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Directions - Governors Highway Safety Association Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                              suMMer 2010      Vol. 12   no. 4
a publication of the Governors hiGhway safety association




Directions                                                                         2
                                                                              pg       congressional committees
                                                                                       report out safety Bills


                                                                                   7   report highlights state
                                                                                       Distracted Driving activities


in Highway Safety                                                                  8   aashto releases Performance
                                                                                       Measures report




technology’s                        GHSA’s 2010 Annual Meeting is
                                    scheduled for September 26-29 in
                                                                              speakers and more details about the
                                                                              workshops will be posted online as

     Promise                        Kansas City, Missouri. The meeting,
                                    Technology and Highway Safety:
                                                                              the conference draws closer.


    and Peril                       What’s Driving Our Future?, will
                                    explore both the benefits and
                                                                              GHSA will present its annual Highway
                                                                              Safety Awards at a special luncheon
focus of 2010                       challenges that technology presents to
                                    highway safety practitioners.
                                                                              on Monday. The Peter K. O’Rourke
                                                                              Special Achievement Awards
     Meeting                        Technology is a critical component
                                                                              recognize notable achievements
                                                                              in the field of highway safety from
                                    in achieving the goal of zero deaths.     2009. The Kathryn J.R. Swanson
                                    Automated enforcement, alcohol            Public Service Award honors an
                                    interlock devices, seat belt reminders,   individual for outstanding service to
                                    and data collection/linkage technology    GHSA, federal agencies or other
                                    all play a role in advancing traffic      national organizations. And GHSA’s
                                    safety. At the same time, cell phones     most prestigious award, The James
                                    and other technologies present            J. Howard Highway Safety Trailblazer
                                    dangerous distractions to drivers. Both   Award, honors an individual for
                                    the general sessions and breakout         sustained outstanding leadership in
                                    workshops will focus on these issues.     endeavors that significantly improve
                                                                              highway safety.
                                    General Session speakers include
                                    NHTSA Administrator David                 Other meeting highlights include
                                    Strickland (invited), Insurance           Sunday’s Opening Reception and the
                                    Institute for Highway Safety              State Night event on Tuesday evening.
                                    President Adrian Lund and AAA             This year, the Opening Reception will
                                    Foundation for Traffic Safety             be held at The National World War I
                                    President Peter Kissinger. Workshops      Museum at Liberty Memorial. State
                                    will address distracted driving,          Night will take place at the College
                                    impaired driving, seat belt use, older    Basketball Experience at Sprint Center
                                    drivers and motorcycle fatalities as      and features hands-on, interactive
                                    well as a host of other issues. New       basketball exhibits.
                                    this year, a special workshop will
                                    be held for State Highway Safety          For the latest information on the
                                    Office (SHSO) grantees on how to          meeting, including registration and
                                    maximize their relationship with the      travel details as well as the most up-
                                    SHSO. Additional General Session          to-date agenda, visit www.ghsa.org.



