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湖北省博士研究生入学考试英语联考模拟试题一 Part Ⅰ Reading Comprehension (30%) Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. The word "bankruptcy" comes from banes rotta, Italian for broken bench. The custom was that when a medieval trader failed to pay his creditors, his trading bench was broken. Since bankruptcy was taken off the street and put into the statute book, it has become rather more complicated. Bankruptcy is as necessary for capitalism as profit; together they make up the stick and carrot which persuade businessmen to work. In Europe the accountants and lawyers who make a living from overseeing bankrupt companies expect the coming year to provide a bumper crop; in America bankruptcy courses are among the most popular at business schools. Only in Japan are experts talking about a possible decline in bankruptcies. Analyzing companies involves much the same task worldwide: look at the accounts and you will get some idea of how much or how little money a firm makes. Bankruptcy laws, however, vary enormously from country to country, mainly because each starts from different historical perspectives. Yet they all tackle the same issues—and the most fundamental is how friendly the law should be to the debtor. Countries whose bankruptcy laws are based on the British model view bankruptcy primarily as a way to recover creditors' money. Typically, the courts replace the bankrupt firm's management with a liquidator or a receiver whose mission is to pay back creditors as quickly as possible. England's first bankruptcy law was an "act against such persons as do make bankrupt". For centuries British bankrupts went to debtors' prison. Continental countries also took the creditors' side. In contrast, one of America's attractions to immigrants was its very lack of a debtors' prison. Bankruptcy is still viewed in America as a side-effect of entrepreneurship. Managers of a bankrupt firm are often allowed to stay on. Cynics reckon that some well-know businessmen have made a career ont of taking companies into and out of bankruptcy. The aim of American bankruptcy law is rehabilitation: to reorganize the company so that it can continue to trade, rather than .to see that the creditors are paid off. Thus, while an ailing American company can opt for liquidation by filing under the chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code, it can also file under chapter 11 to seek protection from its creditors. Once a firm has gone into chapter 11 its management has to produce a reorganization plan: the creditors are arranged into committees to vote on it. These can become scrums where the various creditors' relative seniority varies according to their lawyers' eloquence. Fans of the American system argue that it gives companies a chance to recover. Critics say that American law favors the same managers who bankrupted the firm, that it encourages lawyers to prolong bankruptcy protection, that it favors big bankers over smaller trade creditors, and that shareholders, the last to be paid in liquidation, gain at the expense of debt-holders. 1. In Paragraph One, "Since bankruptcy was taken off the streets and put into the statute book" means______. A. creditor no longer broke the bankrupt's bench on the streets but wrote down his name B. creditor had debtor's name carved on a statue C. the punishment on a debtor was bounded by law instead of spontaneous action D. it took more procedures to ask a trader to pay his creditors 2. We can infer from the second paragraph that ______. A. bankruptcy is on the rise in both Europe and America with Japan being an exception B. business is predicted to flourish in the coming year C. bankruptcy is a course that business students like to major in D. experts in both Europe and America earn more than those in Japan 3. The passage drops a hint that ______. A. some established American businessmen had taken advantage of bankruptcy law B. American government cared little about the benefit of creditors C. European bankruptcy law is superior to that of the U. S. A. D. American bankruptcy law should be criticized 4. According to the passage, whose interest is ranked the last in American bankruptcy law? A. Big bankers. B. Small trade creditors. C. Shareholders. D. Debt-holders. 5. Which of the following is not true? A. The fate of entrepreneurs is not uniform under different bankruptcy laws. B. The stick and the carrot refer to bankruptcy and profit respectively. C. People immigrate to the U. S. A. because they won't be put behind bar once in debt. D. The most eloquent lawyers will help the most advantageous creditors get paid back. The devastating effects of earthquakes on human lives and property have encouraged the search for earthquake prediction. This challenge remains and contemporary seismologists continue to seek reliable methods for pinpointing the time, place and magnitude of individual quakes. One prediction technique involves an analysis of the recurrence rates of earthquakes as indicators of future seismic activity. Earthquakes are concentrated in certain areas of the world where tectonic plates such as the Pacific Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate meet and create fault zones and it is in these areas that seismologists focus their investigations. The tectonic plate model provides another