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					                                         AP Government & Politics
                                             Review Topic #1

                        Constitutional Underpinnings of United States Government

The study of modern politics in the United States requires knowledge of the kind of government established by
the Constitution, paying particular attention to federalism and the separation of powers. Understanding these
developments involves both knowledge of the historical situation at the time of the Constitutional Convention
and an awareness of the ideological and philosophical traditions on which the framers drew.

Questions for Understanding
   1. Why did Madison fear factions?

    2. What were the reasons for the swift adoption of the Bill of Rights?

    3. How did the Supreme Court’s interpret the Constitution under Chief Justice John Marshall?

   A. Considerations that Influenced the Formulation & Adoption of the Constitution
          Colonial Experience
          o English Traditions: Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights
          o French & Indian War increases taxation on colonies (taxation without representation)
          o High Degree of autonomy (salutary neglect) & traditions of self-government (House of
              Burgesses, Mayflower Compact)
          John Locke – Social Contracts and Natural Law
          Articles of Confederation
          o Weak central government (no executive, no taxation, no regulation of interstate commerce, etc.)
          o Unanimity to amend Articles, 9/13 vote to pass any legislation – Shay’s Rebellion
          Philadelphia Convention
          o Compromises
                   GREAT/CONNECTICUT (Virginia & New Jersey Plan for legislature – bicameral)
                   3/5 (proportioning for slaves as population)
                   DC SLAVE TRADE EXPIRE IN 1808
                   4 YEAR TERMS FOR THE PRESIDENT
          Ratification: Federalists v. Anti-Federalists (Adoption of the Bill of Rights)
          o Federalist #10: Madison argues for federalism & discusses the potential problem of factions
          o Federalist #51: Madison discusses the fear of a tyranny of the majority (Mobocracy)
          o Federalist #78: Hamilton outlines the process for judicial review
   B. Separation of Powers
          Checks and Balances
                   i. Federalism (Balance of power between national and state governments)
                  ii. 3 independent branches of government (Legislature, Executive, & Judiciary)
                 iii. Indirect election of Senators + Electoral College elects the President
                 iv. Appoint not elect federal judges
           Legislative Branch
                   i. Article 1 of the Constitution
                   ii. Created a bicameral legislature (House of Representatives [# or reps apportioned based
                       on population of state] & Senate [equal representation for each state])
                 iii. ‘Necessary & Proper Clause’
                  iv. ‘Commerce Clause’
          Executive Branch
                    i. Article 2 of the Constitution
                   ii. President of the United States
                 iii. Process of Impeachment for removal from office
          Judicial Branch
                    i. Article 3 of the Constitution
                   ii. Appointed for life terms so as to insulate from politics
                 iii. Defines treason
   C. Federalism
         Power is divided between the federal and state/local governments
         Article IV: Relations between the States
                   a. Full Faith & Credit Clause
         Article VI: Supremacy Clause – Federal laws are supreme law of the land
         10th Amendment – powers not specified for federal government are reserved to the states
         Eras of Federalism
                   a. Dual Federalism (1780’s – 1920’s) Layer cake; separate roles of Constitution; follow them
                   b. Cooperative Federalism (1930’s – 1950’s) Marble cake; work together – top-down format
                   c. Creative Federalism (1960’s – 1970’s) Relate to civil rights movement – federal
                       government use of funds provided if certain things are abided by
                   d. New Federalism (1980’s – Present) Showing a shift back towards the states
         Amendments Beyond the Bill of Rights relating to Governmental power
                    i. 11 (suits between states) and 27 (Congressional salaries) restrict federal power
                   ii. 16 (income tax) expands federal power
                 iii. 13 (abolish slavery) and 14 (citizenship rights) restrict state power by extending the due
                       process clause to include states as well – incorporation
   D. Theories of Democratic Government
       Republican form of Government (Representative Democracy)
       Limited Government
       Requirements for successful democracy (stable economy, widespread literacy, social consensus)
       Theories of Democratic Government
         o Pluralist Theory – Power is generally broadly held by competing interest groups
         o Hyperpluralism – Many different groups compete for power and have so much influence that
             inefficiency and deadlock occur
         o Elite Theory – A small minority of the elite will have more influence than they should

Key Items to Know
Unitary Government                 Federalism                          Confederation
Pluralist Theory                   Hyperpluralism                      Elite Theory
Federalists/Anti-Federalists       Power of the Purse                  John Locke
Alexander Hamilton                 James Madison                       Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence        Articles of Confederation           Constitution of the United States
Limited Government                 Popular Sovereignty                 Shay’s Rebellion
Bill of Rights                     Separation of Powers                Checks and Balances
Elastic Clause                     Reserved Powers                     Judicial Review
Supremacy Clause                   Electoral College                   Layer-Cake Federalism
Marble-Cake Federalism             Categorical Grants                  Block Grants
Bill of Rights                     Carrot-Stick Approach               Majority Rule
Minority Rights                    Consent of the Governed             Shays’ Rebellion
Connecticut Compromise             3/5 Compromise                      Intergovernmental Relations
Full Faith & Credit                Extradition                         Formula Grants
Project Grants                     Unfunded Mandates
                                           AP Government & Politics
                                               Review Topic #2

                                         Political Beliefs and Behaviors

Individual citizens hold a variety of beliefs about their government, its leaders, and the political system in
general. Taken together, these beliefs form the foundation of U.S. political culture. It is important to see how
these beliefs are formed, how they evolve, and the process by which they are transmitted.

Questions for Understanding
       1. How do families, school, and media at to perpetuate or change political beliefs of citizens?

        2. What are some alternative forms of participation in politics? Why might citizens engage in them?

        3. What trends are there about different ethnic/racial/etc. groups in voting in American politics?

Political culture includes basic beliefs, values, and norms about a nation & its government widely shared within
that society – American political values: (1) liberty, (2) freedom of opportunity, (3) equality, (4) value of
Acquiring One’s Political Beliefs
                        - The process by which people develop their political ideas, attitudes, and values is
                             called political socialization – factors influencing this are
                               1. Family
                               2. School
                               3. Relationships
                               4. Mass Media
                               5. Opinion Leaders
                               6. Socioeconomic Factors also contribute: (a) educational level, (b) age, (c) race,
                                    (d) income, (e) occupation, (f) religion
Differences Among Political Beliefs
         Conservatives – generally advocate for a limited role of government (especially the federal gov)
         Liberals – generally see the federal government as important for social engineering of society to
promote economic and social change
Political Efficacy is citizens’ faith and trust in government & their belief that they can understand/influence
political affairs (higher efficacy is correlated with higher voting likelihood)
         Old people are far more likely to vote than are young people, more education = more likely, higher
income = more likely, suburban living = more likely, rural people = least likely to vote
         Single women and minorities tend to support Democrats, Married people, upper-middle-class people
and southerners tend to support Republicans
         Men tend to be influenced more by economic/military issues and women by social issues
Political Participation
Citizens participate in the political process in many ways
     1. Voting (the primary way people engage)
     2. Running for elected office
     3. Volunteering to work in an election campaign
     4. Getting signatures on a petition
     5. Writing to an elected official
     6. Marching in a protest or demonstration
States have registration requirements but many do not even register to vote
         Motor Voter Act of 1993 eased the process of registering to vote by making it possible to register when
you get or renew a driver’s license
Public Opinion
Measuring this is done through a variety of polling strategies (all have a sampling error) (the more they reflect
the total sum of the voting populace the more accurate they are)
         - Exit Polling (taken as they leave; based on oral statements)