                                                                                                                   1
                                           around
                                           washington
congressional committees report out                                                      The Act earmarks all unobligated Sec-
                                                                                         tion 406 funds for the incentives in
two important safety Bills                                                               FY 2010 and 2011. An additional
                                                                                         $7.5 million per year in FY 2010 and
                                                                                         2011 Section 406 funds is earmarked
S. 3039 and H.R. 4890, the Research        of the Senate Commerce Committee,             for a NHTSA national distracted driv-
of Alcohol Detection Systems for Stop-     introduced S. 1938, the Distracted            ing campaign patterned after the two
ping Alcohol-Related Fatalities Every-     Driving Prevention Act of 2009.The            existing national mobilizations—Click It
where Act of 2010 (ROADS SAFE              bill would create a new incentive grant       or Ticket and Drunk Driving. Over the
Act) were introduced in the Senate         program for states that enact legisla-        Limit. Under Arrest.
and House earlier this spring. The Act     tion prohibiting texting, banning the
would fund a collaborative research ef-    use of any cell phone for drivers under       The bill also requires that, in FY 2011,
fort on in-vehicle technology to prevent   18 and requiring all drivers to use           to be eligible for Section 408 funds,
alcohol-impaired driving. The bill would   hands-free cell phone devices. In ad-         states must:
authorize $12 million a year from FY       dition, the Act would require that the          ●● Have a space on their crash
2011 to 2015 to support this research      state legislation must:                             form for the collection of in-
effort. In effect, the ROADS SAFE             ●● Be primary;                                   formation about cell phone or
bill would provide stable and reliable        ●● Create a minimum fine for first-              texting use;
funding to continue the Driver Alcohol            time offenders with increasingly         ●● Require law enforcement of-
Detection System for Safety (www.                 stringent penalties for repeat of-           ficials to investigate whether a
dadss.org) effort.                                fenders;                                     cell phone or texting device was
                                              ●● Create increased civil and criminal           in use by a driver involved in a
Last month, the House Energy and                  penalties for drivers who text and           crash; and
Commerce Committee reported out                   cause a crash; and                       ●● Incorporate the information
the Motor Vehicle Safety Act. The             ●● Test the subject of distracted driv-          collected in the state crash
ROADS SAFE Act was offered and                    ing on the state licensing exam.             database.
accepted as an amendment to the
former piece of legislation. However,      The bill creates exceptions for calling       NHTSA has interpreted this language
funding was reduced to $8 million          emergency services, for use by emer-          to mean that states must have the
a year. On June 9, the Senate Com-         gency personnel, for vehicles parked          Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria
merce Committee reported out its           outside the legal roadway and for ac-         (MMUCC) distracted driving data ele-
version of the Motor Vehicle Safety        tivation, deactivation or initializing the    ment on their Police Accident Report
Act. The ROADS SAFE Act was of-            function of a cell phone, and cell phone      (PAR) forms. To date, 34 states comply,
fered and accepted as an amendment         use by commercial motor vehicle (CMV)         although several are working to incor-
in this committee as well; however, the    drivers as allowed by federal law.            porate the element in their forms.
Committee chose to fund the measure
at $12 million a year. The differences     If states enact the requisite legislation     A companion to the Rockefeller bill
in funding will have to be negotiated      before July 1, they would qualify for a       was introduced in the House earlier
in conference committee. GHSA sup-         grant in that fiscal year. States could use   this spring. No action has been taken
ported the ROADS SAFE Act and was          half the funds for education and paid         yet on the House bill.
very pleased that it was accepted by       media, traffic signs educating the public
both authorizing committees.               about the dangers of distracted driving,      To review the legislation, go to www.
                                           or for enforcement. The other half would      congress.gov and enter the bill
Last year, Sen. Rockefeller, Chairman      be for any 402-eligible project.              numbers in the search box.

2
Gao issues report                                In addition to shortcomings in the re-       antilock breaks significantly reduce
on teen Driver safety                            search, GAO also notes that states face      motorcycle crashes.
                                                 numerous challenges to improving their
The General Accountability Office (GAO)          driver safety programs, yet some have        Specifically, IIHS requested Admin-
calls for further research on teen driver        developed strategies for overcoming          istrator David Strickland to amend
safety in its latest report to Congress. The     them. For example, to surmount research      Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
report, issued on May 28, also enumerates        limitations, states conduct pilot projects   122, Motorcycle Brake Systems, to re-
the challenges states face in trying to im-      to determine program effectiveness. To       quire antilock braking systems (ABS)
prove the safety of teen drivers.                overcome difficulties in strengthening       on motorcycles
                                                 GDL legislation, states form task forces
GAO reviewed research from the AAA               to champion the legislation. Other chal-     In its Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking
Foundation for Traffic Safety, the Insur-        lenges include: difficulty enforcing GDL     and Research Priority Plan 2009-
ance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)         laws, limited resources available for teen   2011, NHTSA had indicated it was
and NHTSA. GAO staff also conducted              driver safety programs, disarray in driver   looking into the ABS requirement but
site visits to six states: Fla., Mich., Miss.,   education across the country, relatively     needed additional data and analysis
N.J., N.D. and Ore. They interviewed teen        few parental programs that have been         before moving forward. IIHS said its
driver safety experts, researchers, local        developed and evaluated, public attitudes    recent studies demonstrate the statis-
transportation officials, and associa-           that lead to reckless behavior, and an       tically significant benefits of motorcy-
tions—including GHSA.                            uniformed judiciary.                         cle ABS necessary for implementation
                                                                                              of the requirement.
The report finds limited evidence on             Although the GAO report acknowledges
the efficacy of optimal provisions for           NHTSA’s ongoing research efforts, it         Recent IIHS research found that mo-
Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL),                recommends NHTSA conduct additional          torcycles with antilock breaking sys-
such as: minimum age of entry; spe-              research to determine optimal GDL pro-       tems are 37 percent less likely to be
cific hours of nighttime restrictions;           visions. NHTSA has proposed a meta-          in fatal crashes (per 10,000 registered
number and type of passengers to be              analysis (an analysis of all the research    vehicle years) versus those without.
restricted and duration of restriction;          conducted to date) be undertaken to          A separate study by the IIHS affiliate
amount and effectiveness of driver               test the statistical significance of the     Highway Loss Data Institute showed
education; effectiveness of bans on              evidence to date.                            that bike models with ABS have 22
electronic devices; length of learner’s                                                       percent fewer claims for crash damage
and intermediate stages; and role of             For a copy of the full report, visit www.    per insured vehicle year than the same
parental involvement. Without additional         gao.gov/new.items/d10544.pdf.                models without antilocks.
research, it will be difficult for states to
convince legislatures to improve GDL                                                          IIHS president Adrian Lund said these
laws. GAO reports that many of the               iihs seeks antilock Brakes                   recent studies provide “compelling
current studies on GDL do not account            on new Motorcycles                           evidence that antilocks reduce fatal
for the interplay of GDL provisions or                                                        crash risk and lower insurance losses
control for factors such as differences          The Insurance Institute of Highway           … NHTSA has what it needs to move
in teen socio-economic status or the             Safety (IIHS) has asked NHTSA to             forward with a regulation.”
limited amount of driving conducted by           require motorcycle manufacturers to
teens. NHTSA is currently conducting             equip all new motorcycles with anti-         The IIHS letter to NHTSA is
research on several aspects of GDL               lock braking systems (ABS). The rec-         available online at: www.iihs.
provisions, but it will be some time be-         ommendation is the result of a series        org/laws/petitions/pdf/peti-
fore that research is completed.                 of IIHS studies demonstrating that           tion_2010-04-30.pdf.

