Neural Networks Presented By: Stuart Monaghan Date: 18/05/02 Contents • Introduction to Neural Networks (NN) • Definition • Background • History of Neural Networks • Types of Neural Networks • Who is concerned with Neural Networks? • Advantages/Disadvantages • Applications • Conclusion Introduction • Why would anyone want a new sort of Computer? – What are Computers good at? • Fast Arithmetic. • Doing precisely what the programmer programs them to do. – What are Computers not good at? • Interacting with data concerned with the environment. • Able to do large parallel computation. • Fault tolerance. • Adapting to circumstance. Definition • Neural Networks – Also known as Artificial Neural Networks. – They consist of many simple processing units (or neurons) connected together. – Has the ability to learn from the environment, and adapt to it in a manner similar to human beings. Background • The Analogy to the Brain – Modeled after the structure of the brain. • The Biological Neuron – Most basic element of the human brain = neuron. – Ability to remember, think, and apply previous experiences to our every action. The Human Brain & The Neural Network History • During the 40’s enthusiasm was high. • The Manhattan Project • Was believed that with enough resources the problem of intelligence could be solved. • Disappointment followed. Quote • “In the 1960 it was predicted that within ten years computers would convert ordinary speech and handwriting to print, comprehend and compose natural language, drive trucks, do housework, and tutor students better than teachers could. Thirty years later many proponents see no reason to change these predictions; they still expect them within ten years”. Thomas K. Landauer Types • There are many kinds of Neural Networks! • Two ways of implementing NN. – 1 Feedforward • the connections between the units do not form cycles. • Response to data input is fast. – 2 Feedback • There are cycles in the connections. • NN must loop for a long time before generating a response. Feed forward topology Courtesy of URL:http://cse.stanford.edu/classes/sophomore-college/projects-00/neural- networks/Architecture/feedforward.html Who is Concerned? • Neural Networks involve the following people. • Computer Scientists • Statisticians • Engineers • Biologists • Philosophers • Amongst others... Advantages/Disadvantages • Advantages • Start processing data without any preconceived hypothesis. • Unbiased and better understanding of data. • Once trained, speed and accuracy increases. • In return cost is saved. • Disadvantages • Training the network needs experts and is time consuming • Does not give reasons for decisions. Applications • Neural Networks can be used for forecasting applications such as: • Investment Analysis - stock currencies prediction • Signature Analysis Conclusion • The subject of Neurocomputing is vast and constantly expanding into something that can change the way computers operate. • I think Neural Networks has the potential to grow into changing our perception of Artificial Intelligence.
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