Key Items to Know

Political Socialization             Political Efficacy                   Conservative Ideology
Liberal Ideology                    Populist Ideology                    Libertarian Ideology
Voter Turnout                       Melting Pot                          Reapportionment
Graying of America                  Polling                              Protest
Civil Disobedience                  Motor Voter Act of 1993              Exit Polls
Public Opinion                      Political Culture                    Demography
Gender Gap                          Minority Majority
                                           AP Government & Politics
                                               Review Topic #3

                               Political Parties, Interest Groups, & Mass Media

Understand the mechanisms that allow citizens to organize and communicate their interest and concerns.
Among these are political parties, elections, political action committees (PAC’s), interest groups, and the mass
media. Examine the historical evolution of the U.S. Party System, the functions and structures of political
parties, and the effects they have on the political process. Consider the political roles played by a variety of
lobbying and interest groups. The media has developed and become a major force in United States politics and
has an impact on public opinion, voter perceptions, campaign strategies, electoral outcomes, agenda
development, and the images of officials and candidates.

Questions for Understanding
   1. How has the role of PAC’s developed and changed in elections?

    2. What are the ideological and demographic differences between the two major parties?

    3. What role do Third parties play in American politics? Identify a few that have had impacts on
       American elections.

    4. What role does the mass media play in American politics?

Political parties, interest groups, elections, and the mass media are linkage institutions in the U.S. They are the
means through which issues and public opinion reach government.
Political Parties
Since the beginning the US has been a two-party system
Third Parties have been influential throughout history, however, have not won any presidential elections
                         - Different types of parties
                               1. Ideological (Socialists) Single-Issue (Free-Soilers) Splinter (Bull Moose)
                         - Often influence by having major party adopt their ideas
When one party controls the Presidency and the other controls Congress it is known as divided government
(tends to create legislative gridlock)
Functions of Political Parties
    1. Recruit people to run for office
    2. Nominate candidates through caucuses, conventions, and primaries
    3. Inform the public about candidates & issues
    4. Vouch for candidates through party identification
    5. Manage the government at local, state, and federal levels
    6. Turn public opinion into policy
Weakening of Political Parties
A # of factors have seemingly contributed to the weakening or dealigning of the political parties
          1. Increasing # of independents
          2. Split-ticket voting (not just voting one party for all offices)
          3. Independence of candidates from party organization (TV coverage, websites, etc.)
          4. Cost of campaigns making candidates beholden to some degree to special interests
Most elections begin with a nominating process where candidates are chosen in a direct primary
National Party Conventions are held for the presidential nominees and they compete for state primary votes and
caucuses to win delegates to be the nominee
          Closed Primary – only vote if you’re a registered party member
          Open Primary – can choose to vote for a candidate in either party
          Blanket Primary – can vote for nominees in all primary elections
Incumbents (those already holding office) usually win against a challenger – advantages include…
                        - Name recognition
                        - Good public relations that come with assistance their staffs give to constituents
                            (Credit Claiming and Casework)
                        - Larger amounts of campaign financing
                        - Positions on issues better known from experience
Voters choose who to vote for based on (1) party identification, (2) issues, and (3) personality & appearance
Party identification is more important in state/local races than federal ones

Interest Groups
-A group of people organized around a shared cause for the purpose of influencing government
- Can be divided into several categories
                  (1) business & industry (2) trade associations (3) organized labor (4) agriculture (5) public
interest (e.g. environmental) (6) professional associations (7) government, and (8) variety of cultural, ethnic, and
religious groups (e.g. NOW National Organization for Women)
                  Some are single-issue groups (only focused on 1 issues) (e.g. NRA National Rifle Association)
                        - Use lobbyists to influence public policy by providing information to legislators through
                            public hearings, office appointments, informal meetings, and distribution of reports and
                        - IG’s also help draft legislation, rules, and regulations, instituting lawsuits and litigation,
                            educating and mobilizing the public, and acting as watchdogs on government
                        - Influence political parties through campaign contributions and electioneering on behalf of
Political Action Committees (PAC’s)
The political arm of Interest Groups, business, and labor unions – they are major contributors to election campaigns
                        - Corporations and labor unions may not make contributions directly to election campaigns
                            but their PAC’s may
                        - Federal Election Commission (FEC) administers federal election laws that
                              1. Regulate disclosure of campaign financing
                              2. Restrict the amount of campaign contributions
                              3. Limit the amount that can be spent
                              4. Provide federal funds to candidates who qualify & willing to accept it in return for
                                  certain requirements (e.g. a spending limit)
Campaign Finance Reform
Federal Election Campaign Acts (1971, 74, 76, and 79)
                        - Prohibited foreign campaign contributions
                        - Required all campaign advertising include the name of the group sponsoring it
                       -    Required all contributions by PAC’s to be reported to the FEC
                       -    Set limits on hard money ($1000/individual, $5000/group) could make to a candidate
                       -    Parties began accepting $ for ‘party-building’ efforts such as registering voters and getting
                            out the vote on election day – this is so-called soft money (not directly coordinated nor
                            given to a candidates’ campaign committee)
McCain-Feingold Bill (Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002)
                       - Limits campaign contributions to any PAC per election cycle
                       - Prevents a PAC from contributing more than $15 to a political party any year
                       - Bans soft-money contributions to national parties
                       - Limits soft-money contributions for state and local parties
                       - Raises hard money amounts that can be contributed
                       - Indexes raises for hard-money to inflation
Mass Media
Includes television, radio, cable, newspapers, news magazines, movies, books, and the Internet
        Media help shape the political agenda by choosing the stories, issues, candidates, and campaign events
to cover and by framing how the information is presented

