# Battery and Charger Training PowerPoint by lanyuehua

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```									Battery and Charger Training
Topical Outline

 Battery Ratings & Energy Usage
 Charging Basics
 Charging Methods
 Value Proposition for Smart Charging
 Charging Technology
 Thumb rules
 PowerHouse Charger Product Highlights
Battery Ratings
Battery Ratings
   Batteries are rated in Amp Hours (AH)
at a 6 hour discharge rate

   Battery Model Number
 12-85-13
 12 = number of cells
 85 = AH per positive plate
 13 = total number of plates

     Calculate AH by taking number of positive plates
times the AH per Positive Plate

 85 x ((13-1)/2) = 85 x (6) = 510 AH
Battery Ratings
How Battery Capacity Varies with Discharge Rate
Battery Ratings
 Kilo Watt Hours (kWH) is another Energy Rating
 Battery kWH ratings are based on 1.99 VPC which
can be used to convert from AH to kWH
 To convert from AH to kWH:

(AH Capacity) X (Number of Cells )X (1.99 VPC)
1000
Example:

An 18-125-17 battery has an AH rating of 1000 AH at the 6
hour rate, the kWH is:

1000 x 18 x 1.99 / 1000 = 35.8 kWH
Battery Charging Basics
Battery Charging

 The objectives to battery charging are:
 Return 110% - 115% of the AH removed to the battery
 Minimize heating
 Control gassing
 Key Bench Marks in a battery charge:
 Start Rate = Expressed as percentage of AH capacity
14-50% rates are used
 Gassing = 2.37 VPC at 25o C
(Max Energy Draw for Charging)
 Finish Rate = Expressed as percentage of AH capacity
3-5% rates are used
There are only Two Charging Methods

Battery is charged outside the truck in a single charging

event

 Opportunity
Battery is charged inside the truck for short periods through
out the work day and then completed when possible. Spare
batteries are eliminated or reduced
What is the difference in Charging Methods?
Standard/Conventional Charging:
 Single or Multiple batteries per truck
 Battery State of Charge goes from 100-20% then the
battery gets changed for a charged one
 Battery goes through an entire charger cycle (gassing)
each time

Opportunity Charging/Fast:
   Breaks, Lunches and Idle periods are used for charging
   Single or multiple batteries per truck
   Battery is taken to gassing then stopped
   Finished/EQ once per week at a minimum
   Can involve battery modifications
   Can mean reduced battery life
Charging Rates Equate to How Quickly
the Battery is Recovered
There Are Three Basic Charging Rates:
1. Standard Charging/Conventional:
 Charging At Rates of 18-20 A / 100 Ahrs
 7-10 Hour Charge Intervals

 2. Opportunity Charging:
 Charging At Rates of 25-35 A / 100 Ahrs
 4-6 Hour Charge Intervals

 3. Fast Charging/Rapid Charging:
 Charging At Rates of 40+ A /100 Ahrs
 2-4 Hour Charge Intervals
 May Require Battery Modifications
(if greater than 320/350 amps)
Charging Technologies
What Most Fork Truck Dealers Need to Know

Battery
Charger

AC Input                      DC Output
Old Technology Dominates our Industry
 The battery charging industry is dominated by:
 Ferro-Resonant chargers (Ferro Chargers)
 SCR chargers

 These technologies are characterized as being:
 Basic Technology  Heavy and bulky
 Have limited electrical performance
 Poor to mediocre Efficiencies & Power Factor
 High AC ripple  Higher battery temperatures
 Susceptible to AC line disturbances
HF is New Technology
   Benefits These technologies are characterized as
being:
 Advanced Technology  Light and Compact
 Have Superior electrical performance
 Excellent Efficiencies & Power Factor
 Low AC ripple  lower battery temperatures
 Not Susceptible to AC line disturbances
 MOSFETs And IGBTs Are Fully Controllable And Can Be
Turned Off And On In An Instant
 Highly Versatile  Extremely Controllable Recharge
Profile
HF vs. 60Hz Transformers
60Hz Transformer

High Frequency Transformer

Size: 10kVA                            Size: 10kW
Wt. : 169 lb                           Wt. : 1 lb
Efficiency: 95%                        Efficiency: 99.5%
4.5% Improvement
How Battery Responds to a Ferro Resonant Charger

Switched Chargers
(SCR & HF) have more
precise control on the
charging curve which
means a quicker
recharge time

How Battery Responds to a Switched Charger
HF Chargers deliver the
precision of an SCR
charger with BETTER
efficiency
Power Factor – Basics
 Power Factor, PF: the ratio of Actual Power
Used to Total Power Drawn from the line
 Utilities may charge penalties if PF is < 90%
Actual Power Used
PF =
Total Power Drawn   Beer Analogy

PF =
kWs                     Unused Power
kVAs                    (kVARs)

   Typical PF:                             Total Power
– SCR Chargers : ~ 70%                 Drawn (kVAs)

– Ferro Chargers : ~ 85%        Actual Power
Used (kWs)

– HF Chargers : >95%
kWs + kVARs = kVAs
The Value Proposition for Point
of Use Charging
How Point of Use (Opportunity)
Charging Works

