MANURE HANDLING AND STORAGE TO MINIMIZE N by ewghwehws

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									  Manure Handling and Storage to
Minimize N Loading of the Environment
  MANURE HANDLING AND STORAGE TO
MINIMIZE N LOADING OF THE ENVIRONMENT
• Reason to store manure
  – Preserve and contain manure nutrients until it can be
    spread onto the land at a time compatible with climate and
    cropping system
• Goals
  – Maintain excreted N in non-volatile organic forms
     • Undigested protein
     • Microbial N
     • Urea
  – Minimize volatilization of NH3
  – If N is volatilized, it should be in the form of N2
  – Prevent losses of N into surface and ground water sources
     • Provide adequate storage until it can be safely spread
     N TRANSFORMATIONS IN LIVESTOCK
     PRODUCTION AND MANURE STORAGE
               FACILITIES
Manure N
                Anerobic microbial   C skeletons                 H 2S
                degradation (slow)                               VOCs
Fecal N
(20-40% of N)
                                                                 Microbial N

                                        NH4+              Slow
Urine N                                                   aerobic Anerobic
(60-80% of N)        Microbial                         NH3       NO2     N2
      O              urease (rapid)              pH (volatile)
H2N C NH2 + H+ + H2O              2NH4+

                                        2HCO3-


• In poultry
     •Urinary N is secreted as uric acid with the feces
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN IN THE
          ENVIRONMENT
AMMONIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN PRECIPITATION




National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3). 2008. NADP Program Office,
Illinois State Water Survey, 2204 Griffith Dr., Champaign, IL 61820.
  INCREASES IN MORTALITY RISKS OF
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES PER 10 ug/m3
               IN PM2.5
    FACTORS AFFECTING NH3 LOSS FROM
     LIVESTOCK HOUSING AND MANURE
           STORAGE FACILITIES
• NH3 volatilization increased by:
   – Increasing manure pH
      • Increased by increased HCO3 and NH3




                                                  (Gay and Knowlton, 2005)

• Increased difference in NH3 concentration between
  air at manure surface and ambient air

   Ambient air            NH3                 NH3 NH3 NH3

   Manure surface     NH3 NH3 NH3             NH3 NH3 NH3
• Increased surface area
• Increased air velocity at surface
• Increased ambient temperature
  – Increases urease activity
  – Increases NH3 mass transfer coefficient
  – Increases ventilation from confinement buildings
     • Decreased ambient temperatures increase NH3
       concentrations in confinement buidings
• Increased moisture
METHODS TO LIMIT AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION
             FROM MANURE
• Dietary approaches
  – Reduce N excretion
     • Protein nutrition
     • Dietary fiber
  – Feed acidic Ca and P sources to decrease manure pH
     • Examples
         – Calcium chloride
         – Phosphoric acid
     • Limitations
         – Unpalatable
         – May cause ulcers in mouth
  – Feed Yucca extract
     • May inhibit microbial urease
     • Reduces NH3 emissions from 0 to 26%
• Technological approaches
  – Frequent cleaning of manure from facilities
     • N losses by volatilization
                             1-time cleaning      Monthly cleaning
      Beef feedlot               68%                   55.5%
                                    2-times/week cleaning
      Poultry housing               60 to 90% reductions
                                    compared to annual
  – Reduce manure surface area
     • Methods
        – Deep litter housing system (Poultry, swine or cattle)
            » Limited effectiveness (40 - 50% N losses)
            » Incomplete nitrification and denitrification processes
        – Slatted floor with deep pit (Swine or cattle)
            » 25% N losses
        – Tie stall with gutter (Dairy cattle)
            » 8% N losses
        – Covers (Slurry tanks)
            » 4% N losses
– Increase carbon in manure
  • Increases C:N ration to increase microbial
    growth
   Carbohydrate             VFAs and CH4

