; few very fine
Type of landscape: Uplands                                roots throughout; few faint brown (10YR 4/3) clay
                                                          films and common distinct light gray (10YR 7/2)
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                          silt coats on faces of peds; moderately acid;
Drainage class: Well drained                              gradual smooth boundary.
Parent material: Loess                                 Bt2—21 to 33 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
148                                                                                                Soil Survey of




   silty clay loam; weak medium prismatic structure;          Chroma—1 to 4
   firm; few very fine roots throughout; few faint            Texture—silt loam
   brown (10YR 4/3) clay films on faces of peds; few
   fine faint brown (10YR 5/3) iron depletions and few
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) masses of              477B—Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent
   manganese accumulation throughout; strongly              slopes
   acid; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                                                   Setting
Bt3—33 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;        Landform: Interfluves
   friable; few very fine roots throughout; few faint    Position on the landform: Summits
   dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on         Type of landscape: Uplands
   faces of peds; few fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1)
                                                                     Soil Properties and Qualities
   manganese concretions and common medium
   faint brown (10YR 5/3) iron depletions throughout;    Drainage class: Moderately well drained
   strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.               Parent material: Loess
Bt4—44 to 55 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt
                                                            Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                         as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
   friable; very few faint dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                         Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct
   black (2.5Y 2/1) manganese concretions and                                  Composition
   common medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y
                                                         Winfield and similar soils: 90 percent
   6/2) iron depletions throughout; moderately acid;
                                                         Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
   gradual smooth boundary.
C—55 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt       Similar soils:
   loam; massive; friable; few medium distinct light     • Downsouth soils, which have a darker surface layer
   brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and few      than that of the Winfield soil
   fine distinct black (2.5Y 2/1) manganese              • The well drained Menfro soils
   concretions throughout; moderately acid.              • Soils on terraces
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics               Dissimilar soils:
                                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Bethalto soils, which
Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 25 to 65 inches
                                                         have a darker surface layer than that of the Winfield
Slope range: 2 to 10 percent
                                                         soil; in the slightly lower positions on the landform
Ap or A horizon:                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
    Hue—10YR                                             have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
    Value—3 to 5                                         the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the Winfield
    Chroma—2 or 3                                        soil
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                 • The somewhat poorly drained Caseyville soils in the
                                                         slightly lower positions on the landform
E horizon (if it occurs):
                                                         • The somewhat poorly drained Keomah soils, which
    Hue—10YR
                                                         have more clay in the subsoil than the Winfield soil; in
    Value—4 to 6
                                                         the slightly lower positions on the landform
    Chroma—2 to 4
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam                                       Management
Bt or Btg horizon:                                         For general and detailed information about
    Hue—10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
    Value—4 to 6                                         Part II of this publication:
    Chroma—1 to 6
                                                         •   “Agronomy” section
    Texture—silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                         •   “Forestland” section
C or Cg horizon:                                         •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
    Hue—10YR or 2.5Y                                     •   “Engineering” section
    Value—4 to 6                                         •   “Soil Properties” section
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  149




477C2—Winfield silt loam, 5 to 10 percent                 • “Engineering” section
   slopes, eroded                                         • “Soil Properties” section

                        Setting
                                                          477C3—Winfield silty clay loam, 5 to 10
Landform: Interfluves                                        percent slopes, severely eroded
Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
Type of landscape: Uplands                                                        Setting
                                                          Landform: Interfluves
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                          Position on the landform: Summits and shoulders
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                   Type of landscape: Uplands
Parent material: Loess
                                                                    Soil Properties and Qualities
Special feature: The Winfield soil in this map unit has
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical      Drainage class: Moderately well drained
    pedon.                                                Parent material: Loess
                                                          Special feature: The Winfield soil in this map unit has
   Additional information specific to this map unit,
                                                              a thinner surface layer than that in the typical
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
                                                              pedon.
the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
publication.                                                 Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                          as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                    Composition
                                                          Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
Winfield and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                                              Composition
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                          Winfield and similar soils: 90 percent
Similar soils:
                                                          Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
• Downsouth soils, which have a darker surface layer
than that of the Winfield soil                            Similar soils:
• The well drained Menfro soils                           • The well drained Menfro soils
• Severely eroded soils that have more clay in the        • Moderately eroded soils that have less clay in the
surface layer than the Winfield soil                      surface layer than the Winfield soil
• Soils on terraces                                       • Soils on terraces
Dissimilar soils:                                         Dissimilar soils:
• The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which         • The somewhat poorly drained Bunkum soils, which
have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than      have more sand in the lower part of the subsoil than
the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the Winfield   the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the Winfield
soil                                                      soil
• El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil      • El Dara soils, which have more sand in the subsoil
than the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the       than the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the
Winfield soil                                             Winfield soil
• Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil      • Keswick soils, which have more clay in the subsoil
than the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the       than the Winfield soil; in areas downslope from the
Winfield soil                                             Winfield soil
                    Management                                                Management
  For general and detailed information about                For general and detailed information about
managing this map unit, see the following sections in     managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Part II of this publication:                              Part II of this publication:
• “Agronomy” section                                      • “Agronomy” section
• “Forestland” section                                    • “Forestland” section
• “Wildlife Habitat” section                              • “Wildlife Habitat” section
150                                                                                                     Soil Survey of




• “Engineering” section                                      AC, Ap, or A horizon:
• “Soil Properties” section                                      Hue—10YR
                                                                 Value—2 to 5
                                                                 Chroma—2 to 4
Wirt Series                                                      Texture—silt loam, loam, fine sandy loam, or very
                                                                   fine sandy loam
Taxonomic classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed,
   superactive, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts           C horizon:
Taxadjunct features: The Wirt soils in this survey              Hue—10YR
   area do not have the degree of development that              Value—3 to 5
   is defined as the range for the series. This                 Chroma—2 to 6
   difference, however, does not significantly affect           Texture—silt loam, loam, fine sandy loam, sandy
   the use and management of the soils. These soils                 loam, loamy fine sand, loamy sand, or sand
   are classified as coarse-loamy, mixed,                       Content of rock fragments—0 to 35 percent
   superactive, nonacid, mesic Typic Udifluvents.
          Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C                        3226A—Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently               slopes, frequently flooded
flooded, at an elevation of 595 feet; 2,500 feet west
                                                                                     Setting
and 600 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 9, T.
3 S., R. 7 W.; USGS Payson, Illinois, topographic            Landform: Rises
quadrangle; lat. 47 degrees 31 minutes 31.5 seconds          Position on the landform: Summits
N. and long. 91 degrees 12 minutes 20 seconds W.,            Type of landscape: Flood plains
NAD 27:
                                                                       Soil Properties and Qualities
AC—0 to 6 inches; stratified, 95 percent dark grayish
                                                             Drainage class: Well drained
   brown (10YR 4/2) and 5 percent yellowish brown
                                                             Parent material: Alluvium
   (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate fine granular
   structure; friable; few very fine roots; neutral; clear      Additional information specific to this map unit, such
   smooth boundary.                                          as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
C1—6 to 12 inches; stratified, 60 percent brown (10YR        Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
   4/3) and 40 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                                                 Composition
   silt loam and loamy sand; moderate medium
   granular structure; very friable; neutral; clear          Wirt and similar soils: 90 percent
   smooth boundary.                                          Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
C2—12 to 19 inches; stratified, 30 percent brown
                                                             Similar soils:
   (10YR 5/3) and 70 percent yellowish brown (10YR
                                                             • The moderately well drained Blyton soils, which
   5/4) sandy loam and sand; weak fine subangular
                                                             have less sand throughout than the Wirt soil; in
   blocky structure; very friable; very few faint dark
                                                             positions on the landform similar to those of the Wirt
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) organic coats in root
                                                             soil
   channels and/or pores; neutral; clear smooth
                                                             • Haymond soils, which have less sand throughout
   boundary.
                                                             than the Wirt soil; in positions on the landform similar
C3—19 to 40 inches; stratified, 65 percent brown
                                                             to those of the Wirt soil
   (10YR 4/3), and 30 percent brown (10YR 5/3),
   and 5 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt             Dissimilar soils:
   loam and sand; weak medium subangular blocky              • Soils that have more sand throughout than the Wirt
   structure; very friable; very few faint dark grayish      soil
   brown (10YR 4/2) organic coats in root channels           • The somewhat poorly drained Wakeland soils, which
   and/or pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.             have less sand throughout than the Wirt soil; in
C4—40 to 60 inches; stratified, 20 percent brown             positions on the landform similar to those of the Wirt
   (10YR 4/3) and 80 percent brown (10YR 5/3) silt           soil
   loam and sand; massive; very friable; neutral.                                Management
                                                               For general and detailed information about
      MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
                                                             managing this map unit, see the following sections in
Slope range: 0 to 2 percent                                  Part II of this publication:
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                   151




•   “Agronomy” section                                         MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
•   “Forestland” section
                                                           Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 36 inches
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
                                                           Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 50
•   “Engineering” section
                                                               inches
•   “Soil Properties” section
                                                           Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 30 to 80 inches
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 5 percent
Worthen Series                                             Ap or A horizon:
                                                               Hue—10YR
Taxonomic classification: Fine-silty, mixed,
                                                               Value—2 or 3
   superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls
                                                               Chroma—1 to 3
      Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C (Official                    Texture—silt loam
               Series Description)
                                                           Bw horizon:
Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, at an               Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
elevation of 465 feet; 160 feet south and 640 feet west       Value—3 or 4
of the northeast corner of sec. 26, T. 13 N., R. 13 W.;       Chroma—2 to 6
USGS Bedford, Illinois, topographic quadrangle; lat. 39       Texture—silt loam
degrees 33 minutes 0 seconds N. and long. 90
                                                           C horizon:
degrees 30 minutes 33 seconds W., NAD 27:
                                                              Hue—10YR or 7.5YR
Ap—0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)          Value—4 or 5
   silt loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry; weak fine         Chroma—3 to 6
   granular structure; friable; common very fine and          Texture—silt loam
   fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
A—9 to 20 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam,
   brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak medium granular              37A—Worthen silt loam, 0 to 2 percent
   structure; friable; few very fine and fine roots;          slopes
   common distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR                                   Setting
   3/2) organic coats on faces of peds; slightly acid;
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans
   clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Position on the landform: Footslopes and stream
AB—20 to 29 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam,
                                                               terraces
   brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak fine subangular
   blocky structure; friable; few very fine and fine                 Soil Properties and Qualities
   roots; common distinct very dark grayish brown
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   (10YR 3/2) organic coats on faces of peds;
                                                           Parent material: Slope alluvium
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Bw1—29 to 41 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam;              Additional information specific to this map unit,
   weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few     such as horizon depth and textures, is available in
   very fine and fine roots; common distinct dark          the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
   brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats on faces of peds,        publication.
   few distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                                               Composition
   organic coats in root channels and/or pores, and
   few distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt coats      Worthen and similar soils: 90 percent
   on faces of peds; neutral; clear smooth boundary.       Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
Bw2—41 to 64 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR
                                                           Similar soils:
   4/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky
                                                           • Soils in which the dark surface soil is less than 24
   structure; friable; few very fine and fine roots; few
                                                           inches thick
   distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3) organic coats in
   root channels and/or pores and few distinct very        Dissimilar soils:
   pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt coats on faces of peds;      • The somewhat poorly drained Littleton soils in the
   neutral; gradual smooth boundary.                       slightly lower positions on the landform
C—64 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt         • Soils that contain rock fragments throughout
   loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;          • Soils that have more sand throughout than the
   friable; neutral.                                       Worthen soil
152                                                                                                   Soil Survey of




                      Management                            Zumbro Series
  For general and detailed information about
                                                            Taxonomic classification: Sandy, mixed, mesic Entic
managing this map unit, see the following sections in
                                                               Hapludolls
Part II of this publication:
                                                                     Typical Pedon for MLRA 115C
•   “Agronomy” section
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section                              Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6 percent slopes,
•   “Engineering” section                                   occasionally flooded, at an elevation of 465 feet; 1,700
•   “Soil Properties” section                               feet west and 230 feet south of the northeast corner of
                                                            sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 9 W.; USGS Long Island, Illinois,
                                                            topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 5 minutes 46
37B—Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent                       seconds N. and long. 91 degrees 27 minutes 45
   slopes                                                   seconds W., NAD 27:
                          Setting
                                                            Ap—0 to 11 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sandy
Landform: Alluvial fans                                        loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) dry; weak
Position on the landform: Footslopes and stream                fine granular structure; very friable; many very fine
    terraces                                                   and fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                            A1—11 to 19 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand,
            Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                               very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; weak fine
Drainage class: Well drained                                   granular structure; very friable; common very fine
Parent material: Slope alluvium                                roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Special feature: The Worthen soil in this map unit has      A2—19 to 24 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
    a thinner surface layer than that in the typical           loamy sand, dark brown (10YR 3/3) dry; weak fine
    pedon.                                                     granular structure; very friable; common very fine
                                                               roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
   Additional information specific to this map unit, such
                                                            A3—24 to 33 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
as horizon depth and textures, is available in the “Soil
                                                               3/2) loamy sand, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) dry;
Properties” section in Part II of this publication.
                                                               single grain; loose; common very fine roots; 1
                      Composition                              percent gravel; slightly acid; clear smooth
                                                               boundary.
Worthen and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                            Bw—33 to 42 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
                                                               sand; single grain; loose; few very fine roots; 2
Similar soils:                                                 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
• Soils in which the dark surface soil is less than 24      C—42 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
inches thick                                                   single grain; loose; 1 percent mixed gravel; neutral.
• Soils that have slopes of more than 5 percent
                                                                MLRA Series Range in Characteristics
Dissimilar soils:
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 24 to 50 inches
• The somewhat poorly drained Littleton soils in the
                                                            Depth to carbonates (if they occur): More than 20
slightly lower positions on the landform
                                                                inches
• Soils that have more sand throughout than the
                                                            Depth to base of diagnostic horizon: 26 to 60 inches
Worthen soil
                                                            Slope range: 1 to 6 percent
• Soils that contain rock fragments throughout
                                                            Ap or A horizon:
                      Management
                                                                Hue—10YR
  For general and detailed information about                    Value—2 or 3
managing this map unit, see the following sections in           Chroma—1 or 2
Part II of this publication:                                    Texture—loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy
                                                                   loam, or fine sandy loam
•   “Agronomy” section
                                                                Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent
•   “Wildlife Habitat” section
•   “Engineering” section                                   Bw horizon:
•   “Soil Properties” section                                  Hue—10YR
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                              153




    Value—2 to 4                                      the “Soil Properties” section in Part II of this
    Chroma—2 to 4                                     publication.
    Texture—sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy
                                                                            Composition
      fine sand
    Content of rock fragments—0 to 15 percent         Zumbro and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                      Dissimilar soils: 10 percent
C horizon:
   Hue—10YR                                           Similar soils:
   Value—4 to 6                                       • Soils that have a light-colored surface layer
   Chroma—2 to 5                                      • Soils that have a thinner dark surface soil than that
   Texture—sand, fine sand, or coarse sand            of the Zumbro soil
   Content of gravel—0 to 15 percent                  • Soils that have slopes of more than 6 percent
                                                      Dissimilar soils:
                                                      • Soils that have more clay in the upper part than the
8349B—Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6                       Zumbro soil
   percent slopes, occasionally flooded               • Sparta soils, which have a thinner dark surface soil
                                                      than that of the Zumbro soil; in positions on the
                      Setting
                                                      landform that are not subject to flooding
Landform: Alluvial ridges
                                                                            Management
Position on the landform: Summits
Type of landscape: Flood plains                         For general and detailed information about
                                                      managing this map unit, see the following sections in
          Soil Properties and Qualities
                                                      Part II of this publication:
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                      •   “Agronomy” section
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                      •   “Wildlife Habitat” section
  Additional information specific to this map unit,   •   “Engineering” section
such as horizon depth and textures, is available in   •   “Soil Properties” section
                                                                                                  155




References
    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2000.
    Standard specifications for transportation materials and methods of sampling and
    testing. 20th edition, 2 volumes.