Key Items to Know

Linkage Institutions                  Nominations                           Open Primary
Blanket Primary                       Closed Primary                        Party Machine
Progressive Reforms                   Caucuses                              Republicans
Democrats                             Independents                          Campaign Finance Reform
PAC’s                                 Interest Groups                       Electoral College
Media Event                           Press Conferences                     Investigative Journalism
Print Media                           Broadcast Media                       Beats
Trial Balloons                        Sound Bites                           Party-in-the-Electorate
Ticket-Splitting                      Patronage                             Party Eras
Party Realignments                    New Deal Coalition                    Dealignment
Superdelegates                        Frontloading                          Party Platform
Soft Money                            Federal Election Commission           Referendum
Bush v. Gore                          Suffrage                              Winner-take-all System
Iron Triangles                        Lobbyists

Party Eras in US History
Federalists v. Democratic Republicans
Democrats v. Whigs
Republicans v. Democrats (since Lincoln)
                                           AP Government & Politics
                                               Review Topic #4

                                    Institutions of National Government
                          Congress, Presidency, Bureaucracy, & the Federal Courts

It is essential that you be familiar with the organization and powers (both formal and informal) of the major
political institutions in the United States – Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and the Federal Courts.
The functions of these institutions perform and do not perform, as well as the powers that they do and do not
possess, are important. It is necessary to understand that power balances and relationships between these
institutions may evolve gradually or change dramatically as a result of crises. It is also essential to understand
the ties between the various branches of national government and political parties, interest groups, the media,
and state/local governments.

Questions for Understanding
       1. What is the basic process of a bill becoming a law?

        2. Create a small chart outlining major powers of the different institutions of national government.
           Start with formal powers (outlined in the Constitution) and then list informal powers.

        3. Study the chart outlining checks and balances built into the American system of government.

             B. Congress
Established by Article I of the Constitution – legislative body is bicameral (House of Representatives & Senate)
                         - Each state would get 2 Senators
                         - Representation in the House would be proportional
The House of Representatives has 435 members (number set in 1929) – after each census reapportionment
occurs to reflect shifts in population (redistricting is needed in states where seats are gained or lost) – State
legislatures are charged with drawing these up
                         - Gerrymandering is one method of redistricting in order to gain political advantage
                         - Baker v. Carr (1962) – S.C. decided there was cause for a trial under the Equal
                             Protection clause of the 14th Amendment in Tennessee (significance: federal courts
                             began hearing redistricting cases)
                         - Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) – S.C. ruled that each district must be approximately the
                             same size in population (GA had districts as small as 400K and large as 800K)
                            (significance: established the principle of ‘one man, one vote’ leading to massive
                            redistricting and ended patter of rural overrepresentation & urban under-representation)
                          - In 1982, amendments were passed to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to encourage
                            drawing of districts to ensure the election of more minority members
Duties & Powers of Congress
(1) Represent their constituents (2) Make laws (3) Article I, Section VIII, Clauses 1-18 = Expressed Powers
Clause 18: The Elastic Clause (‘necessary and proper’) is the basis for Congress’ implied powers
                          - All revenue bills must originate in the House
                          - The Senate must confirm/reject presidential appointments & treaties w/other nations
                          - Powers of Impeachment: Formal Impeachment in the House; Trial for Removal in Senate
                          - Provide services to their constituents (casework & direct $ from the pork barrel to their
                            area) – Also oversee the operations of the bureaucracy
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
                          - 1816 Maryland attempted to tax the 2nd Bank of the U.S. (as part of a fight to limit federal
                            power), James McCulloch (U.S. Bank Cashier) refused to pay
                          - S.C. upheld constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S. citing the ‘necessary and proper’
                            clause citing it was integral to fulfill government’s duties to tax, borrow, & coin $
                          - Significance: Broadened the powers of Congress to include implied powers
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
                          - NY gave Aaron Ogden an exclusive permit to carry steamboat passengers between NYC
                            and New Jersey; Thomas Gibbons sued because the federal government had given him a
                            license for the same route
                          - S.C. ruled in Gibbon’s favor that a state cannot interfere with Congress’ power to
                            regulate interstate commerce
                          - Significance: Established the superiority of federal authority over states’ rights
Organization of the House
   1. Chief officer is the Speaker of the House (elected by House & a member of the majority party) (3rd in line
        for Presidential succession) – job is to preside over the House when in session; informally he/she can have
        great influence over (1) committee assignments, (2) choice of majority party’s leaders, and (3) which bills
        get to the floor for debate
   2. Majority Leader and Minority Leader manage their party’s strategies in the House
   3. Majority and Minority Whips help ensure party members are present to vote, to keep tabs on how party
        members will vote, and to attempt to persuade members to vote the way leadership wants
   4. House Rules Committee decides which bills will be debated and voted on
The Organization of the Senate
   1. Vice President of the U.S. in the President of the Senate (may not participate except to break ties)
             a. President Pro Tempore is elected from Majority party to act as the standing leader of the Senate
             b. Majority & Minority Leaders in the Senate are the major sources of leadership
The Committee Process
   1. 4 Types of Committees
             a. Standing Committees – organized according to specific policy areas and are charged with
                  considering legislation and providing legislative oversight to the federal agencies under their policy
                        i. The primary workplace of the legislative process
             b. Joint Committees – Members from both houses work to oversee certain specialized areas
             c. Conference Committees – Members from both houses meet to iron out the differences in a passed
             d. Select Committees – operate for a period of time for a specified purpose (Watergate)
   2. Members of each House generally request committee assignments of importance back home (help with re-
   3. Until the 1970’s the seniority rule (unwritten custom) was used so committee chairs were chosen by time
        serving – still the primary method of choosing but now its officially done by secret ballot – one advantage
        is that it encourages longevity and thus the development of expertise in certain subject matters
    4. Caucuses – groups of like-minded senators & representatives (Congressional Black Caucus, Sun Belt
        Caucus, etc.)
Making Laws
    1. The majority of Congressional work is done in subcommittees
    2. Most bills die in committee, not through a vote to kill but by languishing from lack of interest
    3. A bill does not go to the floor of either the House or the Senate until the leadership is fairly certain it will pass
    4. Types of Bills
             a. Public Bill – issues of concern to the nation in general
             b. Rider – an amendment attached to a bill (on its own would not usually be passed)
                      i. House rules has limits on the # of riders, the Senate is less strict
             c. Joint Resolution – an unusual/temporary circumstance and is the form in which constitutional
                 amendments are passed
             d. Resolution – affects only 1 chamber (such as a rule change)
             e. Concurrent Resolution – affects both houses and must be acted on by both (such as setting dates for
    5. Refer to the attached handout showing the general route a bill takes until it becomes a law
    6. Only in the Senate, a filibuster can be used
             a. A stalling tactic in which Senators refuse to yield the floor except to sympathizers, in order to
                 prolong a debate and defeat or drastically alter a proposed bill
             b. Only cloture (a 3/5 vote of the Senate) can end a filibuster – after another 30 hours of debate
    7. Logrolling turns voting into a reciprocal arrangement (you vote for mine, I’ll vote for yours)
    8. Pork-barrel legislation is the name given to projects funded by Congress not because they are needed but
        because the project will help the member in his/her re-election bid
             C. The Presidency
Primary Roles: (1) Head of State, (2) Chief Executive, (3) Chief Legislator, (4) Party Leader, (5) Chief
Diplomat, (6) Commander in Chief
Presidential Powers & Limits
Presidents also derive informal powers
                        - from precedents (e.g. G. Washington’s use of the Cabinet for advice)
                        - actions of Congress granting power (e.g. the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving LBJ
                           power to commit troops and thus widen the war in Vietnam)
                        - by the media as a vehicle for the ‘bully pulpit’ – take his case directly to the people
Limits on presidential power
                        - constitutional system of checks and balances (e.g. overriding Presidential vetoes)
                        - actions of Congress limiting power (e.g. the War Powers Act to counter the Gulf of
                           Tonkin Resolution)
                        - decisions of federal courts affecting programs/policies the president favors
                        - ineffectiveness of the bureaucracy in implementing presidential programs
                        - realities of global politics making it difficult to avoid international cooperation
                        - public opinion
President as Head of State
    1. Represents the nation
             a. Military responsibilities (Commander in Chief)
             b. Judicial responsibilities
                      i. Granting reprieves, pardons, and amnesties to those who threaten national security
                     ii. Nominate members to the Supreme Court and other federal courts
             c. Diplomatic responsibilities (Chief Diplomat)
President as Chief Executive
    1. Every president since Washington has assembled the heads of government departments in a circle of
        advisors known as the Cabinet
             a. Original 3 departments grew to 15 (14 Secretaries + Attorney General)
             b. State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health & Human
                 Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans
                 Affairs, Homeland Security
    2. White House Staff serve the president
            a. Chief of Staff, Press Secretary, etc.
    3. Executive Office
            a. National Security Council (NSC), Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), & the Office of
                 Management & Budget (OMB)
                      i. OMB – develops president’s annual budget, reviews legislative/regulatory proposals,
                          oversees department spending, & makes policy recommendations to the President
                     ii. NSC – President, VP, Secretaries of State & Defense, Director of CIA, Joint Chiefs of
                          Staff, & other advisors – provide information & policy recommendations
President as Chief Legislator
    1. Grown dramatically since FDR
    2. When bill arrives on President’s desk, he may
            a. Veto it (if in session for more than 10 days following veto; it can be overridden by 2/3 vote of
                 both houses) (if due to adjourn within 10 days not acting on it becomes a pocket veto)
            b. Sign the bill so it becomes law
    3. Line-item-veto legislation was introduced allowing the president to veto just parts (line items) of
        appropriations bills especially relating to pork-barrel legislation (prior to he had sign whole thing or
        veto the whole thing) – line item veto was determined to be unconstitutional in Clinton v. City of New
        York (1998) when he cut an appropriations fund earmarked for NYC
    4. Divided Government results when the President is from one party and the majority in Congress is the
    5. Executive Orders are one way presidents can get around opposition
            a. These have the force of law but do not require Congressional approval (e.g. Harry Truman used
                 an executive order to desegregate the armed forces when the Dixiecrats opposed him)
President as Party Leader
    1. The de facto head of his party and works to get their agenda through Congress
            a. Bargaining, Appeal to party members, assist in fund-raising, help in elections, dispense perks
                 are all methods Presidents can use to get favor – and votes – from party members in Congress
President as Chief Diplomat
    1. Responsible for maintaining national security
            a. Power of recognition – recognize the sovereignty of other nations
            b. Can end relations with other nations
            c. Can negotiate treaties

