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					Road to Revolution
   1650-1776
Chesapeake Society
• Very unhealthy area
  – 50% died before they were 20
  – Women died at a higher rate
• Few families
  – Lose morals (unmarried pregnancies)
• By 1700, Virginia was most populated
  colony
Indentured Servants
• came to America in huge number before
  1660
  – Due to poor economic conditions in England
• Made up the majority of immigrants to Va
  and Md in 17th century
  – Some acquired land upon freedom
Bacon’s Rebellion 1676
• Originally focused on fighting Indians
   – Governor maintained friendly relations with Indians b/c of fur
     trading
   – Indians attacked frontier settlements
• Bacon’s men defeated the Indians
• Men turned on Berkeley (gov)
   – Burnt Jamestown
   – Wanted to united Va, Md, and NC into one colony
• Bacon died, rebellion died too
• End result**
   – Showed the growing conflict between large planters and men
     who owned little/no property
   – Government would rest firmly under the control of the planter
     class
Slavery
• More popular after 1660
   – Cheaper than indentured servants
• Arrived as part of Triangle Trade route
• Traveled the Middle Passage
• Stage 1 (1619-1640)
   – Africans were not automatically slaves, could earn freedom,
     some did
• Stage 2 (1640-1660)
   – Became slaves, based on mother, rigid class system
• Stage 3 (1660-??)
   – Very strict laws ( no reading or writing)
   – Racially motivated
Stono Rebellion
•   South Carolina slave revolt
•   1739
•   50 slaves involved
•   Burnt plantations, killed 20 whites
•   Ran away towards Spain, caught and
    returned
Southern Society
• Great Planter Class
  – Massive amounts of land, slaves, ruling class
• Yeoman Class
  – Small farmers
  – Truly self-sufficient
  – Might own 1 or 2 slaves
• Landless class
  – Former indentured servants
• Few roads, schools or churches
New England
• Much better climate, healthier
  – Longer life span (10 years longer than
    England)
• Women bore many children
  – Could not own property
  – (Southern women could inherit)
• Huge families
  – Focused on children
Halfway Covenant
• Jeremiad
  – Preachers focused on the sinful ways of the
    people (doomsday)
  – Conversions had declined
• Introduced Halfway Covenant 1662
  – Children (with no conversion experience) of
    members (saints) to half membership
  – Baptism but no communion
• Weakened the idea of spiritual purity
Salem Witch Trials
• 1692
• 20 were convicted and sentenced to death
• Conflict was between merchant class and
  farmers
  – Many were suspicious of commercial success
    and lax religious beliefs
• Could have been caused by eating rye
  bread
• Stopped by governor 1693
Economic Prosperity
• Based on mercantilism 1651-1733
  – Guaranteed English prosperity
    • No foreign competition
  – Navigation Act 1651
    • Designed to hurt Dutch (3/4 of all ships in world)
  – By 1750, policies were focused on colonies
    • Trade is limited to British ships
       – 1/3 were actually made in America (NE and Middle)
       – Created urban areas
Mercantilism
• Americans could not export to foreign countries
  – Excluded grains (60% of total)
• Encouraged diversification
• Americans could not compete with Britain
  – Especially textiles
• Hurt tobacco and rice
  – Americans earned less than competition
• *overall, helped Americans
  – Income rose at 2X the rate of Britain
Population
• Predicted to double every 25 years
  – After 1700, natural increase
• Immigration
  – 40% were slaves
  – Scots-Irish
     • Scottish who fled to Ireland
     • Fled Ireland because land rents increased
     • Came as families
  – Irish Catholics
     • converted to Protestants to get married
German Immigrants
• Could not settle in New England
  – Too expensive
  – Most settled in Philadelphia
  – Later came to North Carolina
    • Moravians
Enlightenment
• New England was literate
  – Men 90%, women 40%
  – Rest of America, 35-50%
  – **well read
• Sir Isaac Newton
  – Tried to relate the laws of science and nature
    to government and medicine
Benjamin Franklin
• Part of Enlightenment
• Insatiable intellectual curiosity
• Poor Richard’s Almanac 1732
    – Proverbs
•   Retired at age 42
•   Lightning rod 1752
•   American Philosophical Society
•   Founder of University of Pa
    – First medical school
John Locke
• Ideas are acquired not inborn
• Second Treatise of Government
  – Natural rights, endowed by God
• God exists
  – If God and reason conflict, follow reason
    • Called Deists
       – God made the universe, then left it alone
       – Not about religious zealots or fanatics
       – Jefferson and Franklin
                   Religion
• South                   • New England
  – Anglican church         – Congregational
  – Little influence on       Church
    individuals             – Later, more
  – Not very spiritual        denominations arrived
