Organic compounds by ewghwehws

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									Organic Compounds

  PHYS 1090 Unit 16
             Unit Scoring
• Compound ID sheet: 20 points
• Compound presentation Friday: 20 points
        Week’s Schedule
• Today: Introduction
• Wednesday: Work on compounds
• Friday: Present compounds
       Organic Compounds
Chemistry of Carbon
• Four bonds
• Usually covalent
• Can make chains ···C–C–C–C···
             3D Geometry
• 2 attachments
  – Linear; CO2
• 3 attachments
  – Planar; CO(NH2)2
• 4 attachments
  – Tetrahedral; CH4
        Stick Figure Notation
• Lines are bonds
• Unlabeled vertices are C atoms
  – H attached to C are assumed
• All other atoms are labeled
  – Including H attached to non-C atoms
 Stick Figure Example


 H H
H C C O H   =      OH
 H H
    Stick Figure Example

       H
H                  H
           C
    C C                =
H              H
          H
               3D Notation
• Behind plane
• In front of plane


                      Cl

                      H
3D Practice
    OH


O   OH


    Cl
                Abbreviations
• Me = methyl

• Et = ethyl

• Pr = propyl

• iPr = 2-propyl
               Abbreviations
• Bu = butyl

• tBu = tert-butyl

• Ph = phenyl
                      O
• Ac = acetyl
Functional Groups

Determine many properties
               Alcohol
                C–O–H

• Weak acid: C–O–H  C–O− + H+
• Weak base: electron-pair donor
                 Ether
                 C–O–C

• Weak base: electron-pair donor
                  Amine
                   R–N–R
                      R
• R = C or H
• Fairly strong base: electron-pair donor
• If R = H: fairly weak acid
                 Halide
                   C–X

• X = F, Cl, Br, or I
• Polar bond
• X sometimes is readily replaced
    Double and Triple Bonds
                C=C, C≡C

• Alkene: C=C
• Alkyne: C≡C
     Sulfur Instead of Oxygen
                    C–S–R

• Thiol: C–S–H
  – Stronger acid than alcohol
• Thioether: C–S–C
                 Imine
                 C=N–R

• (Note error in course pack)
• Weaker base than an amine
           Carbonyl group

                  + C=O −


• Part of many functional groups
• Polar bond: O withdraws electron density
              Acyl Halide
                  O
                  C–X

• X = F, Cl, Br, or I
• X very easily replaced
       Aldehyde and Ketone
                  R
                      C=O
                  R

• Both R = C: ketone
• At least one R = H: aldehyde
                Amide
                 O
                 C–NR2

• Lousy base: C=O withdraws electron
  density
• Moderate acid if R = H
          Carboxylic Acid
                O
                C–O–H

• Decent acid: C–O–H  C–O− + H+
• Lousy base, except as conjugate
                  Ester
                  O
                  C–O–C

• Easier to decompose than ether
• Made by reacting carboxylic acid + alcohol
           CO2 Derivatives
                  O
               X–C–X'

• 2 Nitrogen: urea
• 1 Oxygen, 1 Nitrogen: urethane or
  carbamate
• 2 oxygen: carbonate

								
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