           D. The Federal Bureaucracy
Made up of cabinet-level departments operated through bureaus, services, administrations, branches, & divisions
                     - Independent Regulatory Agencies
                            1. Considered independent but President still appoints the top members
                            2. Terms are generally no longer than a presidential term, staggered, & neither
                                party may have a majority on a board/commission
                            3. Can exercise quasi-legislative, judicial, & executive powers
                            4. Examples (Board of Governors: Federal Reserve System, Federal
                                Communications Commission, Federal Trade Commission, Securities &
                                Exchange Commission, etc.)
                     - Deregulation began under J. Carter and intensified during R. Reagan’s presidency
                          with the goals of increasing competition, cutting costs of enforcement, & decrease
                          consumer prices
                     - Government Corporations
                            1. Businesses that provide services to the general public for a fee; some provide
                                aid to failing industries, etc.
                                     a. Public Broadcasting Corporation is an Example
                     - Independent Executive Agencies
                            1. Perform services for the government and for the public
                                     a. Federal Election Commission, Civil Rights Commission, etc.
                       -     Subgovernments (Iron Triangles – shared web of interests that have come to connect
                             Congressional committees/sub-committees, agencies in the executive branch, and
                             interest groups
             E. The Federal Judiciary
Article III established the Supreme Court, but Congress was charged with determining the type of lower court
system that should be set up. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established federal district courts and over time,
Congress added to these with courts of appeal among others.
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts
          1. Most law cases in the U.S. are tried in local (state) courts
          2. Most criminal cases end in plea bargains, not trials
          3. Original Jurisdiction - District Courts & S.C. – Appellate Jurisdiction – Courts of Appeal & S.C.
                    i. S.C. Original Jurisdiction (1 – one party is a state, 2 – 2 or more states are parties, 3 – official
                        representative of a foreign nation is a party
          4. Article III outlines the types of cases the federal courts will hear
                    i. Application or Interpretation of the Constitution, federal law, or a federal treaty
                   ii. Admiralty and maritime laws
                  iii. The U.S., a federal government official, or a federal agency
                  iv. A representative of a foreign government (e.g. ambassador)
                   v. A state suing another state, a citizen of another state, or a foreign gvmt or one of its subjects
                  vi. Citizen of one state sues citizen of another (minimum suit of $50K)
                 vii. Land claimed under grants by 2 or more states
Appointment of Federal Judges
    1. All federal judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate
             a. Supreme Court Justices serve for life (to insulate them from politics)
             b. Certain courts are appointed for specified terms (e.g. 4 years for Superior Court Judges in D.C.,
                  15 years for Court of Military Appeals)
             c. Presidential appointments to lower courts can be blocked by a tradition known as senatorial courtesy
                  – Senator objects to one in his/her own state the Senate does not confirm (unwritten rule)
             d. Nomination & Confirmation has become highly politicized
                        i. Liberals and Conservatives vie over the public policy agenda (want one that agrees)
Judicial Activism & Restraint
                       - Philosophy of interpretation (strict constructionists believe that the Constitution should
                           be interpreted as it was written originally – a.k.a. originalists) (loose constructionists
                           believe the Constitution should be molded with the times)
                       - Judicial Activism believes the court’s decisions should help mold national policy
                       - Judicial Restraint believes that the S.C. should avoid taking an active role in shaping
                           national policy
Role of the Supreme Court
    1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the principle of Judicial Review making the Supreme Court
         the final arbiter of Constitutionality
    2. The Supreme Court is passive because it can only use its power on appeal – it can’t issue a decision
         without someone bringing a decision to it to be made
    3. The Rule of 4 – at least 4 justices must agree to hear a case for the Court to order a Writ of Certiorari
         ordering a lower court to send the case records for review
             a. If the S.C. does not take a case, the lower decision stands
    4. The U.S. Solicitor General represents the U.S. in any case involving the federal government
Checks & Balances
                           - Major influence of the President on the federal court system is appointment of
                               judges (subject to Senate confirmation)
                           - FDR tried to influence the court through his attempted (failed) court-packing
                           - Congress can pass bills that limit the Court’s ability to hear certain kinds of cases
                           - Congress may revise a bill & reintroduce it if the S.C. finds an original law
                      -   Judiciary has zero power to implement/enforce its rulings – it must rely on the
                          other branches