    American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2001. Standard classification of
    soils for engineering purposes. ASTM Standard D 2487–00.

    Bushue, L.J. 1979. Soil survey of Adams County, Illinois. U.S. Department of
    Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with Illinois Agricultural
    Experiment Station.

    Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands
    and deep-water habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS–
    79/31.

    Drury, John. 1955. This is Adams County, Illinois.

    Federal Register. July 13, 1994. Changes in hydric soils of the United States.

    Federal Register. February 24, 1995. Hydric soils of the United States.

    Fehrenbacher, J.B., B.W. Ray, and J.D. Alexander. 1968. Illinois soils and factors in their
    development. In The Quaternary of Illinois. University of Illinois, College of Agriculture
    Special Publication 14, pages 165–176.

    Hurt, G.W., P.M. Whited, and R.F. Pringle, editors. Version 4.0, 1998. Field indicators of
    hydric soils in the United States.

    Illinois Department of Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture, National
    Agricultural Statistics Service. 1997. Illinois agricultural statistics annual summary.
    Bulletin 97–1.

    Illinois Department of Conservation. 1974. Illinois outdoor recreation inventory.

    Illinois Nature Preserves Commission. 1973 (reprinted 1984). The natural divisions of
    Illinois. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature Preserves System. Part 2.

    Iverson, Louis R., and others. 1989. Forest resources of Illinois: An atlas and analysis of
    spatial and temporal trends. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 11.

    Leighton, M.M., and others. 1948. Physiographic divisions of Illinois. Journal of Geology
    56: 16–33.

    National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and boundaries.
156




      Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service. U.S.
      Department of Agriculture Handbook 18.

      Soil Survey Staff. 1998. Keys to soil taxonomy. 8th edition. U.S. Department of
      Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

      Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making
      and interpreting soil surveys. 2nd edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service.
      U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 436.

      Tiner, R.W., Jr. 1985. Wetlands of Delaware. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
      Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Wetlands
      Section.

      Two Rivers Regional Council of Public Officials. 1994. Tables B and C.

      United States Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory. 1987. Corps of
      Engineers wetlands delineation manual. Waterways Experiment Station Technical
      Report Y–87–1.

      United States Department of Agriculture. 1961. Land capability classification. U.S.
      Department of Agriculture Handbook 210.

      United States Department of Agriculture. 1985. National resources inventory data.
      Natural Resources Conservation Service.

      United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1994. 1992 census of
      agriculture. Volume 1, part 13.

      Willman, H.B., and John Frye. 1970. Pleistocene stratigraphy of Illinois. Illinois
      Geological Survey Bulletin 94.
                                                                                                                                                    157




Glossary
ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon.             the capacity, in inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a
AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon.               limiting layer is expressed as:
    Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or               Very low ............................................................ 0 to 3
    on steep, rocky slopes.                                        Low ................................................................... 3 to 6
Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from          Moderate .......................................................... 6 to 9
    the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is              High ................................................................ 9 to 12
    similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a                Very high .............................................. more than 12
    poorly aerated soil is considerably higher in
    carbon dioxide and lower in oxygen.                     Backslope. The position that forms the steepest and
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single          generally linear, middle portion of a hillslope. In
    mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as          profile, backslopes are commonly bounded by a
    granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods        convex shoulder above and a concave footslope
    are aggregates produced by tillage or logging.             below.
Alluvial fan. The fanlike deposit of a stream where it      Basal till. Compact glacial till deposited beneath the
    issues from a gorge upon a plain or of a tributary         ice.
    stream near or at its junction with its main stream.    Base saturation. The degree to which material having
Alluvium. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay,               cation-exchange properties is saturated with
    deposited on land by streams.                              exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, and K),
Alpha,alpha-dipyridyl. A dye that when dissolved in            expressed as a percentage of the total cation-
    1N ammonium acetate is used to detect the                  exchange capacity.
    presence of reduced iron (Fe II) in the soil. A         Bedding planes. Fine strata, less than 5 millimeters
    positive reaction indicates a type of redoximorphic        thick, in unconsolidated alluvial, eolian, lacustrine,
    feature.                                                   or marine sediment.
Animal unit month (AUM). The amount of forage               Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and
    required by one mature cow of approximately                other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at
    1,000 pounds weight, with or without a calf, for 1         the surface.
    month.                                                  Bisequum. Two sequences of soil horizons, each of
Aquic conditions. Current soil wetness characterized           which consists of an illuvial horizon and the
    by saturation, reduction, and redoximorphic                overlying eluvial horizons.
    features.                                               Blowout. A shallow depression from which all or most
Area reclaim (in tables). An area difficult to reclaim         of the soil material has been removed by the wind.
    after the removal of soil for construction and other       A blowout has a flat or irregular floor formed by a
    uses. Revegetation and erosion control are                 resistant layer or by an accumulation of pebbles or
    extremely difficult.                                       cobbles. In some blowouts the water table is
Argillic horizon. A subsoil horizon characterized by           exposed.
    an accumulation of illuvial clay.                       Bottom land. The normal flood plain of a stream,
Aspect. The direction in which a slope faces.                  subject to flooding.
Available water capacity (available moisture                Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60
    capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water             centimeters) in diameter.
    available for use by most plants. It is commonly        Brush management. Use of mechanical, chemical, or
    defined as the difference between the amount of            biological methods to make conditions favorable
    soil water at field moisture capacity and the              for reseeding or to reduce or eliminate competition
    amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed          from woody vegetation and thus allow understory
    as inches of water per inch of soil. For example,          grasses and forbs to recover. Brush management
158                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




    increases forage production and thus reduces the            Reproduction is achieved artificially or by natural
    hazard of erosion. It can improve the habitat for           seeding from adjacent stands.
    some species of wildlife.                               Climax plant community. The stabilized plant
Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium               community on a particular site. The plant cover
    carbonate (commonly combined with magnesium                 reproduces itself and does not change so long as
    carbonate) to effervesce visibly when treated with          the environment remains the same.
    cold, dilute hydrochloric acid.                         Closed depression. A low area completely
Canopy. The leafy crown of trees or shrubs. (See                surrounded by higher ground and having no
    Crown.)                                                     natural outlet.
Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil           Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
    particles and in tiny spaces between particles.         Cobble (or cobblestone). A rounded or partly
    Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds            rounded fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25
    capillary water in the soil.                                centimeters) in diameter.
Catena. A sequence, or “chain,” of soils on a               Cobbly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35
    landscape that formed in similar kinds of parent            percent, by volume, rounded or partially rounded
    material but have different characteristics as a            rock fragments 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25
    result of differences in relief and drainage.               centimeters) in diameter. Very cobbly soil material
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity.       has 35 to 60 percent of these rock fragments, and
    The common soil cations are calcium, potassium,             extremely cobbly soil material has more than 60
    magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen.                            percent.
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of               Codominant trees. Trees whose crowns form the
    exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,          general level of the forest canopy and that receive
    expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100              full light from above but comparatively little from
    grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some             the sides.
    other stated pH value. The term, as applied to          COLE (coefficient of linear extensibility). See
    soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity            Linear extensibility.
    but is more precise in meaning.                         Colluvium. Soil material or rock fragments, or both,
Channery soil material. Soil material that has, by              moved by creep, slide, or local wash and
    volume, 15 to 35 percent thin, flat fragments of            deposited at the base of steep slopes.
    sandstone, shale, slate, limestone, or schist as        Commercial forest. Forestland capable of producing
    much as 6 inches (15 centimeters) along the                 20 cubic feet or more per acre per year at the age
    longest axis. A single piece is called a channer.           of culmination of the mean annual increment.
Chemical treatment. Control of unwanted vegetation          Complex slope. Irregular or variable slope. Planning
    through the use of chemicals.                               or establishing terraces, diversions, and other
Chiseling. Tillage with an implement having one or              water-control structures on a complex slope is
    more soil-penetrating points that shatter or loosen         difficult.
    hard, compacted layers to a depth below normal          Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil
    plow depth.                                                 or miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less       or so small in area that it is not practical to map
    than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural       them separately at the selected scale of mapping.
    class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay,       The pattern and proportion of the soils or
    less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40                 miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar in all
    percent silt.                                               areas.
Clay depletions. Low-chroma zones having a low              Concretions. Cemented bodies with crude internal
    content of iron, manganese, and clay because of             symmetry organized around a point, a line, or a
    the chemical reduction of iron and manganese                plane. They typically take the form of concentric
    and the removal of iron, manganese, and clay. A             layers visible to the naked eye. Calcium carbonate,
    type of redoximorphic depletion.                            iron oxide, and manganese oxide are common
Clayey soil. Silty clay, sandy clay, or clay.                   compounds making up concretions. If formed in
Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the               place, concretions of iron oxide or manganese
    surface of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root         oxide are generally considered a type of
    channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin.                redoximorphic concentration.
Clearcut. A method of forest harvesting that removes        Conservation cropping system. Growing crops in
    the entire stand of trees in one cutting.                   combination with needed cultural and
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                  159




   management practices. In a good conservation             Crown. The upper part of a tree or shrub, including the
   cropping system, the soil-improving crops and               living branches and their foliage.
   practices more than offset the effects of the soil-      Culmination of the mean annual increment (CMAI).
   depleting crops and practices. Cropping systems             The average annual increase per acre in the
   are needed on all tilled soils. Soil-improving              volume of a stand. Computed by dividing the total
   practices in a conservation cropping system                 volume of the stand by its age. As the stand
   include the use of rotations that contain grasses           increases in age, the mean annual increment
   and legumes and the return of crop residue to the           continues to increase until mortality begins to
   soil. Other practices include the use of green              reduce the rate of increase. The point where the
   manure crops of grasses and legumes, proper                 stand reaches its maximum annual rate of growth
   tillage, adequate fertilization, and weed and pest          is called the culmination of the mean annual
   control.                                                    increment.
Conservation tillage. A tillage system that does not        Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations
   invert the soil and that leaves a protective amount         tend to cave in or slough.
   of crop residue on the surface throughout the year.      Deferred grazing. Postponing grazing or resting
Consistence, soil. Refers to the degree of cohesion            grazing land for a prescribed period.
   and adhesion of soil material and its resistance to      Depth, soil. Generally, the thickness of the soil over
   deformation when ruptured. Consistence includes             bedrock. Very deep soils are more than 60 inches
   resistance of soil material to rupture and to               deep over bedrock; deep soils, 40 to 60 inches;
   penetration; plasticity, toughness, and stickiness of       moderately deep, 20 to 40 inches; shallow, 10 to
   puddled soil material; and the manner in which the          20 inches; and very shallow, less than 10 inches.
   soil material behaves when subject to                    Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the
   compression. Terms describing consistence are               surface for the specified use.
   defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.”                     Diversion (or diversion terrace). A ridge of earth,
Consolidated shale. Shale that disperses within a              generally a terrace, built to protect downslope
   few hours when fragments are placed in water.               areas by diverting runoff from its natural course.
   The fragments are extremely hard or very hard            Dominant trees. Trees whose crowns form the
   when dry and are not easily crushed.                        general level of the forest canopy and that receive
Contour stripcropping. Growing crops in strips that            full light from above and from the sides.
   follow the contour. Strips of grass or close-growing     Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and
   crops are alternated with strips of clean-tilled            duration of wet periods under conditions similar to
   crops or summer fallow.                                     those under which the soil formed. Alterations of
Control section. The part of the soil on which                 the water regime by human activities, either
   classification is based. The thickness varies               through drainage or irrigation, are not a
   among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that      consideration unless they have significantly
   part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches        changed the morphology of the soil. Seven
   and 40 or 80 inches.                                        classes of natural soil drainage are recognized—
Corrosion. Soil-induced electrochemical or chemical            excessively drained, somewhat excessively
   action that dissolves or weakens concrete or                drained, well drained, moderately well drained,
   uncoated steel.                                             somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and
Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to            very poorly drained. These classes are defined in
   improve and protect the soil between periods of             the “Soil Survey Manual.”
   regular crop production, or a crop grown between         Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water,
   trees and vines in orchards and vineyards.                  from an area.
Cropping system. Growing crops according to a               Drainageway. An area of ground at a lower elevation
   planned system of rotation and management                   than the surrounding ground and in which water
   practices.                                                  collects and is drained to a closed depression or
Crop residue management. Returning crop residue                lake or to a drainageway at a lower elevation. A
   to the soil, which helps to maintain soil structure,        drainageway may or may not have distinctly
   organic matter content, and fertility and helps to          incised channels at its upper reaches or
   control erosion.                                            throughout its course.
Cross-slope farming. Deliberately conducting                Duff. A generally firm organic layer on the surface of
   farming operations on sloping farmland in such a            mineral soils. It consists of fallen plant material
   way that tillage is across the general slope.               that is in the process of decomposition and
160                                                                                                       Soil Survey of