80% SOC

Lunch
Lunch

30% SOC

Breaks
Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging

 Reduce number of batteries per truck
 1 battery per truck vs. 2 – 3
 Less lead and acid under roof

 Eliminate battery changes
 Improves battery utility & truck
performance
 Improves workers’ safety
 Eliminate need for battery rooms
 No battery room attendants
 No discharge to the environment
Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging
 Labor cost impacts
 Eliminates battery changes: 15 – 30 min/shift
 Increases worker’s productivity
 Eliminates battery room attendants:
 1 -2 workers / shift

 Safety cost impacts
 Reduces pedestrian/truck incidents near battery
rooms (during shift changes)
 Eliminates dropped batteries due to changing
 Eliminates acid exposure with single point watering
Value Proposition for Point of Use Charging
 Increase Battery (Asset) Utilization

   Batteries are used for 1 shift / per day (8 hours)
   Charging takes 8-10 hours
   Battery utilization: 33%
   2-3 batteries / truck are needed: \$3000 - \$4000
ea.

 Fast charging technology entails
   Only one battery per truck is needed
   Charging at much higher rates during breaks
   Reduced charging times: 1-2 hrs vs. 8-10 hrs

   100% battery utilization
Application Analysis
Application analysis is critical for
success when proposing a
point-of-use charging system

The steps are simple but often ignored:
1. Identify the purpose is driving the
need
2. Gain an understanding of the operation
through data collection
3. Analyze the Data against the Need
4. Propose a Solution
5. Get Customer Feedback & Revise
Application Analysis is
what we do for you
You Scout the opportunities and We’ll
determine if a smart charging solution
makes sense look for
   Expansions
   Not room left in battery room
   Cold storage and freezer apps
   Shipping Docks (between the dock
doors is a great place for chargers)
Thumb Rules
Thumb Rules
 Anything beyond 110% of a battery AH
daily throughput is fast charge
   Example using a 1000 AH battery
 1000 x 1.10= 1100 AH
 3 hours break per 24 hours
 1100 x 110% (minimum overcharge) =
1210 AH needed
   1210AH / 3 Hrs ~ 403 Amps per hour charge
rate is needed
   403/1000 = 40.3% Start Rate = FAST CHARGE

Note: 110% represents about 1.4 batteries
per 24 Hours!!
Thumb Rules
 Fast Charge will NEVER work if…
   Total available charge time per day is less
than 3 hours
   Charge time is not distributed throughout
the day
   More than 1.6 batteries are used per day
   There is not an 8-10 hour period once per
week for finish/EQ charging
Thumb Rules
     You Cannot Charge yourself Out of an
Energy deficit
   Charging takes time
 Even at 40% start rates it takes over 1 hour to
recover less than forty percent of the batteries
capacity
   Charging causes heat
   Hot batteries create more charging time
Thumb Rules

 Point-of-Use Makes the Most Sense
   Chargers near the break room are the
WORST location
   Chargers in/near the battery room are
most common because of existing
infrastructure
   More point-of-use means more plug in
time!
Thumb Rules

 Data is Important only if the Customer
Values it
   Advanced systems ALWAYS involve a
metric
   If you cannot measure it – you cannot
improve it
   Data is often sold as an expensive adder
Thumb Rules

 Consider Opportunity Charging a
Four-Legged Stool:

1. Energy Usage

2. Time Available to Charge

3. Charge Plug In Compliance

4. Charger Performance
Charger Product Highlights
PowerHouse IHF Charger
•Product Ranges from 3 to 36 kW
•Conventional, Opportunity or Fast Charge Programmable
•Program from front of control or by Laptop
•Multi-AH Capable with use of BATCOM
• Efficiency of 92% over the entire
charging cycle.
• Power Factor greater than .99
PowerHouse Charger Experience

•Crown Battery in business since 1926.
•Benning Power Electronics in business since 1938.
•Benning was the first company to introduce a high
frequency charger in 1984.
•Crown Battery has delivered more than 4,000
opportunity and fast charge installations.
•Crown Battery – Benning exclusive partnership in
2006 for North American market.
•Benning has been producing motive power chargers
since 1954 - Over 1,000,000 quality industrial battery
chargers have been manufactured.
•Chargers are Assembled in Garland, Texas
Energy Star Partnership
Crown-Benning was the first industrial
Energy Star Partner company registered

IHF Chargers are among the highest
efficiency chargers available anywhere
iHF Charger Operation is Simple
Visual Indication of Charger Operation

YELLOW = charge

RED = fault

GREEN = charge
complete

Traffic Light Display Can Be Seen From Across A Plant
Floor From A Large Distance – Charger Status Can Be
Seen At A Glance.
iHF Charger Control Features
Electrolyte
Low Indicator                          Display
(when used with BATCOM)

Traffic Light

Start Stop
and Select
Button
Buttons
iHF Charger Control Features

   Full Wireless Communication With IHF Charger
   Remote Sensing of Electrolyte Level and Temperature
   Useful State-of-Charge Data on Batcom Unit
   Durable, Shock-Resistant Design
   Optional Automated Battery Watering
Thank You

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