  – Founded William and
    Mary College
First Great Awakening
• 1730s and 1740s
• Started by Jonathan Edwards
  – “Sinners in the Eyes of an Angry God”
• Carried on by George Whitefield
  – Outstanding orator
  – Focused on being ‘born again’
Impact of Great Awakening
• Decline of ‘old church’, birth of new
  denominations
• New colleges founded
   – Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth
     College
• More African Americans and Native Americans
  were drawn to Christianity
• More prominence to women
• More religious toleration
   – Spirituality was more important that doctrine
Brown University to the left,
Princeton University below
Colonial Culture
• Artists
  – John Trumbull (artist of Am. Rev)
  – Charles Peale
  – John Singleton Copley
  – Benjamin West
  – Had trouble find clients in America
  – Travelled to Europe to train
Paul Revere,
painted by John
Copley
General Washington
before Battle of Trenton,
painted by John
Trumbull
Signing of the
Treaty of Paris
by Benjamin
West
President Thomas
Jefferson,
By Charles Wilson Peale
More Culture
• Architecture
  – Georgian Style
  – Dutch Colonial
• Literature
  – Phyllis Wheatley
     • Slave
     • Very little education
     • Wrote poetry
Georgian Architecture, Colonial Williamsburg
Dutch Colonial Home, built 1740
Peter Zenger Case
• Wrote editorial regarding corrupt governor
  of New York
• Charged with libel
• His lawyers, Andrew Hamilton, convinced
  the jury to consider the truth of the
  information in the editorial
• Established freedom of press***
Colonial Government
• 8 colonies had royal governors
• 3 colonies had governors appointed by
  proprietors
• 2 colonies elected governors (RI & Ct)
• All had a bicameral legislature
  – Upper house appointed by crown or
    proprietors
  – Lower house was elected by landowners
     • Controlled taxes and governor’s salaries
Competing for a Continent

        1600-1763
French Canada
• dominated by fur traders
  – Des Moines Baton Rouge
• Detroit 1701
• LaSalle explored the Mississippi River
  – New Orleans 1718
King Williams War
• English and colonists v. French
• 1690
• Cruel war
• English and French refused to commit
  major troops
• Actually Indians v. colonists (plus Iroquois)
• End result, bloody war with no change of
  territory
         Queen Anne’s War
• 1702
• England v. French and Spanish
• French attacked border towns in New
  England
• Spanish attacked southern border towns
  – Almost took Charleston SC
• Americans realized their dependence on
  England for protection
King George’s War
• 1740
• England v. France and Spain
• Americans tried to invade Canada
  – Took Louisbourg
• Peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to French
• Americans were outraged
• Result**no real dominant European force in
  America
French and Indian War/Seven
Years War
• 1754
• Conflict arises over Ohio River Valley
  – Britain/colonists v. French
• Fort Duquesne (French) located near Fort
  Necessity (English)
  – G. Washington fired the first shots
  – Forced to surrender
Albany Plan of Union
•   1754
•   Proposed by Franklin
•   7 colonies participated
•   Wanted to keep Iroquois neutral
•   Wanted to create some form of colonial unity
    – Grand Council
       • All colonies would have representation
       • Executive officer appointed by crown
Rejected by colonies and Crown
War Begins
• Braddock commanded British troops
   – Alienated Indians
   – Defeated by, mortally wounded by French
• British were unsuccessful against French
   – Firmly controlled Nova Scotia
      • Forced Acadians to leave, went to Louisiana, became Cajuns
• French were winning
   – Army
   – Indians
   – Canadians
• Americans did not wholeheartedly join the contest
• By 1757, British are losing
• Pitt took control of Britain
  – Focused on Canada
  – Relied on Americans to fight, British paid
• Drove French from interior by 1759
• Conquered Quebec 1759, Montreal 1760
Treaty of Paris 1763
• France ceded all North American
  territories
  – Britain received all land east of Mississippi
    River
  – Spain received all land west of Mississippi,
    including New Orleans
  – France was allowed to keep West Indies
Results of War
• Britain claimed success was due to British army
   – Not true, 2 out of 5 were American soldiers
• Friction between American and British soldiers
   – Americans were treated like slaves
• Americans did not financially support the war
   – Britain resented this, would impose future taxes
• Americans moved into conquered territory
   – Met opposition from Natives
       • Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763
   – Boone discovered Cumberland Gap, led Americans into
     Kentucky and Tennessee
   – Proclamation of 1763
       • Britain halted all settlement west of Appalachian Mountains

				
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posted:8/25/2012
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