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Lesson+6-MRO-+Maintenance_+Repair+_+Overhaul

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					MRO- Maintenance,
Repair & Overhaul
    All actions which have the objective of
retaining or restoring an item in or to a state
in which it can perform its required function.
  The actions include the combination of all
 technical and corresponding administrative,
     managerial, and supervision actions.
MRO- Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul

   Aircraft MRO is the overhaul, repair, inspection or
    modification of an aircraft or aircraft component
   Maintenance includes the installation or removal of a
    component from an aircraft or aircraft subassembly, but does
    not include:
       Elementary work, such as spark plugs, checking cylinder compression,
        etc
       Servicing, such as refueling, washing windows
       Any work done on an aircraft or aircraft component as part of the
        manufacturing process, prior to issue of a certificate of airworthiness
        or other certification document
        Regulation of Maintenance
JAA - Joint Aviation Authorities
JAR - Joint Aviation Requirements

JAR-OPS 1 & 3 issued in May 1995
 JAR-OPS 1 - Aeroplanes
 JAR-OPS 3 - Helicopters

Applicability, i.a.w. JAR-OPS 1 & 3 Subpart A:
 Civil aeroplanes in commercial air transportation
 Operators whose principal place of business is in a JAA Member State

JAR-OPS 1 & 3 Subpart M:
 Subpart M defines the aircraft maintenance requirements as viewed from the
  perspective of the Airline Operator
 Subparts B and C also define maintenance related requirements
     Responsibilities of Airline Operators

An Airline Operator shall ensure the airworthiness of the
 aeroplane and the serviceability of both the operational and
 emergency equipment, being responsible to perform and / or
 control the following.
                                                                      Airworthiness
    Preflight inspection                  Maintenance                 Directives
                                          i.a.w.                      (ADs)
   Defect rectification                   maintenance
   to an approved                         programme
                                                                        Modifications
   standard                                                             and its policy
                                                        Life limits
                          Effectiveness
                                                        and expiry
                          analysis
                                                        dates

These requirements must be performed in accordance with procedures acceptable
to the Authority
         Responsibilities of Airline Operators

           The Airline Operator is therefore responsible for:
The airworthy condition of the aeroplane, even if the Airline Operator does not
 perform any maintenance
Managing a maintenance programme (what maintenance is required, when to
 perform it, by whom and to what standard) and getting Authority approval
Amending the maintenance programme and getting Authority approval
Maintaining adequate knowledge of the design status of the aeroplane
Establishing a policy, and work to that policy, to assess non-mandatory
 information such as certain Service Bulletins, Service Letters, etc.
Analysing the effectiveness of the maintenance programme, with regard to
 spares, established defects, malfunctions and damage
Providing a clear work order to the JAR-145 maintenance organization
Checking the subcontracted work at the maintenance facilities
   Responsibilities of Airline Operators

An Airline Operator shall establish and maintain a Quality System
 in accordance with JAR-OPS 1.035 (Subpart B).
An Airline Operator shall therefore establish a Quality System
 and designate a Quality Manager, acceptable to the Authority.

The Quality System must at least monitor:
 Compliance with approved procedures, ref. JAR-OPS 1.035(a)
 Feedback system to the Accountable Manager, ref. JAR-OPS 1.035(a)
 Quality Assurance Programme, ref. JAR-OPS 1.035(b)
 JAR-OPS 1.890 activities i.a.w. accepted procedures, ref. JAR-OPS
 1.900(a)(1)
 Contracted maintenance i.a.w. the contract, ref. JAR-OPS 1.900(a)(2)
 Continued compliance with Subpart M, ref. JAR-OPS 1.900(a)(3)

The Quality System may be combined with JAR-145 Quality
 System.
Types of Maintenance
 Each airline develops its own program, based on
  manufacturer’s planning documents, but includes
  adjustments for the airline’s own operations
 Each aircrafts requires different operators and
  programs
 BUT, aircraft of the same number of routine
  maintenance hours during the program cycle
        MRO- Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul

   Maintenance of aircraft usually categorized into
       Product type (airframe, engine and components)
       Timing and purpose of work
   Then, resulted into 4 categories
       Routine scheduled maintenance
       Non-routine maintenance
       Refurbishments
       Modifications
Routine scheduled maintenance
 Includes airframe and engine checks
 The most elementary is visual inspection of the
  aircraft before flight- ‘walk-around’
 To ensure there are no leaks, missing rivets or cracks
 Types of checks-In Grades
       Overnight
       A-Check
    Routine scheduled maintenance