    includes everything from the litter on the surface to     Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide
    underlying pure humus.                                         plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper
Dune. A mound, ridge, or hill of loose, windblown                  balance, for the growth of specified plants when
    granular material (generally sand), either bare or             light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth
    covered with vegetation.                                       factors are favorable.
Eluviation. The movement of material in true solution         Fibric soil material (peat). The least decomposed of
    or colloidal suspension from one place to another              all organic soil material. Peat contains a large
    within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material         amount of well preserved fiber that is readily
    through eluviation are eluvial; those that have                identifiable according to botanical origin. Peat has
    received material are illuvial.                                the lowest bulk density and the highest water
Endosaturation. A type of saturation of the soil in                content at saturation of all organic soil material.
    which all horizons between the upper boundary of          Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a
    saturation and a depth of 2 meters are saturated.              soil, expressed as a percentage of the ovendry
Eolian soil material. Earthy parent material                       weight, after the gravitational, or free, water has
    accumulated through wind action; commonly                      drained away; the field moisture content 2 or 3
    refers to sandy material in dunes or to loess in               days after a soaking rain; also called normal field
    blankets on the surface.                                       capacity, normal moisture capacity, or capillary
Ephemeral stream. A stream, or reach of a stream,                  capacity.
    that flows only in direct response to precipitation. It   Fill slope. A sloping surface consisting of excavated
    receives no long-continued supply from melting                 soil material from a road cut. It commonly is on the
    snow or other source, and its channel is above the             downhill side of the road.
    water table at all times.                                 Fine textured soil. Sandy clay, silty clay, or clay.
Episaturation. A type of saturation indicating a              Firebreak. An area cleared of flammable material to
    perched water table in a soil in which saturated               stop or help control creeping or running fires. It
    layers are underlain by one or more unsaturated                also serves as a line from which to work and to
    layers within 2 meters of the surface.                         facilitate the movement of firefighters and
Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by                   equipment. Designated roads also serve as
    water, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by              firebreaks.
    such processes as gravitational creep.                    First bottom. The normal flood plain of a stream,
    Erosion (geologic). Erosion caused by geologic                 subject to frequent or occasional flooding.
    processes acting over long geologic periods and           Flaggy soil material. Material that has, by volume, 15
    resulting in the wearing away of mountains and                 to 35 percent flagstones. Very flaggy soil material
    the building up of such landscape features as                  has 35 to 60 percent flagstones, and extremely
    flood plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural              flaggy soil material has more than 60 percent
    erosion.                                                       flagstones.
    Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid            Flagstone. A thin fragment of sandstone, limestone,
    than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of human             slate, shale, or (rarely) schist 6 to 15 inches (15 to
    or animal activities or of a catastrophe in nature,            38 centimeters) long.
    such as a fire, that exposes the surface.                 Flood plain. A nearly level alluvial plain that borders a
Escarpment. A relatively continuous and steep slope                stream and is subject to flooding unless protected
    or cliff breaking the general continuity of more               artificially.
    gently sloping land surfaces and resulting from           Fluvial. Of or pertaining to rivers; produced by river
    erosion or faulting. Synonym: scarp.                           action, as a fluvial plain.
Even aged. Refers to a stand of trees in which only           Footslope. The position that forms the inner, gently
    small differences in age occur between the                     inclined surface at the base of a hillslope. In
    individuals. A range of 20 years is allowed.                   profile, footslopes are commonly concave. A
Excess fines (in tables). Excess silt and clay in the              footslope is a transition zone between upslope
    soil. The soil does not provide a source of gravel             sites of erosion and transport (shoulders and
    or sand for construction purposes.                             backslopes) and downslope sites of deposition
Fan terrace. A relict alluvial fan, no longer a site of            (toeslopes).
    active deposition, incised by younger and lower           Forb. Any herbaceous plant not a grass or a sedge.
    alluvial surfaces.                                        Forest cover. All trees and other woody plants
Fast intake (in tables). The rapid movement of water               (underbrush) covering the ground in a forest.
    into the soil.                                            Forest type. A stand of trees similar in composition
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                      161




    and development because of given physical and               runs only after rainfall. The distinction between a
    biological factors by which it may be differentiated        gully and a rill is one of depth. A gully generally is
    from other stands.                                          an obstacle to farm machinery and is too deep to
Frost action (in tables). Freezing and thawing of soil          be obliterated by ordinary tillage; a rill is of lesser
    moisture. Frost action can damage roads,                    depth and can be smoothed over by ordinary
    buildings and other structures, and plant roots.            tillage.
Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers      Gypsum. A mineral consisting of hydrous calcium
    especially to the processes or soil-forming factors         sulfate.
    responsible for the formation of the solum, or true    Hard bedrock. Bedrock that cannot be excavated
    soil, from the unconsolidated parent material.              except by blasting or by the use of special
Glacial drift. Pulverized and other rock material               equipment that is not commonly used in
    transported by glacial ice and then deposited.              construction.
    Also, the sorted and unsorted material deposited       Head slope. A geomorphic component of hills
    by streams flowing from glaciers.                           consisting of a laterally concave area of a hillside,
Glacial outwash. Gravel, sand, and silt, commonly               especially at the head of a drainageway. The
    stratified, deposited by glacial meltwater.                 overland waterflow is converging.
Glacial till. Unsorted, nonstratified glacial drift        Heavy metal. Inorganic substances that are solid at
    consisting of clay, silt, sand, and boulders                ordinary temperatures and are not soluble in
    transported and deposited by glacial ice.                   water. They form oxides and hydroxides that are
Glaciated uplands. Land areas that were previously              basic. Examples are copper, iron, cadmium, zinc,
    covered by continental or alpine glaciers and that          manganese, lead, and arsenic.
    are at a higher elevation than the flood plain.        Hemic soil material (mucky peat). Organic soil
Glaciofluvial deposits. Material moved by glaciers              material intermediate in degree of decomposition
    and subsequently sorted and deposited by                    between the less decomposed fibric material and
    streams flowing from the melting ice. The deposits          the more decomposed sapric material.
    are stratified and occur as kames, eskers, deltas,     High-residue crops. Such crops as small grain and
    and outwash plains.                                         corn used for grain. If properly managed, residue
Glaciolacustrine deposits. Material ranging from fine           from these crops can be used to control erosion
    clay to sand derived from glaciers and deposited            until the next crop in the rotation is established.
    in glacial lakes mainly by glacial meltwater. Many          These crops return large amounts of organic
    deposits are interbedded or laminated.                      matter to the soil.
Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage,         Hill. A natural elevation of the land surface, rising as
    resulting in the reduction of iron and other                much as 1,000 feet above surrounding lowlands,
    elements in the profile and in gray colors.                 commonly of limited summit area and having a
Grassed waterway. A natural or constructed                      well defined outline; hillsides generally have
    waterway, typically broad and shallow, seeded to            slopes of more than 15 percent. The distinction
    grass as protection against erosion. Conducts               between a hill and a mountain is arbitrary and is
    surface water away from cropland.                           dependent on local usage.
Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock as            Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to
    much as 3 inches (2 millimeters to 7.6                      the surface, having distinct characteristics
    centimeters) in diameter. An individual piece is a          produced by soil-forming processes. In the
    pebble.                                                     identification of soil horizons, an uppercase letter
Gravelly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35              represents the major horizons. Numbers or
    percent, by volume, rounded or angular rock                 lowercase letters that follow represent
    fragments, not prominently flattened, as much as            subdivisions of the major horizons. An explanation
    3 inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter.                     of the subdivisions is given in the “Soil Survey
Green manure crop (agronomy). A soil-improving                  Manual.” The major horizons of mineral soil are as
    crop grown to be plowed under in an early stage             follows:
    of maturity or soon after maturity.                         O horizon.—An organic layer of fresh and
Ground water. Water filling all the unblocked pores of          decaying plant residue.
    the material below the water table.                         A horizon.—The mineral horizon at or near the
Gully. A miniature valley with steep sides cut by               surface in which an accumulation of humified
    running water and through which water ordinarily            organic matter is mixed with the mineral material.
162                                                                                                                              Soil Survey of




     Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was       Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the
     originally part of a B horizon.                              immediate surface of soil or other material, as
     E horizon.—The mineral horizon in which the main             contrasted with percolation, which is movement of
     feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or         water through soil layers or material.
     some combination of these.                              Infiltration capacity. The maximum rate at which
     B horizon.—The mineral horizon below an A                    water can infiltrate into a soil under a given set of
     horizon. The B horizon is in part a layer of                 conditions.
     transition from the overlying A to the underlying C     Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates
     horizon. The B horizon also has distinctive                  the surface of the soil at any given instant, usually
     characteristics, such as (1) accumulation of clay,           expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be
     sesquioxides, humus, or a combination of these;              limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the
     (2) prismatic or blocky structure; (3) redder or             rate at which water is applied at the surface.
     browner colors than those in the A horizon; or (4)      Intake rate. The average rate of water entering the
     a combination of these.                                      soil under irrigation. Most soils have a fast initial
     C horizon.—The mineral horizon or layer,                     rate; the rate decreases with application time.
     excluding indurated bedrock, that is little affected         Therefore, intake rate for design purposes is not a
     by soil-forming processes and does not have the              constant but is a variable depending on the net
     properties typical of the overlying soil material.           irrigation application. The rate of water intake, in
     The material of a C horizon may be either like or            inches per hour, is expressed as follows:
     unlike that in which the solum formed. If the                  Less than 0.2 ............................................... very low
     material is known to differ from that in the solum,            0.2 to 0.4 .............................................................. low
     an Arabic numeral, commonly a 2, precedes the                  0.4 to 0.75 ......................................... moderately low
     letter C.                                                      0.75 to 1.25 ................................................ moderate
     Cr horizon.—Soft, consolidated bedrock beneath                 1.25 to 1.75 ..................................... moderately high
     the soil.                                                      1.75 to 2.5 .......................................................... high
     R layer.—Consolidated bedrock beneath the soil.                More than 2.5 ............................................. very high
     The bedrock commonly underlies a C horizon, but
     it can be directly below an A or a B horizon.           Interfluve. An elevated area between two
Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable                   drainageways that sheds water to those
     part of the organic matter in mineral soils.                 drainageways.
Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped              Intermittent stream. A stream, or reach of a stream,
     according to their runoff potential. The soil                that flows for prolonged periods only when it
     properties that influence this potential are those           receives ground-water discharge or long,
     that affect the minimum rate of water infiltration on        continued contributions from melting snow or other
     a bare soil during periods after prolonged wetting           surface and shallow subsurface sources.
     when the soil is not frozen. These properties are       Iron depletions. Low-chroma zones having a low
     depth to a seasonal high water table, the                    content of iron and manganese oxide because of
     infiltration rate and permeability after prolonged           chemical reduction and removal, but having a clay
     wetting, and depth to a very slowly permeable                content similar to that of the adjacent matrix. A
     layer. The slope and the kind of plant cover are not         type of redoximorphic depletion.
     considered but are separate factors in predicting       Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in
     runoff.                                                      production of crops.
Igneous rock. Rock formed by solidification from a           Knoll. A small, low, rounded hill rising above adjacent
     molten or partially molten state. Major varieties            landforms.
     include plutonic and volcanic rock. Examples are        Ksat. Saturated hydraulic conductivity. (See
     andesite, basalt, and granite.                               Permeability.)
Illuviation. The movement of soil material from one          Lacustrine deposit. Material deposited in lake water
     horizon to another in the soil profile. Generally,           and exposed when the water level is lowered or
     material is removed from an upper horizon and                the elevation of the land is raised.
     deposited in a lower horizon.                           Lake plain. A surface marking the floor of an extinct
Impervious soil. A soil through which water, air, or              lake, filled in by well sorted, stratified sediments.
     roots penetrate slowly or not at all. No soil is        Landslide. The rapid downhill movement of a mass of
     absolutely impervious to air and water all the time.         soil and loose rock, generally when wet or
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    163