                                                                                                                                     3
                                           around
                                           washington
                                                                                        federal highway
iihs calls for an end to Low-speed                                                      administration offers
vehicles and Minitrucks on Public roads                                                 new toolkit cD

The Insurance Institute for Highway        Imported from Japan, minitrucks, or          The Federal Highway Administration
Safety (IIHS) is urging an end to          Kei-class vehicles, are smaller than         (FHWA) has developed new Road
both low-speed vehicles (LSVs) and         conventional pickups and more light-         Safety Audits (RSA) materials. This
minitrucks on public roads with regu-      weight (at about 1,500 pounds Gross          user-friendly CD is equipped with as-
lar traffic. These automobiles were        Vehicle Weight). Their original purpose      sorted materials created by the RSA
created for low-risk in controlled         was for off-road use, normally by            Program. The Toolkit includes eight
environments, like farms or gated          farmers or hunters. To meet Clean Air        easy-to-use sections with videos,
communities, but are now being             Act provisions, the trucks are limited to    guidelines, case studies, program
seen increasingly on public roads          speeds of 25 mph or less, but capable        contracts, sample reports, and train-
and highways.                              of going much faster. The push for           ing information.
                                           the use of minitrucks on public roads
“By allowing LSVs and minitrucks on        began in 2007 and is growing quickly,        FHWA’s RSA programs seek to
more and more kinds of roads, states       with 16 states now allowing their legal      reduce the number and severity of
are carving out exceptions to 40 years     use on certain roads.                        crashes on US roadways. Although
of auto safety regulations that save                                                    their primary focus is on highway
lives,” says David Zuby, the Institute’s   Although there is a growing demand           engineering, they also work on safety
chief research officer.                    for these vehicles as a way to cut           awareness and education programs
                                           emissions and save on fuel costs, they       to encourage drivers to gain the
LSVs are 4-wheel vehicles that re-         do not meet basic U.S. safety stan-          maximum benefit from their roadway
semble golf carts and travel between       dards for cars and pickups and are not       infrastructure.
20 to 25 mph. Purchasers of new            designed to protect occupants in the
LSVs can receive a $2,500 tax credit       event of a crash. In crash tests, the        To receive a free copy of the CD, visit
under the American Recovery and            test dummies from the LSV and mini-          www.safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/
Reinvestment Act of 2009, and many         truck recorded indications of seriously      resources/toolkitcd.
states offer additional tax incentives.    debilitating or fatal injury to drivers in
NHTSA requires little more than a          real-word crashes.
safety belt on these vehicles, since
they were intended for low-risk driv-      “Lost amid the talk about so-called
ing, so safety features like airbags       sustainable transportation is any re-
are not required.                          gard for the safety of people who ride
                                           in LSVs and minitrucks,” Zuby says.
Eight years ago, only a dozen states       “We’re all for green vehicles that don’t
allowed LSVs on public roads. Now,         trade safety for fuel efficiency.”
practically every state allows LSVs,
also called neighborhood electric ve-      NHTSA can define appropriate per-
hicles, on certain roads, mostly with 35   formance and safety standards con-
mph or lower speed limits. The Energy      cerning LSVs and minitrucks, although
Department estimates 45,000 LSVs           they have no regulatory role regarding
are currently on U.S. roads.               where these vehicles are driven.