       B-check
       C-check
       D-Check
 Overnight: Operate 1 to 1.5 hrs. inspection (End of
  working day) to ensure the plane operating in
  according to OEM ‘s (Original Equipment
  Manufacturer) minimum list
 In, example installation of telephones and other
  devices


                                                        10
     Routine scheduled maintenance
   A-Check: Done after 125flight hours (2-3 weeks)
       An amplified preflight visual inspection of plane's power
        plants, avionics and accessories
   B-Check: Done approximately after 175 flight hours
    (3 to 4 months)
       An open inspection for preventive maintenance (exterior
        wash, engine oil)
       Oils filters are removed and checked, parts are lubricated
        and carefully examined
     Routine scheduled maintenance
   C-check: Carried out approximately for every 3000
    flight hours (15 months)
       Incorporates both A and B checks
       Components are repaired,
       Flights controls are calibrated
       Major internal mechanism are tested
       Other tests include minor structural inspections,
        compressor, flight control rigging tests, engine,
        compressor washes, aircraft appearance maintenance,
        and post-check flight tests
                 Routine scheduled maintenance

   D-Check: The most intensive, approximately 20, 000
    flights hours (6-8 years)
       Cabin interiors (including seats, galleys, lavatories, cockpit,
        furnishings, headliners and sidewalls) are removed to
        enable careful structural inspections
       Flights controls are examined and the fuel system is
        probed for leaks and cracks
       The aircraft is stripped to its shell and rebuilt to return it to
        its original con
                 Routine scheduled maintenance
   MRO activities




               Engine Compressor washes




               flight control rigging tests
                                      Engine Maintenance
        I must leave this
        shop in full
        airworthy condition
        !

CFM56-5B and CFM56-5C at TAP Maintenance &
Engineering C-Check Hangar




                                             JT8D at TAP Maintenance & Engineering
                                             Engine Overhaul Shop


                                                  TAT and profit margin
                                                  considerations shall
                                                  never impair quality !
Engine MRO Providers

       OEM         Original Equipment
                   Manufacturers (own facilities or
                   acquired shops)
                   ex: GE, Snecma, P&W, RR, etc.

     Airlines      Airline Engine Shops (integrated
                   or independent from airline)
                   ex: TAP M&E, KLM E&M, Lufthansa
                       Technik, Air France Industries, etc.

    Independents   Independent Engine Shops
                   ex: MTU, Fiat Avio, IAI, etc.
      Non-routine Maintenance

 Done due to unforeseen event such as accident.
 An example of the first engine damage due to bird
  ingestion or an airframe dented by a catering truck
 Done also for an aging aircraft
    Refurbishments

 Any form of upgrading of cleaning, brighting, or
  making it fresh again.
 To renovate and upgrade the aircraft
 For example: Cabin upgrades and exterior painting
 Modifications
 Any form of small alteration, adjustment, or
  limitation to fulfill the aircraft’s owner.
 Most modifications are carried out within the
  interior design, not much on the airframe and
  engine.
 For example: Installation of karaoke, PS3 and various
  kind of entertainment in the cabin
      Overhaul of airframes
 A plan where a series of seven minor overhauls and
  one major check were conducted on aircraft
 The major overhaul was designed to rework the
  airplane to a like-new condition-to fit the bits and
  pieces back together to the exactness of current
  manufacturing tolerances
      Overhaul of engines and other components

 Components are brought in when either operating
  time/ condition requires it
 The overhaul returns them to specifications laid
  down by engineering and manufacturer
 BUT when practical, engine changes are made
  during maintenance checks or airframe overhauls
        Contract Maintenance
When?
 When the airline do not have the personnel and equipment to
  perform maintenance
 When serving a distant airport at which they do not have
  maintenance support
Why?
 Different types of aircraft requires different expertise from
  different areas
 Low labor cost
 Important note:
    Some contracts extend to other functions, such as cleaning
      and fueling the aircraft
   Expectation from Engine MRO Provider

The key challenge for an Engine MRO Provider is to
manage the balance between TAT and Cost maintaining