                   ATP

         NH3               Microbial protein
  • Approaches
     – Increase fiber content of diet
     – Increase bedding
         » Chopped bedding is more effective (57%
           reduction in NH3 emissions in cattle housing)
           than long straw
         » Incomplete nitrification and denitrification
           processes in manure pack may increase NOx
           gases
– Acidification
  • Materials
     –   Dilute sulfuric acid
     –   Aluminum sulfate (Alum)
     –   Ferrous sulfate
     –   Triple superphosphate
     –   Superphosphate
     –   Calcium chloride
     –   Gypsum (Calcium sulfate)
  • Spraying, flushing or spreading
  • Effectiveness
     – 8 to 60% reductions in NH3 emissions
  • Limitations
     – Repeated treatments
     – Human and animal safety
     – Hydrogen sulfide emissions
– Separate liquid and solids
  • Separates urea in urine from urease in feces
  • Methods
     – Gravity (decreased NH3 emissions by 21 to 50%)
        » Inclined floors (3% slope)
        » Urine gutters
        » Sedimentation pits
     – Mechanical
        » Screens
        » Centrifuges
        » Presses
  • Handling of components
     – Solids
        » Land applied
        » Composted for land application or bedding
     – Liquids
        » Need further processing for storage
        » May be recycled
– Drying
   • Poultry housing systems
   • Techniques
      – Conveyor belt
      – Dropping boards
   • Effectiveness
      – Decreasing moisture to 40% within 50 hours reduces N
        loss to 10%
– Urease inhibitors
   • Application
      – Feedlots (0.32 oz/lb manure)
          » Thiophosphoric triamide
          » Cyclohexylphosphoric triamide
      – Slurries
          » Phenylphosphorodiamidate
   • Effectiveness
      – Reduces urea hydrolysis by 70 to 92%
   • Limitations
      – Requires routine application
      – Limited availability
– Ammonium adsorbents
  • Compounts
     – Clinoptilolite or Zeolite
         » (Na,K,Ca)2-3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O36.12H2O
     – Peat
  • Cation exchange
  • Effectiveness
     – Reduced NH3 concentrations by 35% above broiler litter
EFFECTS OF HOUSING SYSTEMS ON N
            LOSSES
• Poultry
  – Systems
    • High-rise layer hen housing
       – With annual cleaning
          » 50% N loss
          » Primarily NH3
       – With deep litter system
          » 40% N loss
          » NH3 , NOx, and N2 gases
       – With conveyor drying
          » 10% N loss
          » Primarily NH3
    • Loose (Aviary) housing
       – With annual cleaning
          » 30% N loss
          » NH3 and NOx gases
• Swine
  – Systems
    • Deep-litter
       – Stored for 3 to 12 months
           » 50% N loss
           » NOx, N2, and NH3 gases
    • Slatted floor with deep pit
       – Stored for 12 months
           » 25% N loss
           » Primarily NH3
           » Losses decreased by:
             Decreasing the percentage of floor that is slatted
             (10-20% reduction)
             Multiple flushings/day (30% reduction)
             Separation of solids from flushing liquid (70%
             reduction)
• Cattle
   – Systems
     • Tie stall barn with deep gutter
        – With daily cleaning
           » 8% N loss
           » NH3 , NOx, and N2 gases
     • Free stall barn with scraping
        – With daily cleaning
           » 16% N loss (Slightly greater with slatted floor)
           » NH3
           » Losses particularly sensitive to management (Sloped
              floors, urine gutters, flushing etc.)
     • Loose housing with deep pack
        – With infrequent cleaning
           » 35% N loss
           » NH3 , NOx, and N2 gases
     • Open feedlot
        –   With annual cleaning
        –   50% N loss (40-90% range)
        –   NH3 , NO3, NOx, and N2 gases
        –   Additional losses
              » Runoff (5 to 19% of excreted N)
              » Leaching (10 to 16% of excreted N)
                Dependent on maintenance of compacted soil layer
           COMMON MANURE STORAGE
• Solid
  – Systems
     • Poultry
        – Litter
     • Swine and Dairy
          – Separated solids
          – Bedded manure
     • Beef
          – Scraped
  – N losses
                                 DM, %   N loss, %
     Poultry manure              50       10
     Swine and cattle manure     20       20
     • NH3, NO3, and NOx gases
– Facilities
   • Concrete pad with sides
   • Settling basins




          Angela Rieck-Hinz




                               Angela Rieck-Hinz
– Advantages
  • Low volume
  • Low odor
  • Moderate nutrient retention
– Disadvantages
  • More labor
  • Must prevent precipitation run-off
– Composting
   •   Treatment to stabilize N
   •   40% N loss (20-50% range)
   •   NH3 , NO3 and NOx gases
   •   Requirements
         – Appropriate C:N ratio
                                     C:N
   Optimum                           >30:1    Angela Rieck-Hinz
   Manures
    Dairy cow                         10:1
    Beef cow                           10:1
    Beef feedlot                       13:1
    Swine                             7-8:1
    Poultry                           7-9:1
    Horse                              19:1
        – Temperature
            » 140o F
            » Requires frequent turning
        – Moisture level
            » 40-60%
        – Adequate porosity
            » Particles should be > 1 inch
        – pH
            » 5.5 – 7.5
• Slurry
  – For livestock and poultry confinements
  – DM content, 7 to 12%
  – Facilities
     • Pit under slatted floor
         – Needs access ports for pumping and agitation at 40
           foot intervals
         – Ventilation is necessary
         – Manure is either applied directly or after storage
           – 25% N loss
           – NH3




