Battery and Charger Training PowerPoint by lanyuehua

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									Battery and Charger Training
Topical Outline

 Battery Ratings & Energy Usage
 Charging Basics
 Charging Methods
 Value Proposition for Smart Charging
 Charging Technology
 Thumb rules
 PowerHouse Charger Product Highlights
Battery Ratings
Battery Ratings
   Batteries are rated in Amp Hours (AH)
    at a 6 hour discharge rate

   Battery Model Number
       12-85-13
       12 = number of cells
       85 = AH per positive plate
       13 = total number of plates

           Calculate AH by taking number of positive plates
          times the AH per Positive Plate

       85 x ((13-1)/2) = 85 x (6) = 510 AH
Battery Ratings
          How Battery Capacity Varies with Discharge Rate
Battery Ratings
 Kilo Watt Hours (kWH) is another Energy Rating
 Battery kWH ratings are based on 1.99 VPC which
  can be used to convert from AH to kWH
 To convert from AH to kWH:

      (AH Capacity) X (Number of Cells )X (1.99 VPC)
                          1000
Example:

An 18-125-17 battery has an AH rating of 1000 AH at the 6
 hour rate, the kWH is:

1000 x 18 x 1.99 / 1000 = 35.8 kWH
Battery Charging Basics
Battery Charging

  The objectives to battery charging are:
   Return 110% - 115% of the AH removed to the battery
   Minimize heating
   Control gassing
  Key Bench Marks in a battery charge:
   Start Rate = Expressed as percentage of AH capacity
               14-50% rates are used
   Gassing = 2.37 VPC at 25o C
               (Max Energy Draw for Charging)
   Finish Rate = Expressed as percentage of AH capacity
               3-5% rates are used
There are only Two Charging Methods

    Traditional/Conventional/Standard
    Battery is charged outside the truck in a single charging

    event



    Opportunity
    Battery is charged inside the truck for short periods through
    out the work day and then completed when possible. Spare
    batteries are eliminated or reduced
What is the difference in Charging Methods?
   Standard/Conventional Charging:
       Single or Multiple batteries per truck
       Battery State of Charge goes from 100-20% then the
        battery gets changed for a charged one
       Battery goes through an entire charger cycle (gassing)
        each time

   Opportunity Charging/Fast:
         Breaks, Lunches and Idle periods are used for charging
         Single or multiple batteries per truck
         Battery is taken to gassing then stopped
         Finished/EQ once per week at a minimum
         Can involve battery modifications
         Can mean reduced battery life
  Charging Rates Equate to How Quickly
        the Battery is Recovered
There Are Three Basic Charging Rates:
   1. Standard Charging/Conventional:
       Charging At Rates of 18-20 A / 100 Ahrs
       7-10 Hour Charge Intervals

    2. Opportunity Charging:
       Charging At Rates of 25-35 A / 100 Ahrs
       4-6 Hour Charge Intervals

    3. Fast Charging/Rapid Charging:
       Charging At Rates of 40+ A /100 Ahrs
       2-4 Hour Charge Intervals
       May Require Battery Modifications
        (if greater than 320/350 amps)
Charging Technologies
What Most Fork Truck Dealers Need to Know
About Battery Chargers



                   Battery
                   Charger




   AC Input                      DC Output
   Old Technology Dominates our Industry
 The battery charging industry is dominated by:
    Ferro-Resonant chargers (Ferro Chargers)
    SCR chargers

 These technologies are characterized as being:
    Basic Technology  Heavy and bulky
    Have limited electrical performance
      Poor to mediocre Efficiencies & Power Factor
      High AC ripple  Higher battery temperatures
      Susceptible to AC line disturbances
HF is New Technology
   Benefits These technologies are characterized as
    being:
     Advanced Technology  Light and Compact
     Have Superior electrical performance
       Excellent Efficiencies & Power Factor
       Low AC ripple  lower battery temperatures
       Not Susceptible to AC line disturbances
     MOSFETs And IGBTs Are Fully Controllable And Can Be
      Turned Off And On In An Instant
       Highly Versatile  Extremely Controllable Recharge
        Profile
HF vs. 60Hz Transformers
 60Hz Transformer




                                High Frequency Transformer




Size: 10kVA                            Size: 10kW
Wt. : 169 lb                           Wt. : 1 lb
Efficiency: 95%                        Efficiency: 99.5%
                    4.5% Improvement
How Battery Responds to a Ferro Resonant Charger


                                              Switched Chargers
                                              (SCR & HF) have more
                                              precise control on the
                                              charging curve which
                                              means a quicker
                                              recharge time


How Battery Responds to a Switched Charger
                                              HF Chargers deliver the
                                              precision of an SCR
                                              charger with BETTER
                                              efficiency
    Power Factor – Basics
 Power Factor, PF: the ratio of Actual Power
  Used to Total Power Drawn from the line
 Utilities may charge penalties if PF is < 90%
             Actual Power Used
      PF =
             Total Power Drawn   Beer Analogy

     PF =
             kWs                     Unused Power
             kVAs                    (kVARs)

   Typical PF:                             Total Power
     – SCR Chargers : ~ 70%                 Drawn (kVAs)


     – Ferro Chargers : ~ 85%        Actual Power
                                     Used (kWs)

     – HF Chargers : >95%
                                   kWs + kVARs = kVAs
The Value Proposition for Point
       of Use Charging
How Point of Use (Opportunity)
      Charging Works


