on Families

					 A New Legal Form of “Family”:
     Adult Interdependent
         Relationships
• Definition of a Relnshp of Interdependence
      - a relationship outside marriage in which
      any 2 persons:
      a) share one another’s life
      b) are emotionally committed to each other
      c) function as an economic & domestic unit

                                 -
       Criteria for Determining
     Whether Two People Form
    An Economic & Domestic Unit
        Under Alberta’s Adult
   Interdependent Relationships Act
• Conjugality & Exclusivity:
       Whether the persons have a conjugal
  relationship & the degree of its exclusivity
• External Representation:
       Degree to which the persons
  represent themselves to others as a
  domestic & economic unit
• Formalization:
       Degree to which the persons
  formalize their intentions, legal obliga-
  tions, & responsibilities to each other
• Children:
       Care & support
• Property:
       Ownership, use, & acquisition of
        A person is the adult
     interdependent partner of
         another person if:
• The person has lived with the other
  person in a relationship of
  interdependence:
      i) for a continuous period >3 yrs
      or
      ii) of some permanence, if there is
             a child of the relationship by
             birth or adoption
      OR
• The person has entered into an adult
  interdependent partner agreement with
  the other person.
            Q & A on
Adult Interdependent Partnerships
 • Can a person have more than one
   A.I.P. at a time?
       No
 • Can a married person, living with
   his/her spouse, have an A.I.P.?
       No
 • Can a married person, separated
   from his/her spouse have an A.I.P.?
       Yes
 • How terminate an A.I. Partnership?
   - Walk away for at least 1 year
   - Marry someone
   - Enter A.I.P. with someone else
   - Written termination agreement
   - by other unspecified means
Some Facts on Alberta Families


 • 84% of Alta pop. lives in family
 • Lone parent families: only 12%
 • Marital Status: see pie graph
            Figure 2.1:
      Marital Status & Living
  Arrangements of the Alberta
Population Aged 15 & Over, 1995
    (




    Common-                 Same-Sex
      Law
                       Single: Never
                          Married
                             Widowed
                            Divorced
    Married
          Married      Separated
       Married GSS data to be up-dated with 2001 census)
NOTE: The following are 1995
Some Facts on Alberta Families


 •   84% of Alta pop. lives in family
 •   Lone parent families: only 12%
 •   Marital Status: see pie graph
 •   Growth in common-law since ’95
 •   Marriages far exceed divorces in
     any given year. Absolute
     number of divorces is declining.
                  See graph 
                Family Formation & Dissolution:
          Marriages and Divorces in Alberta, 1946-2001
                         Source: Statistics Canada CANSIM II data base. For divorces, Table 530002, Vector 119;
                         for marriages, Table 530001, Vector 106. CANSIM is an official mark of Statistics Canada.
Number of Marriages or




                         25000
                         20000
     Divorces




                         15000
                         10000
                          5000
                                   0
                                 46
                                          52
                                                    58
                                                             64
                                                                      70
                                                                               76
                                                                                         82
                                                                                                  88
                                                                                                           94
                                                                                                                     00
                             19
                                       19
                                               19
                                                         19
                                                                  19
                                                                           19
                                                                                    19
                                                                                              19
                                                                                                       19
                                                                                                                20


                                                                                Year

                                                               Marriages                       Divorces
Some Facts on Alberta Families


 • 84% of Alta pop. lives in family
 • Lone parent families: only 12%
 • Marital Status: see pie graph
 • Growth in common-law since ’95
 • Marriages far exceed divorces in any
   given year. Absolute number of
   divorces is declining.
 • Interprov. Comparisons:
       Alta. has highest crude divorce
   rate and one of highest crude
   marriage rates. 39% of Alta.
   marriages end before 30th
   anniversary. Among provinces, only
   Que. & B.C. have higher divorce rate.
    Why does Alberta have such an high
    divorce rate? Students’ Hypotheses:
               (start here Oct. 4/02)


• Economy: boom & bust cycle
• Affordability
• Strains of occup’n-related absences
• Long hours at work: away from fam.
• Strain of interprov migrants having left
  behind soc support & soc control
  networks
• Lower age at first marriage?
• High female labour force participation
  rate
     Why does Alberta have such an high
     divorce rate? Ponting’s Hypotheses:

• Structural & Other Strains on Marriages
  e.g., a) boom & bust economy ($ fights)
        b) high level of family violence
        c) high proportion of migrants leaves weaker
                social control by parents & siblings &
               perhaps less of a social support netwk
• Ideological Factors
       a) Sexism of Alberta males (see time use data)
       b) Individualism – high value placed on
       c) Personal Autonomy – high value on
       d) U.S. Influence: right to pursuit of
                  happiness
       e) Protestant Work Ethic (sacrifice family)
• Facilitative Factors
       High female labour force participation rate
       (Click here) suggests that Alberta women have
       greater economic freedom to leave a marriage.
    Family Formation (cont’d.):
  The Baby Boom as Measured by
    Number of Births in Alberta,
            1946-2001


