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									        Papers

Tables and Figures


  Oswald Van Cleemput
     Ghent University
http://www.isofys.ugent.be
  Why tables and figures ?
• They help make numbers meaningful
  and convey information
• They show relationships
• They present material more concisely
• However, do not repeat data in the
  text, and in a table, and in a figure
        When tables or figures

         Tables                     Figures

To focus on specific data   To focus on general
  or estimates or             relationships among
  parameters                  data or estimates
                   Tables
• Upper –lower case type is easier to read
  than all upper case letters
    - ☹ USING TABLES
    - ☺ Using Tables
•   Round data to simplify; use common units
•   Avoid vertical lines between columns
•   Avoid horizontal lines, except when needed
•   Space after every five lines
                    Tables
- Use a logical format: portrait or landscape
- Emphasize similarities and differences
  - Goup similar items
  - Separate dissimilar items
- Arrange comparisons vertically
                    Tables
-   Make the content concise
-   Avoid repetitive information
-   Avoid redundant information
-   Self-contained
-   Use footnotes freely; to stand alone
-   Title above the table; no full stop at the
    end of the title
One dimentional table   x = f(a), y = f(a)



Horizontal                     Vertical

        -    -    -               a          X   Y
X       -    -    -               -          -   -
Y       -    -    -               -          -   -
                                  -          -   -
Two dimentional table x = f(a,b) y = f(a,b)

Table 5.2. Mean dry matter yield (kg/ha) of corn as a function
of amount of fertilizer nitrogen and farmyard manure

      Fertilizer        Farmyard manure (ton/ha)
       nitrogen
                             0      100        200
      (kg N/ha)
         0                 4900        10800       12400
        50                 6700        11400       12400
        100                9100        12000       12500
        200                9400        12200       13000
 Tri-dimentional table        x = f(a,b,c) y = f(a,b,c)
Table 5.4. The influence of temperature, moisture content and
light intensity on growth of oak tree seedlings in 48 hrs,
measured in mm

 Light intensity   Moisture      Temperature
 (µE m-2s-1)       content       (°C)
                   (%R.M.)
                                 10       20     30     40
 500               60            0        2      3      2
                   90            1        5      7      3
 1000              60            0        8      10     3
                   90            2        10     12     5
 1500              60            2        15     16     6
                   90            4        17     20     8
 Four dimentional table            x = f(a,b,c,d) y = f(a,b,c,d)
Table 5.5. Growth (mm) of oak tree seedlings as a function of two
nitrogen doses (0 en 100 kg N ha-1), three temperatures (20, 30,
40°C), two moisture contents (60, 90% R.M.) and two light intensities
(500 (I), 1000 µE m-2 s-1 (II))

 N fertilization    Temperature     60% R.M.         90% R.M.
 (kg N ha-1)        (°C)
                                    I        II      I       II
 500                20
                    30
                    40
 100                20
                    30
                    40
                   Figures
- Shows relationships best described by a
  figure
- Consistent scale, boldness and font
      lines: heaviest, axes: lighter, grid, lightest
- Avoid « busy » figures and « white spaces »
- Understand independently, to stand alone
- Title under the figure; no full stop at the
  end of the title
                  Figures
Line graphs
- Use a line graph to compare responses
- Put time or level on the horizontal axis
- Avoid more than three lines on a graph
- Connect points for continuous data
- Do not connect points for discrete data
                                                                       0
                                                                           5
                                                                               10
                                                                                    15
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                                                                                                             30
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Bangladesh                                                 ad
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  Thailand
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  Others                                                     nd


                                                       O




           S1
                                                        th
                                                          er
                                                             s
                                                                                                                       - Line graphs




                Series2
                          Series1
                                                                                    Series2
                                                                                              Series1




                                                                       0
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                                                                               10
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                                                                                                        25
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                                                                                                                  35




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                                                                                                                                       Figure types




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                                                             nd

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                                                                                    Series2
                                                                                              Series1
Percentage BSE   100

                                                   An, S=0
                  75
                                                   An, S=0.06
                                                   An, S=-0.05
                  50                               Num, S=0
                                                   Num, S=0.06
                                                   Num, S=-0.05
                  25                               1:1


                   0
                       0   25    50     75   100
                            Percentage BS
                     Figures
Bar charts
- Use a bar chart to compare one item with
  another
  -   Bars in logical (chronological) order
  -   Label inside or outside (not both)
  -   Avoid 3-D bar charts, unless necessary
  -   Avoid composite bars
             -1
kg N2O-N ha
     16
                                        14,2

     12                                        10,7


      8                           7,3                 7,4
                        6                                         5,9                         5,6
           4,9              5,1
                  3,2                                                   3,6
      4                                                     2,9               2,4 2,5
                                                                                        1,7

      0
          Finland           UK             BeLux              France           Portugal



  Fig. X N2O emission in the EU and agricultural activities (default
                        IPCC methodology)
                                                                                          Figure types
- Bar charts
35                                                                                                   35
30
                                                                                                     30
25
20                                                                                                   25
                                                                                           Series1
15                                                                                                   20
10                                                                                                                                       Series1
                                                                                                     15
5
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0
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                    na
          a




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                                                                                                     0
                         In



                                        Ba




                                                                                                          India   Indonesia   Thailand




          35
          30
          25
          20
          15
          10
            5                                                                              Series1
            0
                 India


                         China


                                 Indonesia




                                                                                    S1
                                              Bangladesh


                                                           Thailand


                                                                       Others
                                            Scale can be interrupted

                                       50          20 days after fertilization
                                                   60 days after fertilization
Fresh weight of rice plants (g pot )


                                       40
-1




                                       30

                                       20

                                       10

                                       5

                                       4

                                       3

                                       2

                                       1

                                       0
                                             control         U          U+HQ      U+DCD      U+HQ+DCD
                                                         Different experimental treatments
Fig. X. Carbon distribution (0-5 cm)
                  Figures
Pie charts
- Use a pie chart to compare a part to the
  whole
- Start at 12:00 with the largest segment
- Limit segments 5-7
- Label segments outside the circle
               Figure types
- Pie charts

               India           India
               China           China
               Indonesia       Indonesia

               Bangladesh      Bangladesh

               Thailand        Thailand
                               Others
               Others




               India          India
               China          China
               Indonesia      Indonesia
               Bangladesh     Bangladesh
               Thailand       Thailand
               Others         Others
Flow diagrams
                 Figures
Scatter graphs
- use a scatter graph to show correlation
  between two variables
- Use a mixed graph to show raw data and
  fitted (predicted) regression line
- Avoid redundant information, it is confusing
       open symbol plus dashed line
       closed symbol plus full line
                                                                    Scatter diagrams


                            60

                                                                                                         120

                            50
                                                                                                         100
Simulated (kg N2O-N ha-1)




                                                                                kg NO3--N ha-1 20 cm-1
                            40                                                                           80

                                                          cropland
                                                                                                         60
                            30

                                                                                                         40

                            20
                                                                                                         20


                            10                                                                            0



                            0                                  grassland                                   1/03/2004   1/07/2004          1/11/2004   1/03/2005
                                 0   10   20         30        40     50   60
                                                                                                                                   Time
                                          Measured (kg N2O-N ha-1)
Specific remarks

								
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