4
from our perspective

Partnership to save teen Lives
By Jim Graham
Manager, FORD DRIVING SKILLS FOR LIFE PROGRAM


Since 2003, Ford Motor Company Fund has partnered               Our hands-on events, Ford DSFL Ride and Drives,
with GHSA in an effort to save teen lives. This                 are second-to-none. We conduct two-day events with
partnership has been very rewarding for the entire              professional drivers who personally teach students and
Ford Driving Skills for Life (Ford DSFL) team. Many             parents proper driving techniques and advanced driving
great relationships have been built over the years,             skills. In many cases, we work with schools prior to the
and, most importantly, we have implemented programs             hands-on course so that the learning can be cascaded
that have helped to save lives across the country. We           throughout the school.
truly appreciate this successful partnership, and look
forward to the exciting future of safety together.              We also provide mini-grants to states to conduct their own
                                                                programs. Realizing it is difficult to reach the entire country,
Ford DSFL is fully funded by Ford Motor Company                 we award grants so that a state can customize a program
through our foundation, Ford Motor Company Fund                 to its needs. And of course, we always welcome the
and Community Services. Like many other safety                  opportunity to speak at state conferences
agencies, we are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.            or any other events.
There is no charge to anyone for using our program.
                                                                So does Ford DSFL make a difference? Absolutely! One
Like many of you, I personally know how terrifying it           example of success is the State of Illinois “Operation Teen
can be having a teen driver in the family. I have a young       Safe Driving Program.” This statewide program with the
daughter who completed her driving certification, and           Illinois Department of Transportation and The Allstate
Ford DSFL was an incredible resource for additional             Foundation has been ongoing for three years, and so far
training. Unfortunately, over 6,000 times a year a parent       teen fatalities have declined by 49 percent. In the county
is notified that a crash has taken the life of their teen.      that initiated this program because it had lost 15 teens in
This sad statistic has fueled our goal to provide life saving   15 months, we have not had one fatality since the project
advanced driving skills to the teens across the country.        started. We are confident Ford DSFL has contributed
                                                                greatly in this reduction.
Ford DSFL was created based on research that found
that more than 60 percent of teen crashes stem                  The State Highway Safety Office (SHSO) role in this
from inexperience. We focus on four key elements to             partnership is critical. SHSOs are the best advocate of a
combat this: speed management, space management,                state’s needs and are hard at work tackling these issues
hazard recognition and vehicle handling. Students,              daily. We are responsive to the state’s needs, and are happy
parents, and educators can access this information              to work on tailoring a program that works best. Through
in a variety of ways, beginning with the website.               sharing resources, we can keep the cost of programming
                                                                down and reach out to more areas. We are proud to work
Our award winning website www.drivingskillsforlife.             with the states, and our combined names lend credibility
com has been approved by major safety agencies and              to work with schools, community groups and other
provides invaluable information. The Ford DSFL learning         organizations.
modules—”The Academy”—is the core of the site, but
there also are many other training resources, such as car       I encourage all of you to visit our website in addition to
care tips, a large number of one minute safety videos,          visiting our display at the upcoming GHSA conference.
training resources for parents and educators, and more.         Together we can make a difference.
You can even load “The Academy” onto your existing
site through a free widget that ensures users will stay
on your website to access the comprehensive training.



                                                                                                                               5
state
nebraska Motorcycle safety
                                               of the
                                               states
efforts on the Move
By Fred Zwonechek
Administrator, Nebraska Office of Highway Safety


                                                   Prior to 2009, motorcycle fatalities had been
                                                   increasing dramatically. To combat this trend,
                                                   many State Highway Safety Offices increased
                                                   their focus on motorcycle safety.

                                                   With the availability of the federal Section 2010
                                                   Motorcyclist Safety Grants, the Nebraska Office
                                                   of Highway Safety has aggressively explored
                                                   and utilized a variety of marketing strategies to
                                                   promote motorcycle awareness as the riding
                                                   season gets underway. Each spring presents a
                                                   challenge to remind other motorists to be aware
                                                   that motorcycles/scooters/mopeds are once
                                                   again part of the vehicle mix.

Our program has targeted younger motorists by using movie theater screen messages,
supported by outdoor billboard advertising. In addition, we obtained permission to use a series
of motorcycle safety posters created by Purdue University Professor Marifran Mattson, PhD.,
which included a diamond shaped warning sign with a motorcycle and rider in silhouette.

In the past two years, Nebraska has used this silhouette warning sign with the “Watch for
Motorcycles Everywhere” message on gasoline pump top mini-billboards in counties with the
highest number of registered motorcycles. Reaction by motorists and motorcyclists has been
very favorable and corresponded with reductions of crashes in targeted areas.

This year, Nebraska has added billboard advertising on the side of trucks. We are able to
select trucks that are traveling on the roadways where the majority of motorcycle/vehicle
crashes occur. This in-traffic messaging targets all motorists and pedestrians in the area
covered, as the trucks are making deliveries all day, six days a week. Because of this high
visibility, a significant increase in the daily impressions of this message is expected. It is all
about getting attention through message repetition.