                          50,000                                                      45,555
       Number of Births




                                                          39,009
                          40,000
                                                                      32,664
                                                                                                 37,360
                          30,000
                          20,000              22,140

                          10,000
                                  0               |
                                                1950
                                                            |
                                                           1960
                                                                        |
                                                                       1970
                                                                                  |
                                                                               1980
                                                                                             |
                                                                                          1990
                                                                                                     |
                                                                                                  2000
                                                                               980


The Second ‘Boom’: Due to Echo & In-migration,
NOT increased rates of fertility.
                            Source: Statistics Canada’s CANSIM II database. Vector
                            ________.
                            CANSIM is an official mark of Statistics Canada.
        Figure 2.4: Crude Birth Rate for
          Alberta, Saskatchewan, and
               Canada, 1921-99


                            Crude Birth Rate
Live Births Per 1000




                       35
                       30
     Population




                       25
                       20
                       15
                       10
                        5
                        0
                          21
                          31
                       19 1
                          51
                          61
                       19 1
                          81
                          91
                          01
                          4


                          7
                       19
                       19
                       19

                       19
                       19

                       19
                       20



                                          Year

                                   Alta    Sask   Cda
        Family Formation (cont’d.):
         The Baby Boom in Alberta
       Measured by Total Fertility Rate
  Number of Children




                        5
     Per Woman




                        4                                   Alta
                        3                                   Sask
                        2
                                                            Cda
                        1
                        0
                        21

                              36

                                    51

                                          66

                                                 81

                                                       96
                       19

                             19

                                   19

                                         19

                                               19

                                                      19




                                          Year


Note that the earlier-observed increase in number of
births in 1980s is NOT due to increased fertility rates.
Note that Alta. Fertility rate now below replacement.
Indicators (a) & Counter-Indicators (x)
    of Traditionalism in the Family

 x Divorce Rate (high: see previous data)
 x Women’s Labour Force Participation
   (high)Click here for graph
   Same-sex Partnerships
   Attitudes
       a-Re: Importance Of Marriage:
                 Albertans are more trad’l than Cdns
       x   - Re: Importance of Lasting Couple Relnshp
                  Is much more important than
                  marriage for both Albertans & Cdns
  Sex-Role Stereotyping in Time Use in:
      a- Household Chores (both spouses employed)
              Yes; Alta. women spend about twice as
                      much time on this as Alta men.
       a- Child Care
              Yes; Alta. Women spend signif. more
              time at this than do their partners
       X - On both child care and household chores,
              Alta employed women spend less time
              than do employed women in other
              countries.
     Importance of Marriage and of a Lasting
     Relationship As a Couple (SOURCE: GSS 1995)
                   ALBERTA                      CANAD A

         Total     Men         Women        Total      Men     Women
                          (Cell entries are percentages)
Importance of Being Married
  “In order for YOU to be happy in life, is it very important,
     important, not very important or not at all important …
 a) To be married?” Asked of all respondents.
     Very Important
            39       38       40           36        36        35
     Important
            38       39       36           35        38        33
     Not Very
            21       20       21           25        22        28
     Not at All
             3         3       3             4        4         5

Importance of Having a Lasting Relationship
b) To have a lasting relationship as a couple?” Asked of all Rs.
    Very Important
          59        59       59          58      58      59
    Important
          33        32       33          35      37      34
    Not Very
           7         8        7           6       4        7
   Not at All
         1            1          1             1           1     1
       Time Use: Alta. in Comparative Perspective (Hrs/Day)
Courtesy of Dr. A. Gauthier. Data shown are average hours per day, calculated over a 7 day
week for married or co-habiting adults, age 18-49, with at least one child home under age 18.