    saturated. The speed and distance of movement,           Medium textured soil. Very fine sandy loam, loam,
    as well as the amount of soil and rock material,            silt loam, or silt.
    vary greatly.                                            Merchantable trees. Trees that are of sufficient size to
Large stones (in tables). Rock fragments 3 inches               be economically processed into wood products.
    (7.6 centimeters) or more across. Large stones           Mineral soil. Soil that is mainly mineral material and
    adversely affect the specified use of the soil.             low in organic material. Its bulk density is more
Leaching. The removal of soluble material from soil or          than that of organic soil.
    other material by percolating water.                     Minimum tillage. Only the tillage essential to crop
Linear extensibility. Refers to the change in length of         production and prevention of soil damage.
    an unconfined clod as moisture content is                Miscellaneous area. An area that has little or no
    decreased from a moist to a dry state. Linear               natural soil and supports little or no vegetation.
    extensibility is used to determine the shrink-swell      Moderately coarse textured soil. Coarse sandy
    potential of soils. It is an expression of the volume       loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
    change between the water content of the clod at          Moderately fine textured soil. Clay loam, sandy clay
    1
      /3- or 1/10-bar tension (33kPa or 10kPa tension)          loam, or silty clay loam.
    and oven dryness. Volume change is influenced by         Mollic epipedon. A thick, dark, humus-rich surface
    the amount and type of clay minerals in the soil.           horizon (or horizons) that has high base saturation
    The volume change is the percent change for the             and pedogenic soil structure. It may include the
    whole soil. If it is expressed as a fraction, the           upper part of the subsoil.
    resulting value is COLE, coefficient of linear           Moraine. An accumulation of earth, stones, and other
    extensibility.                                              debris deposited by a glacier. Some types are
Liquid limit. The moisture content at which the soil            terminal, lateral, medial, and ground.
    passes from a plastic to a liquid state.                 Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil,
Loam. Soil material that is 7 to 27 percent clay                including the texture, structure, porosity,
    particles, 28 to 50 percent silt particles, and less        consistence, color, and other physical, mineral,
    than 52 percent sand particles.                             and biological properties of the various horizons,
Loamy soil. Coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine                 and the thickness and arrangement of those
    sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam,          horizons in the soil profile.
    silt, clay loam, sandy clay loam, or silty clay loam.    Mottling, soil. Irregular spots of different colors that
Loess. Fine grained material, dominantly of silt-sized          vary in number and size. Descriptive terms are as
    particles, deposited by wind.                               follows: abundance—few, common, and many;
Low-residue crops. Such crops as corn used for                  size—fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast—
    silage, peas, beans, and potatoes. Residue from             faint, distinct, and prominent. The size
    these crops is not adequate to control erosion until        measurements are of the diameter along the
    the next crop in the rotation is established. These         greatest dimension. Fine indicates less than 5
    crops return little organic matter to the soil.             millimeters (about 0.2 inch); medium, from 5 to 15
Low strength. The soil is not strong enough to                  millimeters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch); and coarse,
    support loads.                                              more than 15 millimeters (about 0.6 inch).
Masses. Concentrations of substances in the soil             Muck. Dark, finely divided, well decomposed organic
    matrix that do not have a clearly defined boundary          soil material. (See Sapric soil material.)
    with the surrounding soil material and cannot be         Munsell notation. A designation of color by degrees
    removed as a discrete unit. Common compounds                of three simple variables—hue, value, and
    making up masses are calcium carbonate,                     chroma. For example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is
    gypsum or other soluble salts, iron oxide, and              a color with hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma
    manganese oxide. Masses consisting of iron oxide            of 4.
    or manganese oxide generally are considered a            Neutral soil. A soil having a pH value of 6.6 to 7.3.
    type of redoximorphic concentration.                        (See Reaction, soil.)
Mean annual increment (MAI). The average annual              Nodules. Cemented bodies lacking visible internal
    increase in volume of a tree during the entire life of      structure. Calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and
    the tree.                                                   manganese oxide are common compounds
Mechanical treatment. Use of mechanical equipment               making up nodules. If formed in place, nodules of
    for seeding, brush management, and other                    iron oxide or manganese oxide are considered
    management practices.                                       types of redoximorphic concentrations.
164                                                                                                                                              Soil Survey of




Nose slope. A geomorphic component of hills                                         about 10 to 100 square feet (1 square meter to 10
   consisting of the projecting end (laterally convex                               square meters), depending on the variability of the
   area) of a hillside. The overland waterflow is                                   soil.
   predominantly divergent.                                                      Percolation. The movement of water through the soil.
Nutrient, plant. Any element taken in by a plant                                 Percs slowly (in tables). The slow movement of water
   essential to its growth. Plant nutrients are mainly                              through the soil adversely affects the specified
   nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium,                                        use.
   magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper,                                   Permeability. The quality of the soil that enables water
   boron, and zinc obtained from the soil and carbon,                               or air to move downward through the profile. The
   hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from the air and                                   rate at which a saturated soil transmits water is
   water.                                                                           accepted as a measure of this quality. In soil
Observed rooting depth. Depth to which roots have                                   physics, the rate is referred to as “saturated
   been observed to penetrate.                                                      hydraulic conductivity,” which is defined in the “Soil
Organic matter. Plant and animal residue in the soil in                             Survey Manual.” In line with conventional usage in
   various stages of decomposition. The content of                                  the engineering profession and with traditional
   organic matter in the surface layer is described as                              usage in published soil surveys, this rate of flow
   follows:                                                                         continues to be expressed as “permeability.” Terms
       Very low ................................... less than 0.5 percent           describing permeability, measured in inches per
       Low ................................................ 0.5 to 1.0 percent      hour, are as follows:
       Moderately low .............................. 1.0 to 2.0 percent                 Impermeable ........................... less than 0.0015 inch
       Moderate ....................................... 2.0 to 4.0 percent              Very slow .................................... 0.0015 to 0.06 inch
       High ............................................... 4.0 to 8.0 percent          Slow .................................................. 0.06 to 0.2 inch
       Very high ............................... more than 8.0 percent                  Moderately slow ................................. 0.2 to 0.6 inch
                                                                                        Moderate ................................ 0.6 inch to 2.0 inches
Outwash plain. A landform of mainly sandy or coarse                                     Moderately rapid ............................ 2.0 to 6.0 inches
    textured material of glaciofluvial origin. An                                       Rapid ............................................... 6.0 to 20 inches
    outwash plain is commonly smooth; where pitted,                                     Very rapid ................................. more than 20 inches
    it generally is low in relief.
Overstory. The trees in a forest that form the upper                             Phase, soil. A subdivision of a soil series based on
    crown cover.                                                                     features that affect its use and management, such
Oxbow. The horseshoe-shaped channel of a former                                      as slope, stoniness, and flooding.
    meander, remaining after the stream formed a                                 pH value. A numerical designation of acidity and
    cutoff across a narrow meander neck.                                             alkalinity in soil. (See Reaction, soil.)
Paleoterrace. An erosional remnant of a terrace that                             Piping (in tables). Formation of subsurface tunnels or
    retains the surface form and alluvial deposits of its                            pipelike cavities by water moving through the soil.
    origin but was not emplaced by, and commonly                                 Plasticity index. The numerical difference between
    does not grade to, a present-day stream or                                       the liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of
    drainage network.                                                                moisture content within which the soil remains
Parent material. The unconsolidated organic and                                      plastic.
    mineral material in which soil forms.                                        Plastic limit. The moisture content at which a soil
Peat. Unconsolidated material, largely undecomposed                                  changes from semisolid to plastic.
    organic matter, that has accumulated under                                   Plowpan. A compacted layer formed in the soil
    excess moisture. (See Fibric soil material.)                                     directly below the plowed layer.
Ped. An individual natural soil aggregate, such as a                             Ponding. Standing water on soils in closed
    granule, a prism, or a block.                                                    depressions. Unless the soils are artificially
Pedisediment. A thin layer of alluvial material that                                 drained, the water can be removed only by
    mantles an erosion surface and has been                                          percolation or evapotranspiration.
    transported to its present position from higher                              Poor filter (in tables). Because of rapid or very rapid
    lying areas of the erosion surface.                                              permeability, the soil may not adequately filter
Pedon. The smallest volume that can be called “a soil.”                              effluent from a waste disposal system.
    A pedon is three dimensional and large enough to                             Poorly graded. Refers to a coarse grained soil or soil
    permit study of all horizons. Its area ranges from                               material consisting mainly of particles of nearly
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                                              165




   the same size. Because there is little difference in                                   removed. These zones are indications of the
   size of the particles, density can be increased only                                   chemical reduction of iron resulting from
   slightly by compaction.                                                                saturation.
Potential native plant community. See Climax plant                                   Redoximorphic features. Redoximorphic
   community.                                                                             concentrations, redoximorphic depletions, reduced
Potential rooting depth (effective rooting depth).                                        matrices, a positive reaction to alpha,alpha-
   Depth to which roots could penetrate if the content                                    dipyridyl, and other features indicating the
   of moisture in the soil were adequate. The soil has                                    chemical reduction and oxidation of iron and
   no properties restricting the penetration of roots to                                  manganese compounds resulting from saturation.
   this depth.                                                                       Reduced matrix. A soil matrix that has low chroma in
Prescribed burning. Deliberately burning an area for                                      situ because of chemically reduced iron (Fe II).
   specific management purposes, under the                                                The chemical reduction results from nearly
   appropriate conditions of weather and soil                                             continuous wetness. The matrix undergoes a
   moisture and at the proper time of day.                                                change in hue or chroma within 30 minutes after
Productivity, soil. The capability of a soil for                                          exposure to air as the iron is oxidized (Fe III). A
   producing a specified plant or sequence of plants                                      type of redoximorphic feature.
   under specific management.                                                        Regeneration. The new growth of a natural plant
Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil extending                                   community, developing from seed.
   through all its horizons and into the parent                                      Regolith. The unconsolidated mantle of weathered
   material.                                                                              rock and soil material on the earth’s surface; the
Proper grazing use. Grazing at an intensity that                                          loose earth material above the solid rock.
   maintains enough cover to protect the soil and                                    Relict stream terrace. One of a series of platforms in
   maintain or improve the quantity and quality of the                                    or adjacent to a stream valley that formed prior to
   desirable vegetation. This practice increases the                                      the current stream system.
   vigor and reproduction capacity of the key plants                                 Relief. The elevations or inequalities of a land surface,
   and promotes the accumulation of litter and mulch                                      considered collectively.
   necessary to conserve soil and water.                                             Residuum (residual soil material). Unconsolidated,
Reaction, soil. A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a                                   weathered or partly weathered mineral material
   soil, expressed in pH values. A soil that tests to pH                                  that accumulated as consolidated rock
   7.0 is described as precisely neutral in reaction                                      disintegrated in place.
   because it is neither acid nor alkaline. The                                      Rill. A steep-sided channel resulting from accelerated
   degrees of acidity or alkalinity, expressed as pH                                      erosion. A rill generally is a few inches deep and
   values, are:                                                                           not wide enough to be an obstacle to farm
       Ultra acid .............................................. less than 3.5            machinery.
       Extremely acid ........................................... 3.5 to 4.4         Riser. The relatively short, steeply sloping area below
       Very strongly acid ...................................... 4.5 to 5.0               a terrace tread that grades to a lower terrace tread
       Strongly acid .............................................. 5.1 to 5.5            or base level.
       Moderately acid .......................................... 5.6 to 6.0         Riverwash. Unstable areas of sandy, silty, clayey, or
       Slightly acid ................................................ 6.1 to 6.5          gravelly sediments. These areas are flooded,
       Neutral ........................................................ 6.6 to 7.3        washed, and reworked by rivers so frequently that
       Slightly alkaline .......................................... 7.4 to 7.8            they support little or no vegetation.
       Moderately alkaline .................................... 7.9 to 8.4           Road cut. A sloping surface produced by mechanical
       Strongly alkaline ........................................ 8.5 to 9.0              means during road construction. It is commonly on
       Very strongly alkaline ......................... 9.1 and higher                    the uphill side of the road.
                                                                                     Rock fragments. Rock or mineral fragments having a
Redoximorphic concentrations. Nodules,                                                    diameter of 2 millimeters or more; for example,
   concretions, soft masses, pore linings, and other                                      pebbles, cobbles, stones, and boulders.
   features resulting from the accumulation of iron or                               Rock outcrop. Exposures of bare bedrock other than
   manganese oxide. An indication of chemical                                             lava flows and rock-lined pits.
   reduction and oxidation resulting from saturation.                                Rooting depth (in tables). Shallow root zone. The soil
Redoximorphic depletions. Low-chroma zones from                                           is shallow over a layer that greatly restricts roots.
   which iron and manganese oxide or a combination                                   Root zone. The part of the soil that can be penetrated
   of iron and manganese oxide and clay has been                                          by plant roots.
166                                                                                                      Soil Survey of




Runoff. The precipitation discharged into stream             Shelterwood system. A forest management system
    channels from an area. The water that flows off the           requiring the removal of a stand in a series of cuts
    surface of the land without sinking into the soil is          so that regeneration occurs under a partial
    called surface runoff. Water that enters the soil             canopy. After regeneration, a final cut removes the
    before reaching surface streams is called ground-             shelterwood and allows the stand to develop in the
    water runoff or seepage flow from ground water.               open as an even-aged stand. The system is well
Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral              suited to sites where shelter is needed for
    fragments from 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in          regeneration, and it can aid regeneration of the
    diameter. Most sand grains consist of quartz. As a            more intolerant tree species in a stand.
    soil textural class, a soil that is 85 percent or more   Shoulder. The position that forms the uppermost
    sand and not more than 10 percent clay.                       inclined surface near the top of a hillslope. It is a
Sandstone. Sedimentary rock containing dominantly                 transition from backslope to summit. The surface
    sand-sized particles.                                         is dominantly convex in profile and erosional in
Sandy soil. Sand or loamy sand.                                   origin.
Sapric soil material (muck). The most highly                 Shrink-swell (in tables). The shrinking of soil when
    decomposed of all organic soil material. Muck has             dry and the swelling when wet. Shrinking and
    the least amount of plant fiber, the highest bulk             swelling can damage roads, dams, building
    density, and the lowest water content at saturation           foundations, and other structures. It can also
    of all organic soil material.                                 damage plant roots.
Saturation. Wetness characterized by zero or positive        Side slope. A geomorphic component of hills
    pressure of the soil water. Under conditions of               consisting of a laterally planar area of a hillside.
    saturation, the water will flow from the soil matrix          The overland waterflow is predominantly parallel.
    into an unlined auger hole.                              Silica. A combination of silicon and oxygen. The
Sawlogs. Logs of suitable size and quality for the                mineral form is called quartz.
    production of lumber.                                    Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles
Scribner’s log rule. A method of estimating the                   that range in diameter from the upper limit of clay
    number of board feet that can be cut from a log of            (0.002 millimeter) to the lower limit of very fine
    a given diameter and length.                                  sand (0.05 millimeter). As a soil textural class, soil
Second bottom. The first terrace above the normal                 that is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12
    flood plain (or first bottom) of a river.                     percent clay.
Sedimentary rock. Rock made up of particles                  Siltstone. Sedimentary rock made up of dominantly
    deposited from suspension in water. The chief                 silt-sized particles.
    kinds of sedimentary rock are conglomerate,              Similar soils. Soils that share limits of diagnostic
    formed from gravel; sandstone, formed from sand;              criteria, behave and perform in a similar manner,
    shale, formed from clay; and limestone, formed                and have similar conservation needs or
    from soft masses of calcium carbonate. There are              management requirements for the major land uses
    many intermediate types. Some wind-deposited                  in the survey area.
    sand is consolidated into sandstone.                     Sinkhole. A depression in the landscape where
Seepage (in tables). The movement of water through                limestone has been dissolved.
    the soil. Seepage adversely affects the specified        Site index. A designation of the quality of a forest site
    use.                                                          based on the height of the dominant stand at an
Sequum. A sequence consisting of an illuvial horizon              arbitrarily chosen age. For example, if the average
    and the overlying eluvial horizon. (See Eluviation.)          height attained by dominant and codominant trees
Series, soil. A group of soils that have profiles that are        in a fully stocked stand at the age of 50 years is
    almost alike, except for differences in texture of            75 feet, the site index is 75.
    the surface layer. All the soils of a series have        Slope. The inclination of the land surface from the
    horizons that are similar in composition, thickness,          horizontal. Percentage of slope is the vertical
    and arrangement.                                              distance divided by horizontal distance, then
Shale. Sedimentary rock formed by the hardening of a              multiplied by 100. Thus, a slope of 20 percent is a
    clay deposit.                                                 drop of 20 feet in 100 feet of horizontal distance.
Sheet erosion. The removal of a fairly uniform layer of      Slope (in tables). Slope is great enough that special
    soil material from the land surface by the action of          practices are required to ensure satisfactory
    rainfall and surface runoff.                                  performance of the soil for a specific use.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                                             167