6
DiD you
know
new Ghsa report shows
                                                  ?      43 states and D.C. report distracted                                                                                       Deaths of officers
states actively addressing                               driving as a factor in crashes. Similarly,                                                                                 killed in Motor vehicle
Distracted Driving                                       in 2003, AAA found that only five states                                                                                   crashes analyzed
                                                         had distinct distracted driving sections
A new report released by GHSA                            in their driver license manuals. Now, 32                                                                                   Motor vehicle crashes are the leading
highlights states’ effort to combat                      states and D.C. have these sections.                                                                                       cause of death of law enforcement
distracted driving. The report, “Curb-                                                                                                                                              officers (LEOs) killed in the line of duty.
ing Distracted Driving: 2010 Survey of                   Distracted driving is a component of                                                                                       In the May/June 2010 issue of its
State Safety Programs,” details a host                   driver education in 18 states and D.C.,                                                                                    Sheriff magazine, the National Sheriffs’
of approaches states are implement-                      and it is a question on the driver license                                                                                 Association published an article exam-
ing on this issue. The report points to                  test in 17 states and D.C.                                                                                                 ining the changes in circumstances of
stronger laws, better data and a great-                  Both public education campaigns                                                                                            overall LEO deaths and analyzing the
er focus on distracted driving amongst                   and public/private partnerships are                                                                                        conditions of the motor vehicle crashes
states. Highway safety offices from                      emerging as tactics to address the                                                                                         in which LEOs were killed.
every state as well as the District of                   dangers of distracted driving. Thirty-
Columbia, Guam and American Samoa                        seven states and D.C. have education                                                                                       The FBI’s Law Enforcement Officers
responded to the survey used to com-                     campaigns to warn about distracted                                                                                         Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data-
pile the report.                                         driving. Thirty-five states have worked                                                                                    base showed that although the total
                                                         with other state agencies and private                                                                                      number of law enforcement officers
Key findings show that distracted                        employers to address distracted driv-                                                                                      killed in the line of duty is decreasing,
driving has emerged as a priority for                    ing. Sixteen states and D.C. worked                                                                                        the number of deaths of LEOs by mo-
state highway safety agencies. Twenty-                   with other state agencies or private                                                                                       tor vehicle crashes has been increas-
seven states, D.C., and Guam indicated                   companies to develop distracted driv-                                                                                      ing since the late 1990s. In fact, the
that distracted driving is included in                   ing policies for their employees.                                                                                          number of deaths of LEOs in motor
their Strategic Highway Safety Plans                                                                                                                                                vehicle crashes has increased by 48
(SHSPs). Since these plans are only                      Additionally, 15 states reported using                                                                                     percent in the past 28 years.
updated every few years, GHSA ex-                        social media such as Facebook and
pects this number to increase as addi-                   Twitter to educate motorists and pro-                                                                                      Investigators also looked at NHTSA’s
tional states update their SHSPs.                        mote anti-distracted driving messages.                                                                                     Fatality Analysis Reporting System
States also are passing distracted driv-                 To view the PDF version of the re-                                                                                         (FARS), the only database that con-
ing legislation, with 28 states, D.C., and               port, visit www.ghsa.org. A limited                                                                                        tains detailed information on fatal
Guam now banning text messaging by all                   number of print copies are available                                                                                       crashes involving LEOs, to determine
drivers. Washington started this trend in                by request. Send inquiries to Kayla                                                                                        if the data could help explain the in-
2007, and other states have been follow-                 Howe at khowe@ghsa.org.                                                                                                    creasing number of deaths of LEOs in
ing suit. Seven states, D.C., and the U.S.                                                                       Taking
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driving laws, but they also are improving                                                                                                                                           travel speed, roadway conditions, etc.
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only 17 states collected information                                                                                                                                                fatal LEOs were distributed generally
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about distraction in crash reports. Now,                                                                                                                                            evenly among days of the week. The
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DiD you
know
ages of those killed were in proportion
                                           ?
                                           tional advertising literature published   aashto releases
to the overall law enforcement officer     from 2001 to 2009 to determine            new report on
demographics. Forty-two percent of all     what elements of road safety ad-          safety Performance
fatal crashes involved an object off the   vertising are most effective and for      Measurement
road, indicating that the police vehicle   which road user groups.
had run off the road in some man-                                                    A new report by the American As-
ner. In 39 percent of the crashes, the     This report provides an update of the     sociation of State Highway and Trans-
LEO killed was not using a restraint.      current level of knowledge for road       portation Officials (AASHTO) looks at
Twenty-four percent of those killed        safety advertising (a similar review      performance measurement for safety.
were ejected from the car.                 was conducted in 2001), and it covers     The report, the third in a series of re-
                                           the following topics:                     ports on transportation performance
The National Law Enforcement Offi-                                                   measurement, examines the use of fa-
cers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) honors           ● Theories of behavior change:          tality data for measuring performance
the service and sacrifice of law en-           Current psychological theories        across states. To compensate for the
forcement officers killed in the line of       of behavior change and social         shortcomings in fatality statistics, how-
duty—including as a result of motor ve-        persuasion relevant to road           ever, the study also examines changes
hicle crashes. In October, the NLEOMF          safety advertising.                   in fatality rate over time. Using three-
will break ground on the first-ever          ● Campaign design and                   year averages of fatality rates based
National Law Enforcement Museum,               development: Factors that can         upon Fatality Analysis Reporting
in Washington, D.C. The museum is              improve campaign effective-           Systems (FARS) data, comparisons of
scheduled to open in late 2013.                ness, such as: integrating            fatality rates across states were made.
                                               advertising with enforcement,         Six states whose changes in fatality
To access the Sheriff magazine ar-             tailoring message and means           rate were below the national average
ticle, visit www.omagdigital.com/              of communication for the tar-         were scrutinized.
publication/?i=37910. (The article             get audience, and using new
begins on page 22.) Learn more                 technology and multiple forms         The report is a departure from previ-
about the National Law Enforcement             of media.                             ous AASHTO policy. In the past, state
Museum at www.nleomf.org/mu-                 ● Threat appeals: The efficacy          departments of transportation have
seum/about.                                    of threat appeals and alterna-        strongly resisted the idea of compara-
                                               tives (i.e. positive emotional        tive performance measurement. Within
                                               appeals)                              the last few years, AASHTO members
new report reviews                           ● Exposure: The effects of different    have changed their position, recogniz-
effectiveness of                               levels of advertising exposure.       ing the reality that: performance mea-
highway safety Mass                          ● Evaluations: The difficulties in      surement will be a prominent feature of
Media campaigns                                establishing the effectiveness        the next reauthorization; comparisons
                                               of a mass media campaign,             across states will be made by Con-
The Australian University of Ad-               different evaluation methods,         gress, the U.S. Department of Trans-
elaide’s Centre for Automotive Safety          and the value of different cam-       portation and others; and performance
Research recently published a report           paign evaluation measures.            measurement has positive benefits.
on the value of mass media cam-
paigns in promoting highway safety.        The review concludes with a variety       The report further investigates the se-
The publication – Best practice in         of best practice recommendations for      lected six states and identifies 24 best
road safety mass media campaigns: A        effective highway safety mass media       practices that contributed to fatality
literature review – looked at interna-     campaign for each of these topics.        reductions in those high performing

