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MANAJEMEN OPERASI

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					     DESIGN OF
MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
            Sasaran
   Memahami konsep dan proses
perancangan sistem manufaktur mulai
dari perancangan produk, perancangan
      proses, pemilihan lokasi dan
          perancangan lay out




                                       2
    What Design IE Do ?
         Integrated System


        Industrial System
     (Manufacturing System)


Human Activity    Management Control
  System               System

                                       3
     Human Activity System


• Perancangan System
• Pengoperasian System




                             4
Langkah Perancangan Sistem
        Analisis Permintaan

   Perancangan Produk Dan Proses

        Penentuan Kapasitas

          Pemilihan Lokasi

        Perancangan Lay Out

                                   5
   Pengoperasian Sistem
           Target Penjualan

           Target Produksi

           Jadwal Produksi

Material       Mesin          T. Kerja

           Jadwal Operasi

            Pelaksanaan

              Evaluasi

                                         6
   Analisis Permintaan

Tujuannya adalah menentukan jenis
  produk dan menghitung volume
      permintaan effektifnya




                                    7
Analisis Permintaan
   Analisis Peluang Pasar


Proyeksi Demand Potential(Do)

      Market Share ( S )

Proyeksi Demand Effektif (De )
          De = S.Do

                                 8
Demand Effective




              Do




               De

                    10


                         9
         Metoda Proyeksi


• Market Research
• Kwalitatif
• Kwantitatif
      –Time Series
      –Causal



                           10
Analisis Market Share
    Analisis Persaingan


     5 Forces ( Porter )
 » Substitute
 » Supplier
 » Buyer
 » New Entrance
 » Competitor


                           11
      Product Design

Membuat blue print product berdasarkan
     atas permintaan pasarnya




                                         12
      The Four C’s of Design
• Creativity
  – Requires creation of something new
• Complexity
  – Requires decision on many Variables and
    Parameters
• Choice
  – Requires making choices between many possible
    solution
• Compromise
  – Requires balancing multiple conflicting
    requirements
                                                    13
            Comparison
Scientific Method Vs Design Method
        Existing             State of
       Knowledge             The Art

        Scientific       Identification of
        Curiosity              Need

       Hypothesis       Conceptualization

     Logical Analysis      Feasibility
                            Analysis

          Proof            Production


                                             14
   Types of Design Project
• Variation of Existing Product
• Improvement of Existing Product
• Development of New Product for Low
  Volume Production Run
• Development of New Product for
  Mass Production
• One-of-a-Kind Design

                                       15
     Morphology of Design
1. Conceptual Design
2. Embodiment Design
3. Detail Design
4. Planning For Manufacture
5. Planning For Distribution
6. Planning for Use
7. Planning for Retirement of the Product

                                            16
      Product Design Process
                      Conceptual Design

   Problem                   Gather                 Concept            Evaluation of
   Definition              Information             Generation            Concept
                                                                                -
-Problem Statement                                                       -Pugh Concept
                              -Internet           - Brainstorming
  -Benchmarking                                                             Selection
                               -Patent              - Functional
       -QFD                                                            -Decision Matrices
                               -Trade              Decomposition
       -PDS
                             -Literature        -Morphological Chart
 -Project Planning


                     Embodiment Design

  Product                 Configuration            Parametric           Detail Design
 Architecture                Design                  Design
- Arrangement of           -Prelim. Selection
                                                    -Robust Design      - Detail Drawing s
Physical Elements            Materials and
                                                      -Tolerances               and
   to Carry out             Manufacturing
                                                   -Final Dimension       Specifications
     Function             -Modeling/sizing of
                                                         -DFM
                                  part
                                                                                             17
 Identifying Customer Needs
• Gathering Information From Customers
  – Interview, Focus Group, Customer Survey, and
    Customer Complaint
• Constructing Survey Instrument
• Evaluating Customer Needs




                                                   18
        Dimension of Quality for
         Manufactured Product
•   Performance
•   Features
•   Reliability
•   Durability
•   Serviceability
•   Conformance
•   Aesthetics
•   Perceived Quality

                                   19
Product Design Specification
A Document Which Contains All of the
  Facts Related to the Outcome of the
         Product Development