Slow refill (in tables). The slow filling of ponds,                                      stream of surface water flows or may flow; the
    resulting from restricted permeability in the soil.                                  deepest or central part of the bed, formed by the
Small stones (in tables). Rock fragments less than 3                                     main current and covered more or less
    inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter. Small stones                                   continuously by water.
    adversely affect the specified use of the soil.                                  Stream terrace. One of a series of platforms in a
Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). A measure of the                                          stream valley, flanking and more or less parallel to
    amount of sodium (Na) relative to calcium (Ca)                                       the stream channel. It originally formed near the
    and magnesium (Mg) in the water extract from                                         level of the stream and is the dissected remnants
    saturated soil paste. It is the ratio of the Na                                      of an abandoned flood plain, streambed, or valley
    concentration divided by the square root of one-                                     floor that were produced during a former stage of
    half of the Ca + Mg concentration.                                                   erosion or deposition.
Soft bedrock. Bedrock that can be excavated with                                     Stripcropping. Growing crops in a systematic
    trenching machines, backhoes, small rippers, and                                     arrangement of strips or bands that provide
    other equipment commonly used in construction.                                       vegetative barriers to wind erosion and water
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body at the earth’s                                   erosion.
    surface. It is capable of supporting plants and has                              Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil
    properties resulting from the integrated effect of                                   particles into compound particles or aggregates.
    climate and living matter acting on earthy parent                                    The principal forms of soil structure are—platy
    material, as conditioned by relief and by the                                        (laminated), prismatic (vertical axis of aggregates
    passage of time.                                                                     longer than horizontal), columnar (prisms with
Soil separates. Mineral particles less than 2                                            rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular),
    millimeters in equivalent diameter and ranging                                       and granular. Structureless soils are either single
    between specified size limits. The names and                                         grain (each grain by itself, as in dune sand) or
    sizes, in millimeters, of separates recognized in                                    massive (the particles adhering without any
    the United States are as follows:                                                    regular cleavage, as in many hardpans).
       Very coarse sand ....................................... 2.0 to 1.0           Stubble mulch. Stubble or other crop residue left on
       Coarse sand ............................................... 1.0 to 0.5            the soil or partly worked into the soil. It protects
       Medium sand ........................................... 0.5 to 0.25               the soil from wind erosion and water erosion after
       Fine sand ............................................... 0.25 to 0.10            harvest, during preparation of a seedbed for the
       Very fine sand ........................................ 0.10 to 0.05              next crop, and during the early growing period of
       Silt ........................................................ 0.05 to 0.002       the new crop.
       Clay .................................................. less than 0.002       Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of
                                                                                         the solum below plow depth.
Solum. The upper part of a soil profile, above the C                                 Subsoiling. Tilling a soil below normal plow depth,
    horizon, in which the processes of soil formation                                    ordinarily to shatter a hardpan or claypan.
    are active. The solum in soil consists of the A, E,                              Substratum. The part of the soil below the solum.
    and B horizons. Generally, the characteristics of                                Subsurface layer. Any surface soil horizon (A, E, AB,
    the material in these horizons are unlike those of                                   or EB) below the surface layer.
    the material below the solum. The living roots and                               Summit. The topographically highest position of a
    plant and animal activities are largely confined to                                  hillslope. It has a nearly level (planar or only
    the solum.                                                                           slightly convex) surface.
Stone line. A concentration of rock fragments in a soil.                             Surface layer. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or
    Generally, it is indicative of an old weathered                                      its equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth
    surface. In a cross section, the line may be one                                     from 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters).
    fragment or more thick. It generally overlies                                        Frequently designated as the “plow layer,” or the
    material that weathered in place and is overlain by                                  “Ap horizon.”
    recent sediment of variable thickness.                                           Surface soil. The A, E, AB, and EB horizons,
Stones. Rock fragments 10 to 24 inches (25 to 60                                         considered collectively. It includes all subdivisions
    centimeters) in diameter if rounded or 15 to 24                                      of these horizons.
    inches (38 to 60 centimeters) in length if flat.                                 Taxadjuncts. Soils that cannot be classified in a
Stony. Refers to a soil containing stones in numbers                                     series recognized in the classification system.
    that interfere with or prevent tillage.                                              Such soils are named for a series they strongly
Stream channel. The hollow bed where a natural                                           resemble and are designated as taxadjuncts to
168




     that series because they differ in ways too small to    Topsoil. The upper part of the soil, which is the most
     be of consequence in interpreting their use and             favorable material for plant growth. It is ordinarily
     behavior. Soils are recognized as taxadjuncts only          rich in organic matter and is used to topdress
     when one or more of their characteristics are               roadbanks, lawns, and land affected by mining.
     slightly outside the range defined for the family of    Trace elements. Chemical elements, for example,
     the series for which the soils are named.                   zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and iron, in soils
Terminal moraine. A belt of thick glacial drift that             in extremely small amounts. They are essential to
     generally marks the termination of important                plant growth.
     glacial advances.                                       Trafficability. The degree to which a soil is capable of
Terrace. An embankment, or ridge, constructed                    supporting vehicular traffic across a wide range in
     across sloping soils on the contour or at a slight          soil moisture conditions.
     angle to the contour. The terrace intercepts            Tread. The relatively flat terrace surface that was cut
     surface runoff so that water soaks into the soil or         or built by stream or wave action.
     flows slowly to a prepared outlet. A terrace in a       Upland. Land at a higher elevation, in general, than
     field generally is built so that the field can be           the alluvial plain or stream terrace; land above the
     farmed. A terrace intended mainly for drainage              lowlands along streams.
     has a deep channel that is maintained in                Variegation. Refers to patterns of contrasting colors
     permanent sod.                                              assumed to be inherited from the parent material
Terrace (geologic). An old alluvial plain, ordinarily            rather than to be the result of poor drainage.
     flat or undulating, bordering a river, a lake, or the   Water bars. Smooth, shallow ditches or depressional
     sea.                                                        areas that are excavated at an angle across a
Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt,           sloping road. They are used to reduce the
     and clay particles in a mass of soil. The basic             downward velocity of water and divert it off and
     textural classes, in order of increasing proportion         away from the road surface. Water bars can easily
     of fine particles, are sand, loamy sand, sandy              be driven over if constructed properly.
     loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay      Weathering. All physical and chemical changes
     loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and          produced in rocks or other deposits at or near the
     clay. The sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam                  earth’s surface by atmospheric agents. These
     classes may be further divided by specifying                changes result in disintegration and
     “coarse,” “fine,” or “very fine.”                           decomposition of the material.
Thin layer (in tables). Otherwise suitable soil material     Well graded. Refers to soil material consisting of
     that is too thin for the specified use.                     coarse grained particles that are well distributed
Till plain. An extensive area of nearly level to                 over a wide range in size or diameter. Such soil
     undulating soils underlain by glacial till.                 normally can be easily increased in density and
Tilth, soil. The physical condition of the soil as related       bearing properties by compaction. Contrasts with
     to tillage, seedbed preparation, seedling                   poorly graded soil.
     emergence, and root penetration.                        Wilting point (or permanent wilting point). The
Toeslope. The position that forms the gently inclined            moisture content of soil, on an ovendry basis, at
     surface at the base of a hillslope. Toeslopes in            which a plant (specifically a sunflower) wilts so
     profile are commonly gentle and linear and are              much that it does not recover when placed in a
     constructional surfaces forming the lower part of a         humid, dark chamber.
     hillslope continuum that grades to valley or closed-    Windthrow. The uprooting and tipping over of trees by
     depression floors.                                          the wind.
         169




Tables
170                                                                                                       Soil Survey of



                                          Table 1.--Temperature and Precipitation

                                   (Recorded in the period 1961-90 at Quincy, Illinois)

      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  |                                                         |
                  |                       Temperature                       |             Precipitation
                                                                            |
                  |__________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  |       |       |       |     2 years in        |         |       |2 years in 10|         |
                  |       |       |       |_______________________|
                                              10 will have--                |         will have--
                                                                                    |_____________|         |
         Month    |Average|Average|Average|           |           | Average |Average|      |      | Average |Average
                  | daily | daily |       | Maximum | Minimum |number of|           | Less | More |number of|snowfall
                  |maximum|minimum|       |temperature|temperature| growing |       |than--|than--|days with|
                  |       |       |       | higher    | lower     | degree |        |      |      |0.10 inch|
                  |       |       |       | than--    | than--    | days*   |       |      |      | or more |
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  | oF    | oF    | oF    |    oF     |    oF     | Units | In      | In | In |             |   In
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       January----| 32.1 | 15.6 | 23.8 |        63    |    -15    |    13   | 1.37 | 0.38| 2.16|         2  |   6.1
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       February---| 36.9 | 20.1 | 28.5 |        66    |    -10    |    27   | 1.47 |    .71| 2.13|       3  |   6.4
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       March------| 49.5 | 31.5 | 40.5 |        81    |       3   |   147   | 3.19 | 1.73| 4.48|         5  |   3.3
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       April------| 63.2 | 43.0 | 53.1 |        87    |      23   |   404   | 3.72 | 2.08| 5.18|         6  |    .6
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       May--------| 73.2 | 52.9 | 63.0 |        90    |      35   |   713   | 4.63 | 2.89| 6.20|         7  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       June-------| 82.4 | 62.0 | 72.2 |        96    |      46   |   967   | 3.83 | 2.01| 5.43|         5  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       July-------| 86.8 | 66.6 | 76.7 |       100    |      51   | 1,137   | 4.55 | 1.92| 6.79|         6  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       August-----| 84.0 | 63.8 | 73.9 |        99    |      48   | 1,051   | 3.67 | 1.73| 5.35|         5  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       September--| 77.3 | 56.1 | 66.7 |        94    |      37   |   801   | 4.69 | 2.18| 6.85|         6  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       October----| 65.8 | 44.7 | 55.2 |        87    |      26   |   476   | 3.36 | 1.47| 4.98|         5  |    .0
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       November---| 51.0 | 33.7 | 42.3 |        76    |       9   |   163   | 2.85 | 1.19| 4.26|         5  |   1.8
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       December---| 36.5 | 21.4 | 28.9 |        66    |      -9   |    31   | 2.35 |    .94| 3.53|       4  |   4.9
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
       Yearly:    |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
        Average---| 61.6 | 42.6 | 52.1 |       ---    |    ---    |   ---   |   --- |   ---|   ---|   ---   |   ---
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
        Extreme---|   --- |   --- |   --- |    101    |    -17    |   ---   |   --- |   ---|   ---|   ---   |   ---
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
        Total-----|   --- |   --- |   --- |    ---    |    ---    | 5,931   | 39.69 | 30.73| 48.11|     59  | 23.2
                  |       |       |       |           |           |         |       |      |      |         |
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

          * A growing degree day is a unit of heat available for plant growth. It can be calculated by adding the
      maximum and minimum daily temperatures, dividing the sum by 2, and subtracting the temperature below which
      growth is minimal for the principal crops in the area (40 degrees F).
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                              171



                                     Table 2.--Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall

                                (Recorded in the period 1961-90 at Quincy, Illinois)

                           _____________________________________________________________
                                             |
                                             |               Temperature
                                             |__________________________________________
                              Probability    |             |             |
                                             |    24 oF    |    28 oF    |    32 oF
                                             | or lower    | or lower    | or lower
                           _____________________________________________________________
                                             |             |             |
                                             |             |             |
                           Last freezing     |             |             |
                            temperature      |             |             |
                            in spring:       |             |             |
                                             |             |             |
                             1 year in 10    |             |             |
                              later than--   | Apr.    7   | Apr. 21     | Apr. 28
                                             |             |             |
                             2 years in 10   |             |             |
                              later than--   | Apr.    2   | Apr. 15     | Apr. 23
                                             |             |             |
                             5 years in 10   |             |             |
                              later than--   | Mar. 25     | Apr.    5   | Apr. 13
                                             |             |             |
                           First freezing    |             |             |
                            temperature      |             |             |
                            in fall:         |             |             |
                                             |             |             |
                             1 year in 10    |             |             |
                              earlier than-- | Oct. 28     | Oct. 14     | Oct.    3
                                             |             |             |
                             2 years in 10   |             |             |
                              earlier than-- | Nov.    2   | Oct. 20     | Oct.    9
                                             |             |             |
                             5 years in 10   |             |             |
                              earlier than-- | Nov. 10     | Nov.    1   | Oct. 20
                                             |             |             |
                           _____________________________________________________________




                                              Table 3.--Growing Season

                                 (Recorded in the period 1961-90 at Quincy,
                                      Illinois)

                                 __________________________________________________
                                               |
                                               |    Daily minimum temperature
                                               |      during growing season
                                               |___________________________________
                                  Probability |             |           |
                                               |   Higher   | Higher    | Higher
                                               |    than    |   than    |   than
                                               |    24 oF   |   28 oF   |   32 oF
                                 __________________________________________________
                                               |    Days    |   Days    |   Days
                                               |            |           |
                                 9 years in 10 |    212     |   187     |   167
                                               |            |           |
                                 8 years in 10 |    218     |   195     |   175
                                               |            |           |
                                 5 years in 10 |    230     |   209     |   189
                                               |            |           |
                                 2 years in 10 |    241     |   223     |   204
                                               |            |           |
                                 1 year in 10 |     247     |   230     |   211
                                               |            |           |
                                 __________________________________________________
172                                                                                                   Soil Survey of



                                      Table 4.--Classification of the Soils

      (An asterisk in the first column indicates a taxadjunct to the series. See text for a description of
           those characteristics that are outside the range of the series.)

      ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                |
               Soil name        |                     Family or higher taxonomic class
      ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                |
       Atlas--------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Chromic Vertic Epiaqualfs
       Baylis-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Paleudalfs
       Beaucoup-----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls
       Bethalto-----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs
       Biggsville---------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludolls
       Blake--------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Aquic Udifluvents
       Blyton-------------------|Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Oxyaquic Udifluvents
       Bunkum-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs
      *Caseyville---------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
       Clarksdale---------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs
       Coatsburg----------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argiaquolls
       Creal--------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
       Crider-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs
       Downsouth----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
       Drury--------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Dystric Eutrudepts
       Dupo---------------------|Coarse-silty over clayey, mixed over smectitic, superactive, nonacid, mesic
                                | Aquic Udifluvents
       Edwardsville-------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
       El Dara------------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
       Elsah--------------------|Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Typic Udifluvents
       Emery--------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs
       Fishhook-----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs
       Gorham-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquolls
       Goss---------------------|Clayey-skeletal, mixed, active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs
       Greenbush----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs
       Haymond------------------|Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Fluventic Dystrudepts
       Hickory------------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Huntsville---------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls
       Ipava--------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
      *Keller-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
       Keomah-------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
      *Keswick------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Aquertic Chromic Hapludalfs
       Lacrescent---------------|Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludolls
       Lamont-------------------|Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Lawson-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Cumulic Hapludolls
      *Lenzburg-----------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents
       Lindley------------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Littleton----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Cumulic Hapludolls
       Mannon-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs
       Marseilles---------------|Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Menfro-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Orthents-----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Typic Udorthents
       Osco---------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls
       Passport-----------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs
       Raveenwash---------------|Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Aquic Udifluvents
       Riley--------------------|Fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic
                                | Fluvaquentic Hapludolls
       Ross---------------------|Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls
       Rozetta------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Rubio--------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualfs
       Rushville----------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Typic Albaqualfs
       Sarpy--------------------|Mixed, mesic Typic Udipsamments
       Slacwater----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Mollic Fluvaquents
       Sparta-------------------|Sandy, mixed, mesic Entic Hapludolls
       Stookey------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
       Tice---------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls
       Timewell-----------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Aquic Argiudolls
       Timula-------------------|Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Eutrudepts
       Titus--------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Endoaquolls
       Twomile------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Albaqualfs
       Ursa---------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Chromic Vertic Hapludalfs
                                |
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                    173



                                    Table 4.--Classification of the Soils--Continued
        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                  |
                 Soil name        |                      Family or higher taxonomic class
        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                  |
         Vesser-------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Argiaquic Argialbolls
         Virden-------------------|Fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argiaquolls
         Wakeland-----------------|Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Aeric Fluvaquents
         Wakenda------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls
         Winfield-----------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs
        *Wirt---------------------|Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts
         Worthen------------------|Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls
         Zumbro-------------------|Sandy, mixed, mesic Entic Hapludolls
                                  |
        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
174                                                                                                    Soil Survey of



                               Table 5.--Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
             |                                                                         |             |
       Map   |                                Soil name                                |   Acres     |Percent
      symbol |                                                                         |             |
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
             |                                                                         |             |
      6B2    |Fishhook silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|      1,504 |     0.3
      6C2    |Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------|      4,668 |     0.8
      6C3    |Fishhook silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded--------|      3,499 |     0.6
      6D2    |Fishhook silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded----------------------|         879 |    0.2
      6D3    |Fishhook silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded-------|         642 |    0.1
      7C2    |Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded--------------------------|         606 |    0.1
      7C3    |Atlas silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded-----------|      2,061 |     0.4
      8E2    |Hickory loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded----------------------------|      7,286 |     1.3
      8F     |Hickory silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes-------------------------------|     15,624 |     2.8
      8G     |Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes-------------------------------|         777 |    0.1
      16A    |Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-------------------------------|      1,168 |     0.2
      17A    |Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------------------------------|     10,450 |     1.9
      17B    |Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------------|     27,013 |     4.8
      37A    |Worthen silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes---------------------------------|         942 |    0.2
      37B    |Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------|         347 |     *
      50A    |Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------------------------|     17,407 |     3.1
      75A    |Drury silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-----------------------------------|         200 |     *
      75B    |Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes-----------------------------------|      1,966 |     0.4
      75C2   |Drury silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded--------------------------|      1,034 |     0.2
      79B    |Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------------|      8,457 |     1.5
      79C2   |Menfro silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|      4,484 |     0.8
      79C3   |Menfro silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded----------|      2,158 |     0.4
      79D2   |Menfro silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|      1,610 |     0.3
      79D3   |Menfro silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded---------|         779 |    0.1
      81A    |Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-------------------------------|         474 |     *
      86B    |Osco silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------|      4,027 |     0.7
      88B    |Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent slopes---------------------------------|         372 |     *
      90A    |Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------------------------------|      2,322 |     0.4
      90B    |Bethalto silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------------------------------|      5,431 |     1.0
      111A   |Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-----------------------------------|      4,006 |     0.7
      175F   |Lamont sandy loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes-------------------------------|         817 |    0.1
      175G   |Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes-------------------------------|         577 |    0.1
      216B   |Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------|      5,975 |     1.1
      216C2 |Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|       4,906 |     0.9
      216C3 |Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded---------------|          170 |     *
      216D2 |Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------|       2,041 |     0.4
      216D3 |Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded--------------|          148 |     *
      257A   |Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------|      7,843 |     1.4
      257B   |Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------|      9,676 |     1.7
      264C2 |El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|       1,571 |     0.3
      264D2 |El Dara silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------|       1,826 |     0.3
      264D3 |El Dara sandy loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded-------------|       1,585 |     0.3
      264E2 |El Dara sandy loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded----------------------|       2,279 |     0.4
      264G   |El Dara fine sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes-------------------------|          31 |     *
      267A   |Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------|         511 |     *
      267B   |Caseyville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------|      1,081 |     0.2
      271C2 |Timula silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|          684 |    0.1
      271D2 |Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|          880 |    0.2
      279B   |Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------|     13,699 |     2.5
      279C2 |Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|       3,463 |     0.6
      279C3 |Rozetta silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded---------|          788 |    0.1
      283B   |Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------|      9,202 |     1.7
      283C2 |Downsouth silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded----------------------|          842 |    0.2
      337A   |Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-----------------------------------|      2,941 |     0.5
      384A   |Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------------------------|      4,656 |     0.8
      384B   |Edwardsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------|         987 |    0.2
      441B   |Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------|      8,037 |     1.4
      470B2 |Keller silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded--------------------------|       2,903 |     0.5
      470C   |Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes---------------------------------|           2 |     *
      470C2 |Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|       5,925 |     1.1
      472C2 |Baylis silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|          244 |     *
      472D2 |Baylis silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|          534 |     *
             |                                                                         |             |

           See footnote at end of table.
Adams County, Illinois—Part I                                                                                     175



                          Table 5.--Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils--Continued
       _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
              |                                                                         |              |
        Map   |                                Soil name                                |    Acres     |Percent
       symbol |                                                                         |              |
       _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
              |                                                                         |              |
       472E2 |Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|             7 |     *
       477B   |Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------------------------------|      20,688 |     3.7
       477C2 |Winfield silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------|        7,176 |     1.3
       477C3 |Winfield silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded--------|        1,229 |     0.2
       515B2 |Bunkum silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded--------------------------|           827 |    0.1
       515C2 |Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|       13,170 |     2.4
       515C3 |Bunkum silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded----------|        9,861 |     1.8
       515D2 |Bunkum silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|        5,248 |     0.9
       515D3 |Bunkum silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded---------|        3,090 |     0.6
       538B2 |Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded---------------------------|        2,718 |     0.5
       538C2 |Emery silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded--------------------------|        6,354 |     1.1
       549D2 |Marseilles silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded--------------------|           754 |    0.1
       549D3 |Marseilles silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded-----|           136 |     *
       549F   |Marseilles silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes----------------------------|       2,435 |     0.4
       549G   |Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes----------------------------|          866 |    0.2
       559F   |Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes------------------------------------|       7,334 |     1.3
       559G   |Lindley loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes------------------------------------|       2,347 |     0.4
       606F   |Goss gravelly silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes-------------------------|       1,442 |     0.3
       606G   |Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes-------------------------|          188 |     *
       629C2 |Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------|           118 |     *
       629D2 |Crider silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded------------------------|           687 |    0.1
       651C2 |Keswick loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------------|        2,372 |     0.4
       651C3 |Keswick clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded---------------|        4,084 |     0.7
       651D2 |Keswick loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded----------------------------|       11,409 |     2.0
       651D3 |Keswick clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded--------------|        8,928 |     1.6
       651E2 |Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded----------------------------|        9,686 |     1.7
       652C2 |Passport silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-----------------------|           103 |     *
       652C3 |Passport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded--------|           100 |     *
       655C2 |Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded-----------|        3,384 |     0.6
       655C3 |Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely    |              |
              | eroded------------------------------------------------------------------|       4,021 |     0.7
       655D2 |Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded----------|        7,516 |     1.3
       655D3 |Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely |                |
              | eroded------------------------------------------------------------------|       4,577 |     0.8
       660C2 |Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded----------------------|        2,947 |     0.5
       671A   |Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------|       1,864 |     0.3
       671B   |Biggsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------|       3,473 |     0.6
       675B   |Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------|       1,341 |     0.2
       675C2 |Greenbush silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded----------------------|            16 |     *
       678A   |Mannon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------------------------------|          843 |    0.2
       678B   |Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------------|       3,332 |     0.6
       785G   |Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes-------------------|       1,245 |     0.2
       801B   |Orthents, silty, undulating----------------------------------------------|       1,415 |     0.3
       816B   |Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 1 to 7 percent slopes-------------------|       2,177 |     0.4
       816D   |Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 7 to 15 percent slopes------------------|          399 |     *
       829B   |Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to 7 percent slopes----------------------|       1,616 |     0.3
       855A   |Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------------------------|      35,299 |     6.3
       855B   |Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------------------------|      10,691 |     1.9
       856F   |Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35 percent slopes------------------------|       3,521 |     0.6
       856G   |Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60 percent slopes------------------------|       1,412 |     0.3
       864    |Pits, quarries-----------------------------------------------------------|          241 |     *
       871G   |Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60 percent slopes------------------------|          211 |     *
       1070L |Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, undrained, occasionally |               |
              | flooded, long duration--------------------------------------------------|       1,315 |     0.2
       3226A |Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded----------------|        2,704 |     0.5
       3331A |Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded-------------|        4,959 |     0.9
       3333A |Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded------------|       22,025 |     4.0
       3368L |Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded, long     |              |
              | duration----------------------------------------------------------------|       1,888 |     0.3
       3396A |Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded--------------|           728 |    0.1
       3451A |Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded--------------|        6,779 |     1.2
       3475A |Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded-----------|           325 |     *
       3634A |Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded--------------|        4,683 |     0.8
              |                                                                         |              |

            See footnote at end of table.
176



                         Table 5.--Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils--Continued
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
             |                                                                         |             |
        Map  |                                Soil name                                |   Acres     |Percent
      symbol |                                                                         |             |
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
             |                                                                         |             |
      3877L |Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded,    |             |
             | long duration-----------------------------------------------------------|     11,156 |     2.0
      8070A |Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded----|      12,231 |     2.2
      8073A |Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded--------------|          885 |    0.2
      8077A |Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded--------|          857 |    0.2
      8092A |Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded------------------|          205 |     *
      8162A |Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded------|       1,185 |     0.2
      8180A |Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded--------------|       1,479 |     0.3
      8217A |Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-----------|       2,734 |     0.5
      8284A |Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded--------|       1,301 |     0.2
      8333A |Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded----------|       3,967 |     0.7
      8349B |Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-----------|          393 |     *
      8396A |Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded------------|       3,163 |     0.6
      8404A |Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-------|       9,292 |     1.7
      8451A |Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded------------|       1,684 |     0.3
      8452A |Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-------|       4,426 |     0.8
      8634A |Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded------------|       1,061 |     0.2
      W      |Water--------------------------------------------------------------------|     12,130 |     2.2
             |                                                                         |____________|________
             |     Total---------------------------------------------------------------|    557,470 | 100.0
             |                                                                         |             |
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

           * Less than 0.1 percent.
United States   In cooperation with
Department of
Agriculture
                Illinois Agricultural
                Experiment Station
                                        Soil Survey of
Natural
Resources
                                        Adams County,
Conservation
Service                                 Illinois
                                        Part II
                                                                                                               179




How To Use This Soil Survey
Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the Index to Map Sheets. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to that sheet.

Locate your area of interest on the map sheet. Note the map unit symbols that are in that area. Turn to the
Contents in Part I, which lists the map units by symbol and name and shows the page where each map unit is
described.

The Contents in Part II shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. Also see
the Contents in Part I and Part II for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.
180




          This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
      of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
      agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
      Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
      leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
          Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1996. Soil names and
      descriptions were approved in 1997. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
      publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1997. This survey was made
      cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Illinois
      Agricultural Experiment Station. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
      Adams County Soil and Water Conservation District. Financial assistance was provided
      by the Adams County Board and the Illinois Department of Agriculture.
          Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
      maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
      maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
      larger scale.
          The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of
      its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability,
      political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases
      apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
      communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should
      contact the USDA’s TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice or TDD).
          To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
      Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC
      20250-9410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
      provider and employer.


         Cover: An area of cropland in Adams County. Creal soils are in the foreground, and Lacrescent
      soils are on the wooded side slopes.