Key Items to Know

Formal Powers of the President Informal Powers of the President        Imperial Presidency
Cabinet                        NSC                                     OMB
CEA                            White House Staff                       Veto Power
Executive Agreements           Commander-in-Chief                      Senatorial Courtesy
Powers of Congress             Filibuster                              Cloture
Speaker of the House           Minority/Majority Leaders               Standing Committees
Select Committees              How a Bill Becomes a Law                Joint Committees
Iron Triangles                 Incumbents                              Gerrymandering
Reapportionment                Caucus                                  CBO
Pork Barrel                    Casework                                Lobbyists
Civil Service Reform           Independent Regulatory Agencies         Spoils System
Red Tape                       FDA                                     FEMA
FTC                            SEC                                     EPA
FCC                            Criminal Law                            Civil Law
Amicus Curiae                  Judicial Review                         Stare Decisis
Judicial Activism/Restraint    Original Jurisdiction                   Appellate Jurisdiction
Senate Confirmation of Judges  Writs of Certiorari                     John Marshall
Earl Warren                    Precedent                               Pendleton Act (1883)
Congressional Budget & Impoundment Act (1974)                          Hatch Act (1939)
National Security Act (1947)   War Powers Act (1973)                   Mark-ups
Legislative Oversight          Bills                                   22nd Amendment
Impeachment                    Watergate                               25th Amendment
Presidential Coattails         Government Corporations                 Policy Implementation
Regulation                     Deregulation                            Writ of Certiorari
Majority Opinion               Dissenting Opinion                      Concurring Opinion
Original Intent                Conference Committees

Supreme Court Cases of Significance

Marbury v. Madison                McCulloch v. Maryland                Gibbons v. Ogden
Barron v. Baltimore               Mapp v. Ohio                         United States v. Nixon
                                           AP Government & Politics
                                               Review Topic #5

                                                  Public Policy

Public Policy is the result of interactions and dynamics among actors, interest groups, institutions, and processes
of government. The formation of policy agendas, the enactment of public policies, and

Questions for Understanding
   1. What issues come up during the budgeting process?

    2. What are some of the highest expenses in the federal budget? Is there anything significant about these?

    3. How can government’s try to influence the economy?

    4. Describe some ways in which the U.S. government provides social welfare to society.

Public policy is all the actions that a government takes. It may be a law, a rule, a regulation, a court order, an
executive order and is backed by some government sanction (either a reward or punishment)
                        A. Economic Policy
The Budget Process
        - Article 1, Section 8-1 gives Congress power to lay and collect taxes & pay the debt of the U.S.
        - All revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives
        - 16th Amendment allows the federal government to lay an income tax
        - The Process
                             a. Begins with President – OMB pulls together budget requests from each agency
                                 within executive branch & reviews, revises, & submits to Congress
                             b. Budget Committee in each house studies it while the Appropriations Committees
                                 hold hearings and takes testimony from government agencies & interest groups
                                 about the requested budgetary needs
                             c. Fiscal Year begins on October 1 – if all appropriations bills aren’t passed,
                                 Congress may pass a continuing resolution allowing a department to operate on
                                 the basis of last year’s budget
        - Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act of 1985
                             a. An attempt to force fiscal responsibility & control the size of the national debt
                             b. 1990 part of the bill was determined unconstitutional
Fiscal Policy
Relates to the impact of government taxing, spending, & borrowing policies in the nation’s economy
                               - Keynesian Theory (stimulate economy by increased spending) (Dems since FDR)
                               - Supply Side Theory (stimulate by cutting taxes & encouraging investment)
                                   (Republicans since REAGAN)
Monetary Policy
Relates to the government’s management of the economy by manipulating the supply of money & credit
                             - Credit is manipulated by increasing/decreasing/maintaining interest rates
                             - The Federal Reserve system is the agency that determines U.S. monetary policy
                                      a. Sets the discount rate for money borrowed from Federal Reserve Banks
                                      b. Sets reserve requirements of how much $ banks must keep on hand
                                      c. Also by buying and selling government securities
Issues in Economic Policymaking
Economic policy is affected by and concerned with (1) inflation, (2) unemployment rate, (3) trade deficit, and
(4) national debt
                             - Various constituencies push for action, such as
                                      a. Minimum wage increases
                                      b. Deregulation of industries
                                      c. Protection of the environment and consumers
                                      d. Stimulating industrial & agricultural growth
                                      e. Promoting trade with other nations by eliminating trade barriers
The Environment
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is the regulatory agency charged with protecting the environment
Key legislation includes
                             - Clean Air Act of 1970
                             - Water Pollution Act of 1972
                             - Endangered Species Act of 1973
Various interest groups try to influence public policy following their own agendas
                             - Environmentalists (especially radical ones who despise industry, etc.)
                             - Property Owners (lumber, mining, oil companies, & ranchers, etc.)
                             - Workers employed in industries affected
                             - Foreign nations