       • In Use Purpose and Market
        • Functional Requirements
           • Corporate Constraint
 • Social, Political, and Legal Requirements

                                               20
    Customer Requirements
• Expecters
  – There are basic attributes that one would expect
    to see in the product
• Spokens
  – There are specific features that customer defines
    the product in terms of these attributes that one
    would expect to see in the product
• Unspokens
• Exiters
                                                        21
    Customer Requirements
• Unspokens
  – These Are Specific Features That
    Customers Say They Want in the Product.
• Exiters
  – These Are Product Features That Make the
    Product Unique and Distinguish It From
    the Competition



                                               22
Quality Function Deployment

A Planning and Problem Solving Tool
      for Translating Customer
  Requirements Into the Engineering
     Characteristics of Product (
       Engineering Parameters)




                                      23
                        5
               Correlation Matrix
                       4
           Engineering Characteristic

    1
                                                         3
Customer                                     2
Req’ment
                    6                   Competitive
                                                      Impor-
           Relationship Matrix                         tance
                                        Assessment
                                                      Rating
“What?”

            7. Absolute Importance
            8. Relative Importance
           9. Technical Competitive
                  Assessment
            10. Technical Difficulty
                11. Target Value

                                                               24
     Manufacturing Engineering
Designing the Production Processes for a
                 Product



•   Evaluating the Manufacturing of the Product
•   Selecting Processes and Setting Process
•   Designing Work-Holding Device
•   Estimating the Cost of Manufacturing the Part
•   Assuring the Quality of the Part Produce
                                                    25
        Process Planning
• Defining Product Structure and
  Specification
• Assessing The Manufacturability
• Determining Processes Capable of
  Producing Part
• Evaluating The Cost of Each Process
• Determining the Sequence of Operations
• Documenting the Process

                                       26
Manufacturing Processes
   • Refining and Alloying
          • Casting
      • Metal Forming
       • Metal Cutting
          • Welding
         • Assembly
         • Finishing

                             27
      Classification Of
   Manufacturing Processes

1. Processes for Changing Physical Properties
2. Processes for Changing the Shape of
  Material
3. Processes for Machining Parts to a Fixed
  Dimension
4. Processes for Obtaining a Surface Finish
5. Processes for Joining Parts or Materials

                                                28
    Classification Of Service
           Processes

1. Process for relocating goods
2. Process for storing goods
3. Process for exchanging items
4. Process for physical transformation
5. Process for physiological transformation
6. Process for information transformation


                                              29
Equipment Selection & Specification


• Selecting Equipment to be used,
  a. General-purpose or Specialized Equipment
  b. Material Handling System
• Allocating Available Facilities
  (Layout Design)



                                            30
 Equipment Selection Alternatives
                      General Purpose         Specialized
Cost                   Low                    High
Operator skill&control High , more control    Low, less control
Output rate            Low-human pace         High-machine pace
Setup time             Lower-problem pre-     High-problem ran-
                       dictable &controllable dom & highly tech.
Maintenance Cost       Low-lower skill req’ed High
Product/service        Based on human         High-based on
Quality                control                machine accuracy
WIP                    High                   Low
Absolescence           Slower                 High


                                                              31
  Ancillary Function

• Tool, Jig and Fixture Design
      • Cost Estimating
• Maintenance System Design
    • Packaging System
     • Material handling


                                 32
         Material Handling

1. Increasing Speed and Precision
2. Maximizing the Use of Space and
  Equipment
3. Increasing Safety and Working Condition
4. Reducing Damage
5. Increasing Control



                                             33
 Principles of Material Handling
1. Minimize the Number of Material Moves
2. Maximize the Unit Load Handled
3. Maximized Safety of Material Handling Equipment
4. Simplify the Material Handling Process
5. Maximize Pace Utilization
6. Integrate Storage and Handling System
7. Integrate Materials and Information Flows
8. Minimize Human Effort
9. Design for Improved Operability, Reliability,
   Maintainability and Flexibility

                                                     34
     Penentuan Kapasitas
    Kapasitas Adalah Kemampuan
    Maksimum Dari Suatu Fasilitas
           Persatuan Waktu




 Design(co) Effektif(ce) Aktual(ca)
( Designer )   ( Planner )   ( Executor)