                          80% SOC

    Lunch
                Lunch



                           30% SOC

   Breaks
Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging

 Reduce number of batteries per truck
   1 battery per truck vs. 2 – 3
   Less lead and acid under roof

 Eliminate battery changes
   Improves battery utility & truck
    performance
   Improves workers’ safety
 Eliminate need for battery rooms
   No battery room attendants
   No discharge to the environment
 Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging
 Labor cost impacts
    Eliminates battery changes: 15 – 30 min/shift
       Increases worker’s productivity
    Eliminates battery room attendants:
       1 -2 workers / shift

 Safety cost impacts
    Reduces pedestrian/truck incidents near battery
     rooms (during shift changes)
    Eliminates dropped batteries due to changing
    Eliminates acid exposure with single point watering
  Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging
 Increase Battery (Asset) Utilization

      Batteries are used for 1 shift / per day (8 hours)
           Charging takes 8-10 hours
           Battery utilization: 33%
           2-3 batteries / truck are needed: $3000 - $4000
            ea.

 Fast charging technology entails
           Only one battery per truck is needed
           Charging at much higher rates during breaks
                Reduced charging times: 1-2 hrs vs. 8-10 hrs

           100% battery utilization
Application Analysis
 Application analysis is critical for
 success when proposing a
 point-of-use charging system

The steps are simple but often ignored:
1. Identify the purpose is driving the
   need
2. Gain an understanding of the operation
   through data collection
3. Analyze the Data against the Need
4. Propose a Solution
5. Get Customer Feedback & Revise
       Application Analysis is
         what we do for you
You Scout the opportunities and We’ll
determine if a smart charging solution
makes sense look for
     Operations adding shifts
     Expansions
     Not room left in battery room
     Cold storage and freezer apps
     Shipping Docks (between the dock
      doors is a great place for chargers)
Thumb Rules
Thumb Rules
  Anything beyond 110% of a battery AH
   daily throughput is fast charge
      Example using a 1000 AH battery
        1000 x 1.10= 1100 AH
        3 hours break per 24 hours
        1100 x 110% (minimum overcharge) =
           1210 AH needed
          1210AH / 3 Hrs ~ 403 Amps per hour charge
           rate is needed
          403/1000 = 40.3% Start Rate = FAST CHARGE


   Note: 110% represents about 1.4 batteries
         per 24 Hours!!
Thumb Rules
   Fast Charge will NEVER work if…
      Total available charge time per day is less
       than 3 hours
      Charge time is not distributed throughout
       the day
      More than 1.6 batteries are used per day
      There is not an 8-10 hour period once per
       week for finish/EQ charging
Thumb Rules
     You Cannot Charge yourself Out of an
    Energy deficit
       Charging takes time
         Even at 40% start rates it takes over 1 hour to
          recover less than forty percent of the batteries
          capacity
       Charging causes heat
       Hot batteries create more charging time
Thumb Rules

    Point-of-Use Makes the Most Sense
        Chargers near the break room are the
         WORST location
        Chargers in/near the battery room are
         most common because of existing
         infrastructure
        More point-of-use means more plug in
         time!
Thumb Rules

 Data is Important only if the Customer
  Values it
     Advanced systems ALWAYS involve a
      metric
     If you cannot measure it – you cannot
      improve it
     Data is often sold as an expensive adder
Thumb Rules

     Consider Opportunity Charging a
      Four-Legged Stool:

              1. Energy Usage

              2. Time Available to Charge

              3. Charge Plug In Compliance

              4. Charger Performance
Charger Product Highlights
        PowerHouse IHF Charger
•Product Ranges from 3 to 36 kW
•Conventional, Opportunity or Fast Charge Programmable
•Program from front of control or by Laptop
•Multi-AH Capable with use of BATCOM
• Efficiency of 92% over the entire
  charging cycle.
• Power Factor greater than .99
 PowerHouse Charger Experience


•Crown Battery in business since 1926.
•Benning Power Electronics in business since 1938.
•Benning was the first company to introduce a high
frequency charger in 1984.
•Crown Battery has delivered more than 4,000
opportunity and fast charge installations.
•Crown Battery – Benning exclusive partnership in
2006 for North American market.
•Benning has been producing motive power chargers
since 1954 - Over 1,000,000 quality industrial battery
chargers have been manufactured.
•Chargers are Assembled in Garland, Texas
    Energy Star Partnership
Crown-Benning was the first industrial
 Energy Star Partner company registered

 IHF Chargers are among the highest
 efficiency chargers available anywhere
    iHF Charger Operation is Simple
    Visual Indication of Charger Operation


                                            YELLOW = charge




                                            RED = fault




                                            GREEN = charge
                                            complete



Traffic Light Display Can Be Seen From Across A Plant
Floor From A Large Distance – Charger Status Can Be
Seen At A Glance.
            iHF Charger Control Features
Electrolyte
Low Indicator                          Display
(when used with BATCOM)




    Traffic Light

                                          Menu Scroll
                          Start Stop
                                          and Select
                          Button
                                          Buttons
         iHF Charger Control Features

   Full Wireless Communication With IHF Charger
   Remote Sensing of Electrolyte Level and Temperature
   Useful State-of-Charge Data on Batcom Unit
   Durable, Shock-Resistant Design
   Optional Automated Battery Watering
Thank You

								
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