                       B. Social & Domestic Policy
Article 1, Section 8-1 asks Congress “to provide for… the general welfare of the United States.”
         Social Insurance
             o Social Security (old age, survivors, & disability insurance – OASDI)
             o Unemployment compensation
             o Medicare (help with medical costs for elderly)
1 and 2 began during the New Deal; unemployment compensation programs are administered jointly by the
states & federal government. Social Security is a federal program – employers/employees pay into the trust
fund through the Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA). Medicare was established in 1965 as part of
LBJ’s Great Society programs.
         Public Assistance
             o Welfare began as part of the Social Security authorizing act
             o TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) – a block grant for the states – means testing
                 is used to establish eligibility – recipients have a time limit for benefits and must enter a work
                 program (welfare-to-work)
             o Approximately 13% of the population live under the poverty line
                       Most likely to be single women (1), children under 18 (2), Hispanic/black (3), urban
                          dwellers (4), and living in the south (5)
         Entitlements
             o Programs that provide a specified level of benefits to all persons meeting certain criteria
             o Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, Food Stamps, & TANF are all examples
             o Entitlements + National Interest on the Debt make up ~80% of the annual budget and are known
                 as uncontrollable expenditures – some have built-in cost-of-living adjustments (COLAS)
         Education
             o Debate over public education involves
                       Proper role of the federal government
                       Higher academic standards
                       Better preparation for teachers
                   Best use of technology in education
                   School vouchers
                   Charter schools
          o No Child Left Behind (NCLB) passed in 2001 focused on holding schools accountable for
             failure to educate students
         Health Care
          o Problems with the current health-care system
                   High costs of health care
                   More than 40 million Americans don’t have health insurance
                   Uneven quality of care allowed by HMO’s
                   Amount of paperwork required to obtain permission for procedures
                   Malpractice and litigation costs

                        C. Foreign & Defense Policy
The U.S. moved from a policy of isolationism in the early 20th century to one of internationalism by the end of
the century. Changing political alliances and a globalization of the economy were two factors that moved the
nation in this direction.
     The basis of U.S. foreign & defense policy
             o Foreign Policy = sum total of a nations action’s in world affairs
             o Diplomatic, Military, & Economic aspects
             o Chief responsibility rests with the President, according to the Constitution (Chief Diplomat and
                  Commander in Chief)
             o Congress (especially Senate) has important roles too
                       Power to declare war
                       Approve troop commitments (War Powers Resolution Act)
                       Appropriate funding for foreign policy projects (troop commitment + foreign aid)
                       SENATE (approve all treaties + confirm appointments of top-level officials, i.e.
     Setting Policy
             o President uses the National Security Council (NSC) for advice
                       President chairs the council
                       Other members: VP, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense – Additional attendees
                          may be the Joint Chiefs of Staff (commanding officers of 4 branches of the military) &
                          Director of the CIA
             o Other actors that U.S. foreign policy may engage with
                       Other nations
                       International Organizations (United Nations: UN)
                       Regional economic/military organizations (European Union: EU, South East Asian
                          Nations: ASEAN)
                       Multinational Organizations (MNC’s: Microsoft & Toyota)
                       Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s: Amnesty International)
             o Must also consider domestic politics
                       Public opinion (especially interest groups/ethnic groups with ties)
                       Congressional views on involvement with the issue or area of the world
             o Three major means of action to carry out foreign policy decisions
                       Military Action (use of force, conventional war or covert ops)
                       Economic Policies (foreign aid, sanctions, tariff regulations, monetary policies)
                       Diplomacy (negations and/or political coercion)
     Defense Policy from 1950-Present
             o WW2 ended America’s long-standing policy of isolationism advocated by GW in his farewell
             o Cold War initiated the nuclear arms race + doctrine of containment
             o Richard Nixon launched a period of détente with the USSR but Ronald Reagan called them the
                  “Evil Empire” and favored rearmament
             o Current F.P. - Collective Security & policies of deterrence
Key Items to Know
Clean Air Act (1970)           Welfare Reform Act (1996)    NAFTA
Social Security                Medicare                     Medicaid
Capitalism                     Multinationals               Labor Unions (Strikes, Collective Bargaining)
Inflation                      Consumer Price Index (CPI)   Laissez Faire
Monetary Policy                Fiscal Policy                Federal Reserve System
Supply-side Economics          Antitrust Policy             FDA (Food & Drug Administration)
FTC (Federal Trade Commission) Wagner Act                   Taft-Hartley Act
Entitlements                   Proportional Tax             Progressive Tax
Regressive Tax                 TANF                         HMO’s
United Nations (UN)            Alternative Energy Sources   EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Isolationism                   Containment                  Détente
Balance of Trade               Tariffs                      Budget
Deficit                        Debt                         Uncontrollable Expenditures
House Ways & Means Committee Senate Finance Committee       Tax Expenditures
Congressional Budget & Impoundment Act                      Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
                                          AP Government & Politics
                                              Review Topic #6

                                         Civil Rights & Civil Liberties

Questions for Understanding
   1. What is the doctrine of incorporation? Describe a few cases that advanced this doctrine.