           Additional information about the Nation’s natural resources is available on the
         Natural Resources Conservation Service homepage on the World Wide Web. The
         address is http://www.nrcs.usda.gov.
                                                                                                                                                      181




Contents
How To Use This Soil Survey ............................. 179                 Tables .................................................................. 233
Detailed Soil Map Unit Legend .......................... 182                    Table 1.—Temperature and Precipitation .......... 234
Introduction to Part II ......................................... 185           Table 2.—Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall ........ 235
Agronomy ............................................................ 187       Table 3.—Growing Season ............................... 235
   Cropland Management Considerations ............ 187                          Table 4.—Classification of the Soils .................. 236
   Pasture Management Considerations ............... 189                        Table 5.—Acreage and Proportionate Extent
   Yield Estimates ................................................. 191            of the Soils ................................................. 238
      Cropland Interpretations .............................. 192               Table 6.—Main Cropland Limitations and
      Pasture and Hayland Interpretations ............ 192                          Hazards ..................................................... 241
   Land Capability Classification ........................... 192               Table 7.—Main Pasture Limitations and
   Prime Farmland ................................................ 193              Hazards ..................................................... 249
   Erosion Factors ................................................ 193         Table 8.—Land Capability and Yields per
   Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings ........ 194                              Acre of Crops and Pasture ......................... 259
Forestland ........................................................... 195      Table 9.—Prime Farmland ................................ 267
Recreation ........................................................... 199      Table 10.—Windbreaks and Environmental
Wildlife Habitat .................................................... 201           Plantings .................................................... 269
Hydric Soils ......................................................... 205      Table 11.—Forestland Management and
Engineering ......................................................... 207           Productivity ................................................ 292
   Building Site Development ................................ 207               Table 12.—Recreational Development .............. 310
   Sanitary Facilities ............................................. 208        Table 13.—Wildlife Habitat ................................ 321
   Construction Materials ..................................... 209             Table 14.—Building Site Development .............. 330
   Water Management .......................................... 210              Table 15.—Sanitary Facilities ........................... 343
Soil Properties .................................................... 213        Table 16.—Construction Materials .................... 355
   Engineering Index Properties ........................... 213                 Table 17.—Water Management ........................ 366
   Physical and Chemical Properties .................... 214                    Table 18.—Engineering Index Properties ......... 382
   Water Features ................................................. 216         Table 19.—Physical Properties of the Soils ...... 409
   Soil Features .................................................... 217       Table 20.—Chemical Properties of the Soils ..... 422
References .......................................................... 219       Table 21.—Water Features ............................... 435
Glossary .............................................................. 221     Table 22.—Soil Features .................................. 445


                                                                       Issued 2003
182




Detailed Soil Map Unit Legend
6B2—Fishhook silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,         216C3—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                 severely eroded
6C2—Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,        216D2—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                 eroded
6C3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent          216D3—Stookey silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
  slopes, severely eroded                                severely eroded
6D2—Fishhook silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,       257A—Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
  eroded                                               257B—Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
6D3—Fishhook silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent         264C2—El Dara silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
  slopes, severely eroded                                eroded
7C2—Atlas silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded    264D2—El Dara silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
7C3—Atlas silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,       eroded
  severely eroded                                      264D3—El Dara sandy loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
8E2—Hickory loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes, eroded        severely eroded
8F—Hickory silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes          264E2—El Dara sandy loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes,
8G—Hickory silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes            eroded
16A—Rushville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes         264G—El Dara fine sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent
17A—Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes              slopes
17B—Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes            267A—Caseyville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
37A—Worthen silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes           267B—Caseyville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
37B—Worthen silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes           271C2—Timula silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
50A—Virden silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes        eroded
75A—Drury silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes             271D2—Timula silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
75B—Drury silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes               eroded
75C2—Drury silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded   279B—Rozetta silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
79B—Menfro silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes            279C2—Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
79C2—Menfro silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,           eroded
  eroded                                               279C3—Rozetta silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent
79C3—Menfro silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,     slopes, severely eroded
  severely eroded                                      283B—Downsouth silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
79D2—Menfro silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,        283C2—Downsouth silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                 eroded
79D3—Menfro silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent          337A—Creal silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
  slopes, severely eroded                              384A—Edwardsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
81A—Littleton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes         384B—Edwardsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
86B—Osco silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes              441B—Wakenda silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
88B—Sparta loamy sand, 1 to 6 percent slopes           470B2—Keller silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
90A—Bethalto silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes            eroded
90B—Bethalto silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes          470C—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes
111A—Rubio silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes            470C2—Keller silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
175F—Lamont sandy loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes          eroded
175G—Lamont sandy loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes        472C2—Baylis silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
216B—Stookey silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes            eroded
216C2—Stookey silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,       472D2—Baylis silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                 eroded
                                                                                                        183




472E2—Baylis silt loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes,        651E2—Keswick loam, 18 to 25 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                  eroded
477B—Winfield silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes          652C2—Passport silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
477C2—Winfield silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,         eroded
  eroded                                                652C3—Passport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent
477C3—Winfield silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent           slopes, severely eroded
  slopes, severely eroded                               655C2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 5 to 10
515B2—Bunkum silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,            percent slopes, eroded
  eroded                                                655C3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet, 5 to 10
515C2—Bunkum silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,           percent slopes, severely eroded
  eroded                                                655D2—Ursa silt loam, moderately wet, 10 to 18
515C3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent             percent slopes, eroded
  slopes, severely eroded                               655D3—Ursa silty clay loam, moderately wet, 10 to 18
515D2—Bunkum silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,          percent slopes, severely eroded
  eroded                                                660C2—Coatsburg silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
515D3—Bunkum silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent            eroded
  slopes, severely eroded                               671A—Biggsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
538B2—Emery silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,           671B—Biggsville silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
  eroded                                                675B—Greenbush silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
538C2—Emery silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,          675C2—Greenbush silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,
  eroded                                                  eroded
549D2—Marseilles silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,    678A—Mannon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
  eroded                                                678B—Mannon silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
549D3—Marseilles silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent      785G—Lacrescent channery silt loam, 35 to 60
  slopes, severely eroded                                 percent slopes
549F—Marseilles silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes      801B—Orthents, silty, undulating
549G—Marseilles silt loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes      816B—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 1 to 7
559F—Lindley loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes                percent slopes
559G—Lindley loam, 35 to 60 percent slopes              816D—Stookey-Timula-Orthents complex, 7 to 15
606F—Goss gravelly silt loam, 18 to 35 percent slopes     percent slopes
606G—Goss gravelly silt loam, 35 to 60 percent          829B—Biggsville-Mannon silt loams, 1 to 7 percent
  slopes                                                  slopes
629C2—Crider silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,         855A—Timewell and Ipava soils, 0 to 2 percent
  eroded                                                  slopes
629D2—Crider silt loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,        855B—Timewell and Ipava soils, 2 to 5 percent
  eroded                                                  slopes
651C2—Keswick loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded      856F—Stookey and Timula soils, 18 to 35 percent
651C3—Keswick clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes,          slopes
  severely eroded                                       856G—Stookey and Timula soils, 35 to 60 percent
651D2—Keswick loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,              slopes
  eroded                                                864—Pits, quarries
651D3—Keswick clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes,       871G—Lenzburg silty clay loam, 20 to 60 percent
  severely eroded                                         slopes
184




1070L—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent       8077A—Huntsville silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  slopes, undrained, occasionally flooded, long        occasionally flooded
  duration                                           8092A—Sarpy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3226A—Wirt silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,           occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8162A—Gorham silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3331A—Haymond silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,        occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8180A—Dupo silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,       occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8217A—Twomile silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3368L—Raveenwash silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,     occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded, long duration                  8284A—Tice silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,         occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8333A—Wakeland silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,         occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8349B—Zumbro sandy loam, 1 to 6 percent slopes,
3475A—Elsah gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,      occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8396A—Vesser silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,         occasionally flooded
  frequently flooded                                 8404A—Titus silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
3877L—Blake-Slacwater silt loams, 0 to 2               occasionally flooded
  percent slopes, frequently flooded, long           8451A—Lawson silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  duration                                             occasionally flooded
8070A—Beaucoup silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent       8452A—Riley silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  slopes, occasionally flooded                         occasionally flooded
8073A—Ross silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,         8634A—Blyton silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
  occasionally flooded                                 occasionally flooded
                                                                                                                  185




Soil Survey of
Adams County, Illinois
               By Robert A. Tegeler, Natural Resources Conservation Service

               Fieldwork by Ronald D. Collman, Charles Love, and Robert A. Tegeler,
               Natural Resources Conservation Service

               Map compilation by Ronald D. Collman, James K. Hornickel, Paula K. Shannon,
               Robert A. Tegeler, William M. Teater, Tonie J. Endres, Gerald V. Berning, and
               Kenneth A. Gotsch

               United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
               in cooperation with
               the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station




   This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of             Soils are rated in their natural state. No unusual
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust        modification of the soil site or material is made other
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural        than that which is considered normal practice for the
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to           rated use. Even though soils may have limitations, it is
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.                   important to remember that engineers and others can
   In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,               modify soil features or can design or adjust the plans
conservationists, engineers, and others collect               for a structure to compensate for most of the
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral          limitations. Most of these practices, however, are
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on            costly. The final decision in selecting a site for a
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that       particular use generally involves weighing the costs of
affect various soil uses and management. Field                site preparation and maintenance.
experience and collected data on soil properties and              Planners and others using soil survey information
performance are used as a basis in predicting soil            can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
behavior.                                                     productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
   Information in this section can be used to plan the        survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
use and management of soils for crops, pasture and            or create a land use pattern in harmony with the
hay, and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary           natural soil.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,            Contractors can use this survey to locate sources
and parks and other recreational facilities; and for          of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use
wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials   it to identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and       firm soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
to help prevent construction failures caused by                   Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
unfavorable soil properties.                                  others may also find this survey useful. The survey
   Interpretive ratings help engineers, planners, and         can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and
others understand how soil properties influence               locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
important nonagricultural uses, such as building site         playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.
development and construction materials. The ratings               Minesoil descriptions and soil maps reflect
indicate the most restrictive soil features affecting the     conditions in the survey area at the time when the
suitability of the soils for these uses.                      fieldwork was completed and may reflect active mining
186




and/or reclamation. More recent reclamation practices       Natural Resources, Office of Mines and Minerals,
or changes in soil classification may change the            Land Reclamation Division, for current and site-
mapping, classification, and interpretation of minesoils.   specific information.
At the time of publication, long-term crop yield                Climate information for the survey area is provided
information, which is typically used for yield estimates,   in tables 1, 2, and 3 at the back of Part II. The
was not available for minesoils. The users of this soil     classification and extent of the soils in the survey area
survey should contact the Illinois Department of            are shown in tables 4 and 5.
                                                                                                                 187




Agronomy
  Mike Tryba, district conservationist, Natural Resources       The paragraphs that follow describe the major
Conservation Service, helped prepare this section.          concerns in managing the cropland in the survey area.
                                                            These concerns are water erosion, wetness, poor tilth,
    General management needed for crops and for hay
                                                            crusting, and flooding.
and pasture is suggested in this section. The system
                                                                Water erosion can occur when the soil surface is
of land capability classification used by the Natural
                                                            not protected against the impact of raindrops. This
Resources Conservation Service is explained, the
                                                            erosion reduces the stability of soil aggregates and
estimated yields of the main crops and hay and
                                                            thus reduces the rate of water infiltration and
pasture plants are listed for each soil, and prime
                                                            increases the runoff rate. Soils that have long or steep
farmland is described.
                                                            slopes are the most susceptible to water erosion.
    Planners of management systems for individual
                                                            Sheet and rill erosion removes the surface soil, which
fields or farms should consider obtaining specific
                                                            typically has the highest rate of biological activity and
information from the local office of the Natural
                                                            the highest content of organic matter. The productivity
Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative
                                                            of the soil is reduced as the content of organic matter
Extension Service.
                                                            and the level of fertility are lowered. Poor tilth and
    In 1992, approximately 464,834 acres in Adams
                                                            surface crusting occur as the subsoil is incorporated
County, or 85 percent of the total land area, consisted
                                                            through tillage into the plow layer. The subsoil
of farmland. Of this total, about 73,828 acres, or 16
                                                            generally has a higher content of clay than the surface
percent, was used for permanent pasture and about
                                                            layer. Excessive runoff resulting from erosion can
360,899 acres, or 78 percent, was used for cultivated
                                                            reduce the quality of surface water through
crops, mainly soybeans, corn, wheat, and grain
                                                            sedimentation and contamination from pesticides.
sorghum (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994).
                                                                Erosion can be controlled by using a system of
Approximately 43 percent of the cropland, or 152,000
                                                            conservation tillage that leaves a protective cover of
acres, is highly erodible land (HEL) (USDA, 1985).
                                                            crop residue on the surface after planting or by
    The potential of the soils in Adams County for
                                                            including grasses and legumes in a rotational cropping
sustained production of food is good if the soils are
                                                            system. In areas where slopes are long and uniform,
managed properly. Extending the latest crop production
                                                            contour farming and/or terraces in combination with a
technology to all of the cropland in the county could
                                                            conservation tillage system can help to control erosion
increase food production. This soil survey can greatly
                                                            (fig. 5).
facilitate the application of such technology.
                                                                Wetness occurs in areas where the seasonal high
    The main field crops grown in the county are corn
                                                            water table is at or near the surface. Subsurface tile
and soybeans. Small grain and forage crops also are
                                                            drains can lower the water table if suitable outlets are
grown. Forage crops could be grown more extensively
                                                            available. In areas of soils that have restricted
on nearly all of the cropland for effective erosion
                                                            permeability and a high content of clay, however,
control. Specialty crops, such as sweet corn, sod, and
                                                            subsurface drainage may not be practical. In areas of
ornamental plants, are grown in some areas. Nursery
                                                            these soils, surface ditches can be used to reduce the
stock is grown in a few areas. In addition, the county
                                                            wetness. Management of drainage in conformance
has several orchards.
                                                            with regulations influencing wetlands may require
                                                            special permits and extra planning.
Cropland Management                                             Poor tilth can occur if part of the subsoil is
Considerations                                              incorporated into the plow layer as a result of erosion.
                                                            This process reduces the content of organic matter in
  The management concerns affecting the use of the          the surface soil and increases the content of clay. In
detailed soil map units in the survey area for crops are    areas where this process has occurred, intensive
shown in table 6.                                           rainfall can cause the formation of a crust on the
188                                                                                                                Soil Survey of