              Manage workscope vs.                      Cost
               required TAT

                                        Manage stock level vs.
Quality                                  required TAT

              Manage scrap replacement
               vs. repair
                                                        TAT
              Performance, Flexibility, Quality
           Expectation from Engine MRO Provider
     Reliability, Quality and Speed are nowadays more important
     than Price for the Airline Operator
Source: A.T. Kearney

                Completion Date Reliability
                        Reputation for Quality
                                     Fast TAT
                              Low Total Price
                            Customer Service
                       Convenient Scheduling
                           Innovative Pricing
                                  Full Service
                           Long Term Partner
                                         OEM

                                                 0   1       2       3         4   5
                   Factor                                Relative importance
                                   MRO Challenges
 Newer engines        Shortage of skilled   In order to reduce
 are becoming         staff is one of the   costs and increase       Highly competitive
 increasingly more    greatest obstacles    survivability, Airline   engine MRO
 complex requiring    today for future      Operators focus on       situation prevents
 higher levels of     performance gains     their core business      Providers from
 engineering          among Airline         and reduce staff to      obtaining desired
 expertise            Operators             a minimum                profit margins




 In general, Airline capability to control their JAR-OPS 1.890
                                                                     Stresses MRO
 responsibilities in respect to engines has decreased
                                                                     Quality Assurance
 significantly in the past years and will probably continue in the
                                                                     departments
 near future



Added responsibilities on JAR-145 approved organisations stress
National Authorities and Internal Audit to maintain proper control
                                          MRO Challenges
                                                                                    Hey pal, I have some
                                                    I guess I will end up in the    friends in the technical
            Airlines are for flying !                                               dept. who take real good
                                                    hands of an MRO
            I’ve got to reduce
                                                    Provider… I just hope it is     care of me.
            some resources in
                                                    really good !
            other departments.

            Oh..fly boys…!
            just want to fly,
            but they must take
            care of their
            planes too. I’d
                                                                                   My QA friend really
            better keep close
                                                                                   knows his place
            control.
 Time is                                                                           and his people.
 money.                                                                            He’s doing a fine
 Hurry up                                                                          job. I have to help
 !                                                                                 him more.
                                        Authority        Authority
                                        JAR-OPS          JAR-145
                                                                     Humm... These
                                                                     mechanics know what
                 Sometimes there are just so many                    they’re doing, but are
                 rules, so much to learn and so little               always under stress.
                 time !...                                           I’d better tighten the
                 ... and my boss always tells me to                  control and check
                 hurry up.                                           them more often.
Mechanic                                                                                            QA - MRO
                       Question 1
The aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO)
sector has seen tremendous growth in recent years that
involve cost centre within an airline, the maintenance,
modification and aftermarket servicing of commercial
aircraft, engines and components.

a) Briefly explain in your own words the concept of
   maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO). (3 marks)

b) Describe in your own words the responsibility of the airline
  MRO operator? (9 marks)

c) From your opinion, which is the most challenging task for an
   MRO operator and state your reason why. (3 marks)
                     Question 2
Airliner would develops its own MRO program, based on
manufacturer’s planning documents, but includes
adjustments for the airline’s own operations.

a)Discuss in details the four categories of Maintenance,
  Repair and Overhaul (MRO) (9 marks)

b) Discuss in your own words significance of MRO engine
  maintenance . (3 marks)

c) From your opinion, what are the key success indicator
  for an MRO service provider? (3 marks)
                      Question 3
MRO today has become more sophisticated in identifying,
diagnosing and transmitting defects that require the
important feature of MRO Management.

a) Briefly explain the difference in refurbishments and
   modifications in MRO. State some examples to support your
   answer. (4 marks)

b) Discuss in your own words the standard expectations from
  an MRO Provider (8 marks)

c) From your opinion, which MRO provider would you prefer to
   service your aircraft? State your reasons (3 marks)
                       Question 4
One of the most critical activities for airline MRO is to
strike a balance between supply and demand, as
insufficient stock of spare parts can lead to stock outs
and creating lost revenue opportunities.

a) Briefly discuss all the challenges that the MRO provider
   faces. (8 marks)

b) Guide MAS that has more than 1 year old aircraft with 3000
   flight hours completed in the MRO routine scheduled
   maintenance. Which types of checks-in grades is suitable
   for this aircraft. (5 marks)

c) From your opinion, would you opt to use contracted
   maintenance for your airline company. State your reasons.
   (2 marks)

				
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