    2. Know the basics about at least 10-20 court cases dealing with Civil rights and civil liberties.
    3. Explain what each of the following civil rights laws did:
          a. Civil Rights Act of 1957 & 1964
          b. Voting Rights Act of 1965
          c. Higher Education Act of 1972 (Title IX)
          d. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Because the Bill of Rights is built on the concept of federalism, the Bill of Rights applies only to the Federal
Government. Various Supreme Court decisions were taken to extend and apply these guarantees to actions of
the states.
Civil Liberties
Nationalization of the Bill of Rights
                              - Barron v. Baltimore (1833) ruled the Bill of Rights did not apply to States
                              - Process began with passage of the 14th Amendment (Due Process Clause
                                  applied to the states) - incorporation
                              - Selective Incorporation of the Bill of Rights has occurred so far in US history
                                  because a few provisions have not yet been included (e.g. excessive fines)
Freedom of Religion
                              - 1st Amendment (Establishment Clause: Congress can’t make an official religion
                                  + Free Exercise Clause: Guarantees the right to practice, or not, a religion)
                              - The following appeals have reached the S.C.
                                      a. School Prayer – denied
                                      b. School funding & support for student religious groups – upheld
                                      c. Seasonal displays with religious themes – denied
                                      d. Government aid for computers in parochial schools – upheld
                                      e. School vouchers to pay for parochial schools – upheld
                              - Court applies the Lemon Test in school aid cases
                                      a. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
                                                i. Aid must be for secular purposes
                                               ii. Aid must be neutral – not advancing or inhibiting religion
                                              iii. Aid must not ‘entangle’ government in religion
Freedom of Expression
                              - 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of speech and press but there are limits
                                         a. Unprotected speech includes (1) obscenity, (2) defamatory speech –
                                             libel/slander, (3) pornography, (4) fighting words, (5) sedition
                               - Factors used in determining if in violation of 1st Amendment
                                         a. Clear and Present Danger
                                         b. Prior Restraint
Freedom of Assembly & Petition
                               - Right to assemble and associate and petition
                               - As long as they are lawful and nonviolent (if protesters march after being
                                    denied a permit, they are breaking the law)
                               - Regulations can be placed to maintain public order on public property
                                    including (1) time, (2) place, (3) manner
                               - This does not grant any right to trespass on private property
Rights of the Accused
                               - Due Process (5th A for Federal, 14th A for States)
                               - Has developed to include how laws are administered (Procedural) and also with
                                    what the laws contain (Substantive)
                               - Gideon v. Wainwright – protects individuals against state encroachments on
                                    their rights – Gideon couldn’t afford & didn’t get a court-appointed attorney,
                                    lost, appealed, S.C. decision held retrial and he was acquitted with counsel
                                    (significance: everyone must be provided with an attorney as a result)
                               - Mapp v. Ohio – Ohio police were looking for a fugitive & broke into Mapp’s
                                    house; they found obscene materials, confiscated, and arrested Mapp without a
                                    search warrant – S.C. reversed decision because evidence was gained illegally
                                    (significance: incorporated the exclusionary rule)
                               - Miranda v. Arizona – Arrested and questioned without being informed of his
                                    right to an attorney present and eventually confessed – he was convicted but on
                                    appeal the S.C. decided that a suspect must be ‘read his rights’ Miranda Rights
                                    reversing the decision (significance: no conviction will be upheld if their
                                    constitutional rights aren’t informed to the suspect prior to arrest)
Due Process Includes
     1. Freedom from unreasonable searches & seizures of suspected evidence (4th A)
     2. Probable cause is required for issuing a search warrant
     3. Evidence taken without a valid search warrant cannot be used in court under the Exclusionary Rule
     4. Right to counsel in a criminal trial and to remain silent (6th A)
     5. Freedom from self-incrimination and forced confessions (5th A)
     6. Freedom from excessive bail/fines (8th) only applies to the federal government
     7. Right to a speedy/public trial (6th)
     8. Right to trial by jury in a criminal case (Article III, Section 2; a jury trial in a civil case has not been
         incorporated on the state level) (7th A)
     9. Freedom from double jeopardy (5th A)
     10. Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment (8th A)
Civil Rights
The idea of civil rights is really introduced through the addition of the 14th Amendment, which defined the terms
of citizenship and guaranteed to all citizens ‘equal protection under the law’
                               - Discrimination by gender, ethnicity, age, disability, & sexual orientation has
                                    continued into much of the 21st century
                               - The Civil Rights Struggle fights two distinct types of problems:
                                         a. De Jure Segregation – Separation by law
                                         b. De Facto Segregation – Evolved through differences in socioeconomic
Judicial Test for Civil Rights Cases
The Supreme Court has extended the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to cover actions of the
states and the court has held that the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment extends to the federal
government the same protections for citizens.
                               - Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) ruled that Separate but Equal was Constitutional
                            -     Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned Plessy agreeing with Thurgood
                                  Marshall of the NAACP that segregated schools damaged self-esteem of blacks
Affirmative Action
In 1964, President LBJ issued an executive order stating all contractors on federal projects take ‘affirmative
action’ to ensure they did not discriminate against minority groups – this became institutionalized when Richard
Nixon set specific quotas for federally financed construction projects
                              - Cases of Significance to Affirmative Action
                                       a. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
                                               i. (Bakke claimed it was ‘reverse discrimination) S.C. said
                                                   affirmative action was ok but race could be only 1 factor in
                                                   determining admissions
Women’s Rights
Most gender equity laws have been tied to those of civil rights
The first S.C. case dealing with gender discrimination took place in 1971 in Reed v. Reed when the S.C. said an
Idaho law giving preference to men over women for inheriting the estate of a deceased child was
unconstitutional saying preferential treatment without regard to qualifications violated the Equal Protection
Clause of the 14th Amendment.
                              - Two major issues in contemporary women’s rights are ‘reproductive rights’ and
                                  ‘sexual harassment’
Expansion of Civil Rights
    1. 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments (Civil War Amendments) passed to ensure the rights of newly freed
         slaves – (13) ended slavery, (14) due process and equal protection clauses for citizens, & (15)
         guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
    2. 19th Amendment – extended suffrage to women
    3. 26th Amendment – extended voting rights to 18-year-old citizens
    4. 23rd Amendment – permits the citizens of D.C. to vote for electors to the electoral college
    5. 24th Amendment – prohibits the use of poll taxes or any tax in federal elections (used as a tool in the
         south to keep blacks from voting)
    6. Legislation regarding Civil Rights

  Civil Rights Act of           Blacks               Bans discrimination in voting in federal elections
  Civil Rights Act of        Blacks         Prohibits discrimination in public accommodations – authorized the
         1964               Minorities             US Attorney General to intervene on behalf of victims of
                             Women             discrimination – Forbids employers/unions from discrimination
                                                against minorities/women – Enabled the federal government to
                                           withhold funding from projects where discrimination exists – Forbids
                                              the use of different standards for whites/blacks when applying to
                                                                         register to vote
 Voting Rights Act of           Blacks       Allows the federal government to register voters in localities where
        1965                                 literacy tests & similar restrictions were in effect as of 11/1/64 and
                                           where less than ½ of the eligible voters had been registered and voted
                                                     in the 1964 federal election (almost all of the South)
Higher Education Act            Women         Prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender in any educational
  of 1972, Title IX                         program using federal funding – large impact on women’s collegiate
 Voting Rights Act of       Minorities         Requires states to redistrict in such a way that majority-minority
        1982                               representation will be ensured (this has been deemed unconstitutional
   Americans with            People            Prohibits discrimination in employment because of a disability –
Disabilities Act of 1990      with           Requires businesses/public agencies to make facilities accessible to
                           Disabilities        those with disabilities – Requires employers to make reasonable
                                                                accommodations to employees’
Key Items to Know

Bill of Rights                       13th Amendment                       14th Amendment
15th Amendment                       19th Amendment                       Free Speech & Limits (Clear &
Establishment Clause                 Free Exercise Clause                 Libel               Present Danger)
Habeas Corpus                        Incorporation Doctrine               Slander
Americans w/Disabilities Act (’90)   Motor Voter Registration Act (’93)   Voting Rights Acts
Civil Rights Acts                    Title IX                             Immigration Act (1965)
Prior Restraint                      Symbolic Speech                      Exclusionary Rule
Patriot Act                          De Jure/De Facto                     Affirmative Action
Suffrage                             Poll Taxes                           White Primary
Due Process Clause (14th)            Equal Protection Clause (14th)       Probable Cause
Plea Bargaining                      Double Jeopardy                      Eminent Domain

Court Cases of Significance

Gregg v. Georgia                     Gideon v. Wainwright                 Miranda v. Arizona
Brown v. Board of Education          Roe v. Wade                          Engle v. Vitale
Lemon v. Kurtzman                    Schenck v. United States             Gitlow v. New York
Tinker v. Des Moines                 Cal Regents v. Bakke                 New York Times v. United States
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale        Planned Parenthood v. Casey          Texas v. Johnson
Reynolds v. United States            Scott v. Sanford                     Plessy v. Ferguson
Korematsu v. United States           Barron v. Baltimore                  Near v. Minnesota
Mapp v. Ohio
                                STUDENT REVIEW OUTLINE OF THE
                                  UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION

PREAMBLE                                                  Section VIII: Enumerated Powers of Congress
 States the purpose of the Constitution                          Clause 1:   Tax; Pay Debts
                                                                 Clause 2:   Borrow Money
ARTICLE 1 – THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH                               Clause 3:   Regulate Trade
 Section I: Congress Established                                 Clause 4:   Regulate citizenship; bankruptcies
 Section II: House of Representatives                            Clause 5:   Regulate money, weights and
        Clause 1:     Election & Term of Office                              measures
        Clause 2:     Qualifications for the House               Clause 6:   Punish counterfeiting
        Clause 3:     Number of Representatives per              Clause 7:   Establish a postal service
                      State (parts changed by                    Clause 8:   Issue Copyrights and Patents
                      Amendments 13, 14, 16)                     Clause 9:   Establish minor courts
        Clause 4:     Vacancies in the House                     Clause 10: Define and Punish crimes on the
        Clause 5:     Officers for the House:                                oceans
                      Impeachment                                Clause 11: Declare war
                                                                 Clause 12: Create and support an Army
 Section III: Senate                                             Clause 13: Create and support a Navy
        Clause 1:    Election of Senators (Parts                 Clause 14: Make rules for the military
                     changed by 17th Amendment)                  Clause 15: Utilize state militia
        Clause 2:    Term of Office; Vacancies (Parts            Clause 16: Regulate state militia
                     changed by 17th Amendment)                  Clause 17: Establish federal capital; regulate
        Clause 3:    Qualifications for the Senate                           federal lands
        Clause 4:    President of the Senate                     Clause 18: ‘Elastic Clause’
        Clause 5:    Office for the Senate
        Clause 6:    Impeachment Trials                   Section IX: Powers Denied to the Federal Government
        Clause 7:    Impeachment Penalties                       Clause 1:   Regulating Slave Trading (13th
                                                                             Amendment made this invalid)
 Section IV: Congressional Elections & Meetings                  Clause 2:   Issue of a Writ of Habeas Corpus
        Clause 1:    State Powers over Elections                 Clause 3:   Bills of Attainder; Ex Post Facto
        Clause 2:    Annual Meetings (Changed by 20th            Clause 4:   Creation of Direct Taxes
                     Amendment)                                  Clause 5:   Taxes on Exports
                                                                 Clause 6:   State Commerce
 Section V: Rules for Conducting Business in Congress            Clause 7:   Spending Money
        Clause 1:     Organization                               Clause 8:   Titles of Nobility
        Clause 2:     Rules of Governance
        Clause 3:     Keeping the Congressional Record    Section X: Powers Denied to the States
        Clause 4:     Adjournment                                Clause 1:   Treaties; coining money; making
                                                                             laws that violate the federal
 Section VI: Privileges & Restrictions of Congress                           Constitution
        Clause 1:     Pay; Privileges                            Clause 2:   Taxes on Imports & Exports
        Clause 2:     Restrictions on Employment of              Clause 3:   Declarations of War
                                                         ARTICLE II – THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
 Section VII: Passing Laws                                Section I: The President & Vice President
        Clause 1:    Raising Money                               Clause 1:     Term of Office
        Clause 2:    How a Bill Becomes a Law                    Clause 2:     Electors
        Clause 3:    Presidential Veto
        Clause 3:     Election Process (12th Amendment    Section IV: Guarantees and Protection for the States
                      changed this clause)
        Clause 4:     Time of Elections                  ARTICLE V – AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION
        Clause 5:     Qualifications for President             Proposing Amendments
        Clause 6:     Vacancy in Office (25th                  Ratification of Amendments
                      Amendment gives further                  Prohibited Amendments (this is no longer
                      directions)                                                     valid)
        Clause 7:     Salary for the Executive
        Clause 8:     Oath of Office                     ARTICLE VI – NATIONAL SUPREMACY
                                                               Clause 1:  Debts owed before the
 Section II: Powers of the President                                      Constitution
        Clause 1:    Commander in Chief; Appoint               Clause 2:  Constitution is Supreme Law of
                     Cabinet; Issue Pardons                               the Land
        Clause 2:    Make treaties; appoint certain            Clause 3:  Officials take oaths of office
        Clause 3:    Filling temporary vacancies in      ARTICLE VII – RATIFICATION PROCESS FOR THE
                     government                                         CONSTITUTION

 Section III: Duties of the President                    AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

 Section IV: Impeachment of Federal Officers             Amendment 1          Religious & Political Freedom
                                                         Amendment 2          Right to Bear Arms
ARTICLE III – THE JUDICIAL BRANCH                        Amendment 3          Quartering Troops
 Section I: Federal Courts                               Amendment 4          Searches & Seizures
        Clause 1:     Supreme Court                      Amendment 5          Rights of the Accused
                                                         Amendment 6          Right to Speedy & Fair Trial
 Section II: Jurisdiction of the Federal Courts          Amendment 7          Right to Trial by Jury
        Clause 1:      Powers of the Courts              Amendment 8          Bail & Punishment
        Clause 2:      The Supreme Court                 Amendment 9          Rights not Specified
        Clause 3:      Trial by Jury                     Amendment 10         Powers Reserved to the States
                                                         Amendment 11         Suits Against States
 Section III: Treason                                    Amendment 12         Election of President and Vice-
        Clause 1:     Definition of Treason                                   President
        Clause 2:     Punishment of Treason              Amendment 13         Abolition of Slavery
                                                         Amendment 14         Rights of Citizens
ARTICLE IV – RELATIONS AMONG THE STATES                  Amendment 15         Right to Vote
 Section I: Official Actions of States                   Amendment 16         Income Tax Permitted
                                                         Amendment 17         Direct Election of Senators
 Section II: Rights of Citizens                          Amendment 18         Prohibition
        Clause 1:     Privileges                         Amendment 19         Women’s Right to Vote
        Clause 2:     Extradition                        Amendment 20         ‘Lame-Duck’ Amendment
        Clause 3:     Return of Escaped Slaves           Amendment 21         Repeal of Prohibition
                      (Changed by 13th Amendment)        Amendment 22         Limit on Presidential Term
                                                         Amendment 23         Voting in D.C.
 Section III: Admission of New States & Territories      Amendment 24         Abolition of the Poll Tax
        Clause 1:    Admission of New States             Amendment 25         Presidential Disability &
        Clause 2:    Congressional Power over Federal                         Succession
                     Lands                               Amendment 26         18 Year Old Vote
                                                         Amendment 27         Restraint on Congressional

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