Survey HOUS CCARE                     CIVIC        FREE        PERS N cases
Employed Men
CAN98 2.0     1.1                     0.1          4.4         9.1          567
ALB98 1.8     1.0                     0.2          4.1         9.0          81
NET95 1.9     0.8                     0.1          4.8         9.7          247
UK95 1.5      1.0                     0.1          5.4         9.0          107
AUS92 1.9     0.8                     0.1          4.7         9.6          870
SWE91 2.5     1.0                     0.1          4.1         9.7          601
GER92 2.2     0.7                     0.2          4.4         9.7          2174
OST92 1.5     0.6                     0.1          4.3         10.3         1261
Employed Women
CAN98 3.5     1.4                     0.1          3.9         9.6          429
ALB98 3.4     1.3                     0.1          4.2         9.8          47
NET95 4.1     1.5                     0.1          5.1         10.5         241
UK95 3.7      1.9                     0.2          4.4         9.8          97
US98   3.9    1.7                     0.1          3.0         10.1         94
AUS9 4.5      2.2                     0.1          4.5         9.8          733
SWE91 4.1     1.7                     0.2          3.9         10.0         670
GER92 4.1     1.2                     0.1          4.0         10.1         1908
OST92 4.6     1.4                     0.0          3.3         10.4         772
Non-employed women
CAN98 5.0     2.9                     0.2          5.1         10.0         418
ALB98 4.9     3.4                     0.2          4.9         9.8          54
NET95 5.3     1.7                     0.3          5.8         10.7         176
UK95 4.4      2.9                     0.3          5.4         10.7         60
US98   5.0    2.8                     0.0          5.0         11.1         29
AUS92 5.0     3.1                     0.0          5.4         10.3         625
        In the previous table,

    Note that for both child care and household
    chores, employed Alberta men spend:

•    signif. less time than employed Alberta women
•    less time than employed Canadian men
•    less time than their Swedish and even German
         counterparts
 Satisfaction and Emotional
   Ties Within Families:
          Indicators
• In Conjugal Relationships
     - Happiness in the Relnshp
     - Frequency of Laughing
           Together with Partner
• Cross-Generationally
     - Closeness to Parents When
       Growing Up
     - Frequency of Contact with
       Parents In Last 12 Months
       Familial Happiness:
           Indicators
On the next slide, note:
• Degree of Self-Reported Happiness in the
  Relationship
     - Vast majority are very happy (Cda & Alta)
     - Alta. Women are particularly happy in their
        relationships
     - Happiness gap betw. M & W is greater in
        Alberta than in Cda
• Frequency of Laughing Together
     - Vast majority laugh together daily (Cda &
         Alta)
     - Albertans (esp. men) are happier than Cdns
        as a whole.
    Happiness in the Conjugal
       Relationship, 1995

 “Overall, would you say that your
  relationship is …?” Asked of all persons who are
  married (not separated), living common-law, or living in a
  same-sex partnership.


               ALBERTA                   CANADA
       Total     Men Women          Total     Men     Women

  Very Happy
       76         72      80           74       75       73
  Fairly Happy
       22         26      18           24       24       25
  Not too happy
       2           1        2           2        2       3
NOTE: Alberta’s married couples (78%) are
  much more likely than common-law couples
  (63%) to report themselves to be “Very
  Happy”.
       Frequency of Laughing
    Together With Spouse/Partner
 “About how often do you and your
  (spouse/partner) laugh together? Is it...”            Asked
  of all persons who were asked the happiness question above.


        ALBERTA                        CANADA
     Tot.  Men Wom.                Tot. Men Wom.
  Almost Every Day
       87        90       84         82      84       80
  Once or Twice Per Week
       11          9      13         15      14       16
  Less Than Once Per Week
         1         1        3         1        3       4
NOTE: Common-law partners in both Alberta &
  Canada report a slightly greater frequency of
  laughing than do married couples.
 Emotional Closeness to
Parents When Growing Up
• To Mother
No diffs. betw. Albertans & Cdns
Men were slightly closer to mother than are
  women: 90% of men and 85% of women
  say they were very close to mother when
  growing up
• To Father
No diffs. betw. Albertans & Cdns
No diffs betw. Men and Women
Less close than to mother. (87% agreed
  strongly that they were very close to their
  mother when growing up, but the
  corresponding figure for father was only
  69%
Frequency of Face-to-Face Contact
 with Parents in Last 12 Months

• Slightly lower in Alta. than Cda
  for both mother & father
      e.g. About 1/3 of Albertans,
  but about 42 % of Cdns had daily
  or at least once per week contact
  with their father in previous 12
  months
• Women, are slightly more likely
  than men to be in frequent contact
  with their mothers (i.e., 39%
  among Alta women vs 33% among
  Alta men)
             Value Attached To Children:
          Positive and Negative Indicators

• Would Not Have Children If Could Live
  Life Over
      Only 3% of Albertans and
      5% of Canadians agree
• Having Children Made Respondent an
  Happier Person
      About 40% of Albertans and
      slightly more Cdns strongly
      agree. Only about 3% of each
      sample disagree.
• Responses to Recommendations of the
  Alberta Children’s Advocate
      The government repeatedly
      resists attempts by the
      Children’s Advocate to
      improve the lot of
      children in state care.

				
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