8
states. Many of the recommended            risk maps (which synthesize available      study analyzes
practices focus on behavioral strate-      crash statistics by crash location),       unprecedented Decline
gies such as enactment of primary          and star rating maps (which assess         in road fatalities
seat belt laws, use of LELs to promote     safety-related design features on
aggressive enforcement of safety           roadway sections). In the project’s        In May, The University of Michigan’s
laws, and strong safety messaging.         second phase, performance track-           Transportation Research Institute re-
The report acknowledges the perfor-        ing was taken into account to gauge        leased “Toward Understanding the
mance measures developed by GHSA           changes in safety over time for par-       Recent Large Reductions in U.S. Road
and NHTSA and urges support for            ticular roads.                             Fatalities.” The study seeks to explain
their implementation. The report also                                                 the dramatic reduction in U.S. road
makes recommendations for improv-          The recently completed third phase         fatalities from 2005 to 2009, which
ing comparative performance mea-           applied the risk mapping techniques        dropped 22 percent – from 43,510 to
surement for safety in the future.         from the previous phases to four more      33, 963 deaths – during that time pe-
                                           states and reviewed the risk and star      riod. A reduction to this degree in such a
The report is available in an elec-        rating maps. Both risk maps and star       short amount a time has never occurred
tronic format for $60 ($50 for             mapping were found to be effective         since road-safety statistics started being
AASHTO members) at the fol-                in highlighting safe areas to drive,       recorded in 1913, with the exception of
lowing link: https://bookstore.            although problems still exist. For ex-     reductions during World War II.
transportation.org/item_details.           ample, more consistency is needed
aspx?ID=1532.                              in states’ definitions of serous injury    By analyzing Fatality Analysis Re-
                                           crashes for the effective use of risk      porting System (FARS) data, study
                                           maps. Also, poorly rated roads are not     authors Michael Sivak and Brandon
u.s. road                                  always due to a road safety problem,       Schoettle were able to identify condi-
assessment Program                         but could be attributed to other factors   tions that accounted for the largest
Broadens scope                             such as high traffic volume.               reductions in fatalities. Overall, they
                                                                                      examined 269 variables supplied by
The United States Road Assessment          There was strong evidence that crash       FARS and cover 19 of the most in-
Program (usRAP) feasibility study,         rates for roadway segments usually         teresting patterns, including reported
funded by the AAA Foundation for           decrease as star ratings increase. Ad-     alcohol use, inattentive driving, jay-
Traffic Safety, is a project to test the   ditionally, performance tracking was       walking, and young drivers.
viability of a systematic road assess-     found to be a promising technique,
ment program in North America which        although it may be limited in rural ar-    The economic downturn was cited as
would gauge the level of safety for        eas due to lack of data.                   a possible explanation for changes in
different roads and disclose these                                                    fatality patterns. For example, roads
findings for the public’s review. The      The next and final step is a culminating   with a speed limit of 50 mph or higher
program also seeks to test technologi-     report on the three-phase usRAP fea-       recorded greater reductions than
cal and political barriers concerning a    sibility study to summarize findings and   roads with lower limits, which is con-
possible usRAP implementation.             present policy recommendations for         sistent with drivers’ efforts to reduce
                                           any future implementation of a usRAP.      speeds in order to improve fuel econ-
The usRAP pilot began in 2004, with                                                   omy. Fatal accidents during rush hours
the first phase of study in Iowa and       The usRAP’s findings, including re-        also showed greater reductions than
Michigan. In two later phases, the         ports for the three phases and risk        overall accident reduction, possibly
study broadened its scope to include       maps for certain states, can be found      from the impact of the poor economy
six other states. The program utilizes     at www.usrap.us.                           on commuter traffic.