                                                  Angela Rieck-Hinz
• Fabricated storage tank
   – Manure is either scraped on top or pumped into
     bottom
   – N losses
       » Top loading, 30%
       » Bottom loading, 8%
   – NH3
   – Easily covered




                                            Angela Rieck-Hinz
 Angela Rieck-Hinz
• Earthen basin
   –   Provides a large volume at low cost
   –   Soil materials must seal basin
   –   Vegetation must be maintained on berms
   –   30% N loss
   – NH3




           Angela Rieck-Hinz
• Covers for slurry storage facilities
  – Impermeable
     • Polyethylene
     • Effects
        – Decreasing NH3 volatilization caused by
            » Solar radiation
            » Wind
  – Permeable
     • Natural manure-bedding crust, straw, corn stalks, peat
       moss, geotextile fabric, Leka rock
     • Effects
        – Decreasing NH3 volatilization caused by
            » Solar radiation
            » Wind
        – Provides a media for growth of aerobic bacteria
     • Considerations
        – Depth 8 to 12”
        – Replace every 1 to 12 months (except Leka rock)
  – Effectiveness
     • 4% N loss (2-8% range)
     • NH3
• Liquid systems
  – DM content, 5%
  – Anerobic lagoons
     •   Most common liquid system
     •   Usually treats liquid fraction separated from solids
     •   May be single or series
     •   Requires warm temperatures for microbial activity
     •   Storage N losses
          – Amounts
             » Single stage – 50%
             » Use of effluent for flush water - 99%
          – NH3, NOx, and N2 gases
     • Management
          – Requires appropriate soil materials to seal lagoon
          – Requires solids separation
          – Manure additions must be slow and uniform
          – High odor in spring when microbial activity increases
            under Midwest conditions
          – Requires periodic sludge removal
– Alternate treatments to limit NH3 loss from liquid
  systems
   • Aeration
      – Converts NH3 to NO3
      – Requirements
          » Second lagoon with aerator
            Surface pump
            Compressed air
            Aerobic biofilters
          » One lagoon with 2 compartments
            Aerobic top and Anerobic bottom
      – Disadvantages
          » Expense
          » Limited effectiveness
          » Production of NOx gases
   • Methane production
      –   Enclosed anerobic fermentation
      –   Can supply energy for farm or for sale
      –   Requires additional structure for storage of effluent
      –   Good N retention if additional storage is covered
      –   Expense
• Constructed wetlands
   – For processing liquid fraction after solids separation
       » N trapped in plants growing in or on wetland
   – Types
       » Surface
         Most common
       » Subsurface
         Water treatment in a gravel bed
         Works better in winter than surface wetland
         May plug
      N LOSSES FROM DIFFERENT MANURE
       HANDLING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS
                                  N loss, %   N retention, %
Daily scrape and haul from barn    20-35         65-80
Open lot                           40-70         30-60
Pile (Cattle/Swine)                10-40         60-90
Pile (Poultry)                       5-15         85-95
Compost                            20- 50        50-80
Deep pit (Poultry)                  25-50        50-75
Litter                             25-50        50-75
Pit under floor (Swine)            15-30        70-85
Tank above ground top loaded       20-35        65-80
Tank above ground bottom loaded       5-10       90-95
Tank above ground with cover          2-30       70-98
Holding basin                      20-40         60-80
Anerobic lagoon w/ no cover         70-80         15-30
Constructed wetlands                  15            85
    FACTORS AFFECTING SIZE OF MANURE
               STORAGE
• Volume of manure and wastewater produced
   – Include wash water, run-off from open lots and feed storage,
     and water for flushing
• Limitations for spreading
   – Amounts of land available for spreading
   – Crop nutrient requirements
• Length of storage period
   – Climatic limitations
   – Length of application windows
   – Needs
      • A minimum of 6 months storage
• Equipment capabilities
• Discharge regulations
   – All beef and dairy CAFOs
      • No discharge except for a 25-year, 24-hour storm
   – All new or renewed swine, poultry, and veal CAFOs
      • No discharge except for a 100-year, 24-hour storm
Acknowledgements:
• This course is supported in part by:
    • The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
    Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Award No. 2006-
    51130-03700
    •The Brenton Center for Agricultural Instruction & Technology
    Transfer

								
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