                                           35
Keterkaitan Antar Kapasitas


                  Co


                   Ce


                   Ca



                              36
   Langkah
Demand Effective
                     LOSES (L)


Kapasitas Effektif
                     EFFISIENSI

Strategi Kapasitas
                      CCR ( R )


Kapasitas Design

                                  37
         Kapasitas Effektif


Ce = De/(1-L)

Dimana L: loses karena
         -   Kerusakan di gudang
         -   Kerusakan transportasi
         -   Warranty
         -   Sales program

                                      38
           Strategi Kapasitas
Policy A : Capacity leads demand



  Units
          Capacity                       Demands


                                 Time
 Policy B : Capacity in approximate with demand

                      Capacity
  Units
                                         Demands


                                 Time
  Policy C : Capacity legs demand


  Units
            Demands

                                        Capacity
                                 Time
                                                   39
      Strategi Kapasitas


• Lead Demand      R > 0.5
• Lag Demand       R < 0.5
• Equal Demand     R = 0.5




                             40
      Capacity Cushion Ratio


R = ( Cx – Cs )/Cx

Dimana:
  R : Capacity Cushion Ratio
  Cx : Marginal Profit
  Cs : Marginal Production


                               41
           Kapasitas Design


Co = Ce/(1-E )

Dimana,
  E : Effisiensi Pabrik



                              42
Pemilihan Lokasi



                   43
           Kriteria Lokasi




Services           Operating Cost




                                    44
                Faktor Lokasi
1. Pasar Dan Bahan Baku
      Jasa            Semen

      Fragile         Kertas

      Berat           Agro Industri


     SERVICES               COST

                                      45
               Faktor Lokasi

2. Tangible
  . Transportasi    . Utilitas
  . Tenaga Kerja   . Biaya Konstruksi
  . Energi         . Pajak
  . Tanah           . Bahan Penolong
  . Insentif       . Dll




                                        46
                Faktor Lokasi
3. Intangible
  – Iklim
  – Peraturan
  – Stabilitas Politik
  – Kemudahan Ekspansi
  – Budaya
  – Polusi
  – Dll


                                47
Tahapan Pemilihan Lokasi
         Regional

                    Makro
        Community

                    Mikro
           Site

                            48
         Metoda Pemilihan
•   Gravitasi
•   BEP
•   Transportasi
•   Point Rating
•   Simulasi




                            49
Design Of Lay-out



                    50
              Penyebab
•   Pembangunan Pabrik Baru
•   Perubahan Kapasitas
•   Perubahan Design Produk
•   Produk Baru
•   Dll




                              51
      Type Lay-out

• Product Lay-out
• Process Lay-out
• Fix Lay-out
• Automated Lay-out




                      52
           Product Lay-out
 Berdasarkan atas urutan proses
            produksi




Potong   Obras   Jahit   Kancing   Finishing   Packing




                                                         53
        Process Lay-out
Berdasarkan atas kesamaan jenis mesin

                       Y
           A       B       C
                               X

       D       E           F




                                        54
           Fix Lay-Out
 Benda kerja diam mesin, peralatan,
 material dan karyawan mendatangi
            benda kerja

Contoh:
  • Galangan Kapal
  • Assembling Pesawat
  • Dll


                                      55
     Automated Lay-out

Berdasarkan atas kesamaan fungsi dan
     kemampuan proses produksi




                                       56
         Kriteria Kinerja
1. Minimasi Kongesti
2. Minimasi Material Handling Cost
3. Effisiensi Penggunaan Resources
4. Keselamatan dan Keamanan Kerja
5. Koordinasi dan Supervisi




                                     57
     Bagan Alir Perancangan Lay-Out
                             Inputan

         Aliran Kerja                   Hub.Antar Kegiatan

                        Diagram Hubungan
                             Kegiatan

 Keb. Luas Lantai                             Luas lantai Tersedia

                        Diagram Hubungan
                             Ruang
Pertimb. Modifikasi                             Pertim. Praktis
                      PengmbanganAlternatif
                            Lay-out

                             Evaluasi                                58

				
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