                                                                                                                              9
DiD you
know
Another reason for recorded reduc-
                                               ?
                                               FocusDriven, a U.S.-based victims’             Ambassador Churkin said, “The
tions was improvement in vehicle safety        advocacy organization.                         call for action we are making today
measures. Multiple fatalities per crash                                                       is very timely and important. Dis-
and per vehicle fell, which the authors        At the meeting, Secretary Ban in-              tracted driving is one of the major
link to increased usage of airbags in          troduced a directive for the 40,000            risk factors for road traffic crashes.
newer vehicles. Additionally, fatalities for   United Nations staff which prohibits           It was highlighted during the First
young drivers fell, possibly due to fewer      employees from texting behind the              Global Ministerial Conference on
young drivers on the road and more             wheel in any U.N.-owned vehicles.              Road Safety held in Moscow last
widespread use of the graduated driver         This comes in the wake of President            November and is reflected in the
licensing system.                              Obama’s Executive Order last fall that         U.N. General Assembly resolution
                                               bars nearly 4 million U.S. government          64/255 ‘improving global road safe-
Unfortunately, some of the variables           employees from texting while operat-           ty’ which was presented by Russia.
studied have seen increased fatality           ing government-owned cell phones,              Russia is ready to engage with the
rates since 2005. Increased fatalities         vehicles or while on official business.        United States and other interested
have been linked to motorcycle use,                                                           countries in defining the ways to
local roads and streets, alcohol use           In conjunction with the event, the             mainstream it into global road safety
and distracted driving. Although great         State Department reached out to U.S.           cooperation agenda.”
strides have been made in highway              embassies around the world to raise
safety, there are still key problem ar-        awareness about distracted driving             In February, the U.N. General As-
eas to be addressed.                           and to collect data about the issue            sembly passed a resolution declaring
                                               from foreign governments.                      the decade of 2011-2020 as the
For the full report, visit: http://                                                           “Decade of Action on Road Safety”
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/                        The announcement comes at a                    with a goal to stabilize and then re-
bitstream/2027.42/71390/1/                     time when more people across the               duce the forecast level of global road
102304.pdf.                                    globe are getting behind the wheel.            deaths by 2020. The U.S. State De-
                                               Nearly 600 million cars are on the             partment is spearheading an effort to
                                               road today, with over 4.6 billion cell         develop a strategy for implementing
international officials Join                   phone subscriptions worldwide.                 the declaration. Federal agencies, as
u.n. for Global effort to                      Drivers who are texting are more               well as NGOs and their members, will
end Distracted Driving                         than 20 times more likely to crash             be invited to participate in the strate-
                                               than non-distracted drivers. In                gic planning effort.
United Nations Secretary General               2008, approximately 6,000 people
Ban Ki-Moon joined U.S. and Rus-               were killed and more than half
sian representatives at the U.N.               a million were injured in crashes
headquarters in New York City on               involving distracted driving in the
May 19 to launch a global effort to            U.S. alone.
end distracted driving, an epidemic
affecting countries across the globe.          These statistics only exacerbate the
Joining Secretary Ban for the an-              global traffic fatality rate, which claims
nouncement was U.S. Ambassador to              1.3 million lives each year—or one life
the U.N. Susan Rice, U.S. Transporta-          every 30 seconds. The World Health Or-
tion Secretary Ray LaHood, Russian             ganization estimates that traffic crashes
Ambassador Vitaly Churkin as well              will climb from the ninth to the fifth lead-
as Jennifer Smith, the President of            ing cause of death worldwide by 2030.