Figure 5.—Terraces have been installed in this area in Adams County. Terraces help to control erosion, especially in combination
    with other conservation practices.



surface. Poor tilth can also occur in poorly drained                break down soil structural units, moving clay
soils that have a high content of clay, regardless of the           downward through the profile and leaving a
content of organic matter, and in areas where the soils             concentration of sand and silt particles at the soil
have been excessively tilled.                                       surface. Crusting can reduce the rate of water
   Poor tilth reduces the rate of water infiltration and            infiltration, increase the runoff rate, restrict seedling
increases the runoff rate and the hazard of erosion in              emergence, and reduce the diffusion of oxygen to
the more sloping areas. Soils that have poor tilth                  seedlings.
generally have a surface layer that is sticky when wet                  Crusting can be minimized by increasing the
and hard and cloddy when dry. Because these soils                   stability of soil aggregates by adding organic material
can be tilled only within a narrow range in moisture                to the surface layer and by maintaining a cover of
content, preparing a seedbed can be difficult.                      plants or crop residue on the surface.
   Returning crop residue to the soil and regularly                     Flooding occurs in unprotected areas along the
adding organic material can improve soil tilth.                     major rivers and their tributaries. Levees or diversions
Minimizing tillage and tilling only under the proper soil           reduce the extent of crop damage caused by
moisture conditions can also improve tilth.                         floodwater. Surface drainage ditches help to remove
   Crusting occurs when flowing water or raindrops                  floodwater in areas where suitable outlets are
Adams County, Illinois—Part II                                                                                  189




available. Management of drainage in conformance            hazards affecting the use of the soils for crops are
with regulations influencing wetlands may require           described in the following paragraphs.
special permits and extra planning. Selecting crop             Crusting.—The content of organic matter in the
varieties that are adapted to a shorter growing season      surface layer is less than or equal to 2.5 percent, and
and wetter conditions can also help to prevent crop         the content of clay is more than 20 percent.
damage.                                                        Rock fragments.—The content of gravel, cobbles,
    Additional limitations and hazards are as follows:      or stones in the surface layer is more than 15 percent.
    Rock fragments can be a problem in soils that have         Poor tilth.—The content of clay in the surface layer
a high content of gravel, cobbles, or stones in the         is greater than or equal to 27 percent.
surface layer. This limitation causes rapid wear of            Wetness.—The seasonal high water table is less
tillage equipment and can affect seedbed preparation,       than 1.5 feet below the surface.
planting, and plant emergence. It cannot be easily             Ponding.—The upper limit of the ponding depth is
overcome.                                                   more than 0 inches.
    Ponding is a concern in areas where the seasonal           Flooding.—The component of the map unit is
high water table is above the surface. Land grading         occasionally or frequently flooded.
helps to control ponding. Surface ditches and surface          Wind erosion.—The wind erodibility group (WEG) is
inlet tile also can be used to remove excess water if       1 or 2.
suitable outlets are available. Management of drainage         Water erosion.—The K factor multiplied by the
in conformance with regulations influencing wetlands        slope is greater than or equal to 0.8, and the slope is
may require special permits and extra planning.             greater than or equal to 3 percent.
    Wind erosion occurs when large areas of the soil           Low available water capacity.—In the upper 40
surface that are smooth and unprotected are exposed         inches, the weighted average of the available water
to wind velocities sufficient to lift individual soil       capacity is less than or equal to 0.10 inch per inch.
particles. Soils that have a sandy surface layer, have a       Excessive permeability.—The lower limit of the
low content of organic matter, are dry, or have poor        permeability rate is greater than or equal to 6.0 inches
aggregate stability are the most susceptible to wind        per hour within the soil profile.
erosion.
    Wind erosion can be controlled by applying a
system of conservation tillage that leaves crop residue     Pasture Management
on the surface after planting, by using tillage systems     Considerations
that leave the surface rough, by establishing field
windbreaks, and by regularly adding organic material           The management concerns affecting the use of the
to the soil.                                                detailed soil map units in the survey area for pasture
    Low available water capacity can occur in soils that    are shown in table 7.
have a high content of sand, a low content of clay, and        The paragraphs that follow describe the major
a low content of organic matter. Reducing the               concerns in managing the cropland in the survey area.
evaporation and runoff rates and increasing the rate of     These concerns are wetness, water erosion, frost
water infiltration can conserve soil moisture.              heave, equipment limitation, and low pH.
    Measures that conserve soil moisture include               Wetness occurs in areas where the seasonal high
applying conservation tillage and conservation              water table is at or near the surface. Subsurface tile
cropping systems, establishing field windbreaks, and        drains can lower the water table if suitable outlets are
leaving crop residue on the surface.                        available. Management of drainage in conformance
    Excessive permeability can occur in soils that have     with regulations influencing wetlands may require
a high content of sand and thus have many large             special permits and extra planning. Selecting forage
pores. The capacity of these soils to retain moisture for   and hay varieties that are adapted to wet conditions
plant use is limited. The deep leaching of nutrients and    can improve forage production. Restricting use during
pesticides that can result can increase the risk of         wet periods helps to keep the pasture in good
ground-water pollution.                                     condition.
    Irrigation can be used to supply the moisture              Water erosion can occur in overgrazed areas or
needed for crops. Frequent applications of a small          during pasture establishment and renovation if the
amount of fertilizer are needed. A single application of    surface is not protected (fig. 6). The impact of
a large amount of fertilizer can result in excessive loss   raindrops in these areas can cause poor tilth, which
of plant nutrients through leaching.                        reduces the rate of water infiltration and increases the
    The criteria used in determining the limitations or     runoff rate. Soils that have long or steep slopes are
190                                                                                                                  Soil Survey of




              Figure 6.—Maintaining a cover of forage crops helps to control erosion in this area of Menfro soils.



also susceptible to water erosion. Deferring grazing               insulates the soil and thus helps to prevent frost
helps to prevent overgrazing and thus also helps to                heave.
minimize surface compaction and excessive runoff                      Equipment limitation is a concern in areas where
and erosion. Tilling on the contour, using a no-till               the slope is more than 10 percent. This limitation can
system of seeding when a seedbed is prepared or the                cause rapid wear of equipment. It can also affect
pasture is renovated, and selecting adapted forage                 fertilization, harvest, pasture renovation, and seedbed
and hay varieties can also help to control erosion.                preparation. It cannot be easily overcome.
   Frost heave occurs when ice lenses or bands                        Low pH is a concern in soils that have a pH of less
develop in the soil and drive an ice wedge between                 than 5.5. It can hinder solubility and availability of
two layers of soil near the surface layer. The ice                 nutrients for plant growth. Selecting adapted forage
wedges heave the overlying soil layer upward,                      and hay varieties and applying lime according to the
snapping plant roots. Soils that have a low content of             results of soil tests can help to overcome this
sand have small pores that hold water and enable ice               limitation.
lenses to form. Selecting adapted forage and hay                      Additional limitations and hazards are as follows:
varieties can minimize the effects of frost heave.                    Rock fragments can be a problem in soils that have
Timely deferment of grazing helps to maintain a cover              a high content of gravel, cobbles, or stones in the
of vegetation on the surface. The vegetative cover                 surface layer. This limitation causes rapid wear of
Adams County, Illinois—Part II                                                                                    191




tillage equipment and can affect pasture renovation,          fertilizer help to prevent the excessive loss of plant
seedbed preparation, planting, and seedling                   nutrients through leaching. Using legumes as part of
emergence. It cannot be easily overcome.                      the seeding mixture can provide nitrogen to grass
    Ponding is a concern in areas where the seasonal          varieties. Timely deferment of grazing helps to
high water table is above the surface. Land grading           maintain a cover of vegetation on the surface and thus
helps to control ponding. Surface ditches and surface         maintains the content of organic matter, which is a
inlet tile also can be used to remove excess water if         source of nutrients in the soil.
suitable outlets are available. Management of drainage           The criteria used in determining the limitations or
in conformance with regulations influencing wetlands          hazards affecting the use of the soils for pasture are
may require special permits and extra planning.               described in the following paragraphs.
Selecting forage and hay varieties that are adapted to           Rock fragments.—The content of gravel, cobbles,
wet conditions can improve forage production.                 or stones in the surface layer is more than 15 percent.
Restricting use during wet periods helps to keep the             Wetness.—The seasonal high water table is less
pasture in good condition.                                    than 1.5 feet below the surface.
    Flooding occurs in unprotected areas along the               Ponding.—The upper limit of the ponding depth is
major rivers and their tributaries. Surface drainage          more than 0 inches.
ditches can be used to remove floodwater if suitable             Flooding.—The component of the map unit is
outlets are available. Management of drainage in              occasionally or frequently flooded.
conformance with regulations influencing wetlands                Wind erosion.—The wind erodibility group (WEG) is
may require special permits and extra planning.               1 or 2.
Selecting forage and hay varieties that are adapted to           Water erosion.—The K factor multiplied by the
a shorter growing season and wet conditions can               slope is greater than or equal to 0.8, and the slope is
reduce the extent of flood damage. Restricting use            greater than or equal to 3 percent.
during wet periods helps to keep the pasture in good             Low available water capacity.—In the upper 40
condition.                                                    inches, the weighted average of the available water
    Wind erosion can occur during pasture                     capacity is less than or equal to 0.10 inch per inch.
establishment or renovation when large areas of the              Low fertility.—The average content of organic
soil surface that are smooth and unprotected are              matter in the surface layer is less than 1 percent, or
exposed to wind velocities sufficient to lift individual      the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is less than or
soil particles. Soils that have a sandy surface layer,        equal to 7.
have a low content of organic matter, are dry, or have           Frost heave.—The potential for frost action is
poor aggregate stability are the most susceptible to          moderate or high.
wind erosion. Planting drought-tolerant grasses and              Equipment limitation.—The slope is greater than 10
legumes, using a no-till system of seeding when a             percent.
seedbed is prepared, and applying a system of                    Low pH.—The pH in the surface layer is less than
deferred grazing can maintain a cover of vegetation           or equal to 5.5.
and help to control wind erosion. Field windbreaks can
also be used to reduce the hazard of wind erosion.            Yield Estimates
    Low available water capacity can occur in soils that
have a high content of sand, a low content of clay, and          The average yields per acre that can be expected
a low content of organic matter. Reducing the                 of the principal crops under a high level of
evaporation and runoff rates and increasing the rate of       management are shown in table 8. In any given year,
water infiltration can conserve soil moisture.                yields may be higher or lower than those indicated in
Establishing field windbreaks, selecting drought-             the table because of variations in rainfall and other
tolerant grasses and legumes, using a no-till system of       climatic factors. The land capability classification of
seeding when a seedbed is prepared, and applying a            map units in the survey area also is shown in the
system of deferred grazing help to maintain a cover of        table.
vegetation and thus conserve soil moisture.                      The yields are based mainly on the experience and
    Low fertility in soils can be a result of a low content   records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
of organic matter and a low cation-exchange capacity.         agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
The capacity of the soil to retain nutrients for plant use    results of field trials and demonstrations also are
is limited. Frequent applications of small amounts of         considered.
192                                                                                                         Soil Survey of




Cropland Interpretations                                       field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for
                                                               crops, and the way they respond to management. The
    The management needed to obtain the indicated              criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil        and generally expensive landforming that would
and the crop. Management can include drainage,                 change slope, depth, or other characteristics of the
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the             soils, nor do they include possible but unlikely major
proper planting and seeding rates; suitable high-              reclamation projects. Capability classification is not a
yielding crop varieties; appropriate and timely tillage;       substitute for interpretations designed to show
control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects;         suitability and limitations of groups of soils for
favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,        forestland or for engineering purposes.
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each                 In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,          at three levels—capability class, subclass, and unit
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures            (USDA, 1961).
the smallest possible loss.                                        Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
    The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity       designated by the numbers 1 through 8. The numbers
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are       indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
likely to increase as new production technology is             choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared           follows:
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to                Class 1 soils have slight limitations that restrict their
change.                                                        use.
    Crops other than those shown in table 8 are grown              Class 2 soils have moderate limitations that restrict
in the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed        the choice of plants or that require moderate
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local          conservation practices.
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service               Class 3 soils have severe limitations that restrict the
or of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide            choice of plants or that require special conservation
information about the management and productivity of           practices, or both.
the soils for those crops.                                         Class 4 soils have very severe limitations that
                                                               restrict the choice of plants or that require very careful
Pasture and Hayland Interpretations                            management, or both.
                                                                   Class 5 soils are subject to little or no erosion but
   Under good management, proper grazing is                    have other limitations, impractical to remove, that
essential for the production of high-quality forage,           restrict their use mainly to pasture, rangeland,
stand survival, and erosion control. Proper grazing            forestland, or wildlife habitat.
helps plants to maintain sufficient and generally                  Class 6 soils have severe limitations that make
vigorous top growth during the growing season. Brush           them generally unsuitable for cultivation and that
management is essential in many areas, and weed                restrict their use mainly to pasture, rangeland,
control generally is needed. Rotation grazing and              forestland, or wildlife habitat.
renovation also are important management practices.                Class 7 soils have very severe limitations that make
   Yield estimates are often provided in animal unit           them unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict their
months (AUM), or the amount of forage or feed                  use mainly to grazing, forestland, or wildlife habitat.
required to feed one animal unit (one cow, one horse,              Class 8 soils and miscellaneous areas have
one mule, five sheep, or five goats) for 30 days.              limitations that preclude commercial plant production
   The local office of the Natural Resources                   and that restrict their use to recreational purposes,
Conservation Service or of the Cooperative Extension           wildlife habitat, watershed, or esthetic purposes.
Service can provide information about forage yields                Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
other than those shown in table 8.                             class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
                                                               w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, 2e. The
Land Capability Classification                                 letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
                                                               erosion unless close-growing plant cover is
  Land capability classification shows, in a general           maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.   interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
Crops that require special management are excluded.