10
calendar                                                          June 20 – JuLy 4
                                                                  4th of July Drunk Driving
                                                                  crackdown
                                                                  www.stopimpaireddriving.org/planners/
                                                                  July4th10/index.cfm

                                                                  June 23 – 24
                                                                  Ghsa executive Board Meeting
                                                                  Washington, DC



                                                                  JuLy 25 – 28
                                                                  2010 traffic records forum
                                                                  New Orleans
                                                                  www.trafficrecordsforum.org



second summit on rural traffic                                    auG. 2 – 8
safety culture to convene in July                                 national stop on red week

The National Summit for Rural Traffic Safety Culture will meet    auG. 20
                                                                  Ghsa annual Meeting early
July 11-13 for the second time in Big Sky, Montana. The           registration/hotel reservation
Summit seeks to identify the underlying cultural influences       Deadline
involved in driver behavioral choices, especially in instances    www.ghsa.org/html/meetings/
of traffic crashes. By better understanding the cultural value    annual/2010
placed on risk versus safety in certain driving scenarios, like
                                                                  auG. 20 – sePt. 6
speeding or texting at the wheel, more effective programs and     Labor Day Drunk Driving
legislation can be implemented to target the way drivers think    crackdown
about their practices.                                            www.stopimpaireddriving.org

The Summit has become an annual event that this year is
sponsored by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, the           sePt. 25
American Traffic Safety Services Association, the Centers for     Ghsa executive Board Meeting
Disease Control and Prevention, NHTSA and the Center for          Kansas CIty, MO
Excellence in Rural Safety. This year’s objectives build on the
                                                                  sePt. 26 – 29
progress made by last year’s Summit by connecting theory
                                                                  Ghsa annual Meeting
to practice. Attendees will examine behavioral, attitudinal and   www.ghsa.org/html/meetings/
organization resistance to traffic safety interventions and       annual/2010
will engage one another in small group sessions and larger
question/answer sessions.

For more information on the Summit, visit
www.ruraltscsummit.org.




                                                                                                     11
                                                                     ®




                  Directions in highway safety is published by the
                  Governors highway Safety association
                  444 N. Capitol Street, Suite 722
                  Washington, DC 20001
                  Phone 202-789-0942 Fax 202-789-0946
                  www.ghsa.org

                  vernon f. betkey, chairman
                  lowell porter, vice chairman
                  mike stout, treasuer
                  dave beach, secretary
                  barbara harsha, executive director
                  jonathan adkins, editor
                  kara macek, editor
                  kayla howe, contributor
                  tony frye, design




DiD you
                                                 ?
                                                                     crash-causing danger that teenage drivers may face, but
                                                                     few teens are aware of the added risk.




know
                                                                     While alcohol has contributed to an increase in nighttime
                                                                     fatal crashes involving drivers age 20 and older, this is not
                                                                     the case for teenage drivers, suggesting that other factors
                                                                     are contributing to the trend of increased nighttime crashes
                                                                     for teens. The growing prevalence of teens using cell
study shows nighttime Driving                                        phones while driving is singled out as a likely culprit.
Most Dangerous to teens
                                                                     Fatigue may also contribute to the problem. According to
The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) recently issued             the National Sleep Foundation, the average teen needs
a report examining national statistics for nighttime fatal           nine hours of sleep but gets only seven. Additionally, driving
crashes. Federal traffic fatality data from 1999 to 2008             at night presents visibility challenges caused by dark condi-
showed that although overall traffic deaths are declining,           tions. Lack of experience driving under such conditions may
the proportion of fatal crashes at night has increased –             lead to the increased likelihood of a crash.
especially for inexperienced teen drivers.
                                                                     Researchers conclude that because so few teens are aware
The new publication: Shedding light on the nighttime                 of the nighttime driving risks, efforts to reduce the number of
driving risk: An analysis of fatal crashes under dark con-           nighttime fatal crashes will be challenging unless teens, par-
ditions in the U.S., 1999-2008, reports that the ten-year            ents and other influencers are made aware of this danger.
increase in nighttime fatal crashes for 16- to 19-year-old
drivers was greater than for drivers age 20 and older. The           The full report is available online at: http://t-driver.
report notes that driving at night is the most common                com/nighttime-fatal-crash-trends.



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