tool for earthquake prediction by calculating the accumulated strain at plate boundaries. When the strain reaches a certain magnitude the pressure must be released and it is therefore hypothesized that in such eases an earthquake is imminent. The search for premonitory phenomena has received particular attention. In contrast to the ancient Greeks and Romans, who relied on the howling of dogs as a warning sign, modern seismologists have focused on physical evidence for an impending earthquake. Evidence of plate strain can be found by measuring relative movements in geodetic stations, while chemical changes also offer signals for seismologists. Using chemical-detection techniques, scientists established a link between the rise in the concentration of radon gas in mineral water and the subsequent earthquake. Analysis of the changes in magnetic properties and conductivity of rocks provides further data for prediction. The electrical and magnetic properties of crustal rocks particularly sensitive to strain and studies measuring changes which occur in these properties have provided promising results. The conductivity of crustal rock is determined by the degree to which the rock is saturated with fluid and the electrolytic properties of those fluids. Before large earthquakes, small fractures develop in rocks, which change the quantity of fluid present. These changes can be measured and provide useful predictive data. However, similar changes in the fluid-bearing capacity of rock can occur as a result of other factors such as changes in the water table, and therefore this technique is not entirely reliable. The belief that the behavior of birds, eats and dogs provides evidence of imminent earthquakes has recently gained credence. It is hypothesized that the animals are sensitive to the seismic waves which precede major quakes. In zones where earthquakes are known to occur, improved construction techniques can significantly reduce the effects of seismic waves. If more accurate information regarding the time and magnitude were available, governments could take even more effective measures to reduce the impact on human life. If an entirely accurate prediction technique became available, there would be significant social and political implications. An earthquake prediction in a major urban area would require governments to provide an effective evacuation strategy, necessitating massive resource and political will. 6. Which of the following is true? A. Earthquakes only occur in the Pacific, Eurasian, and African Plates. B. Earthquakes are caused by the tectonic plate model. C. An increase in the level of radon gas in water always indicates an imminent earthquake. D. The devastation of earthquakes prompted the set, king for reliable prediction methods. 7. "The electrical and magnetic properties of crustal rocks particularly sensitive to strain and studies measuring changes which occur in these properties have provided promising results." ( Paragraph 5) What is the function of this sentence? A. To provide an example of a previous idea. B. To summarize the paragraph. C. To provide an argument against the previous idea. D. To establish the main point of the passage. 8. According to Paragraph 5, measuring the conductivity of fluid in rock may not be a reliable earthquake predictor, because ______. A. other factors may account for changes in conductivity B. rock may be saturated with fluid C. these changes can be measured D. the conductivity of crustal rock is inherently variable 9. Which of the following is not what scientists attempt to find out about earthquakes? A. Time. B. Animals. C. Magnitude. D. Place. 10. According to the passage, an accurate prediction of earthquake available would give rise to the following except______. A. effective evacuation strategies B. necessitating massive resource C. the howling of dogs D. The improvement of construction techniques There are many benefits to using online distance learning environments. Online education is available any place, any time for global communities of learners based on shared interests. Online education with its group-based instruction and computer mediated communication provides an opportunity for new development and understanding in teaching and learning. Computer mediated communication encourages collaborative learning by not providing cues regarding appearance, race, gender, education, or social status, bestowing a sort of anonymity to participants. Distance also permits the expression of emotion (both positive and negative) and promotes discussion that normally would be inhibited. Yet, this same text-based positive aspect of online learning makes online education more cumbersome and therefore takes more time than face-to-face learning. In addition, the sheer bulk of messages can be overwhelming. The learner 0nly has the written text and no other non-verbal cues. This may confuse the learner and cause misunderstanding. Some students are not willing to take the time to go in and look up homework assignments and other online learning activities. ESL students shy away from online classes. They have expressed fear of having their work, viewed by others. In the road to dotcom in education, educators "have to slow down from their busy lives to be free to focus first on connecting with learners and connecting them to learning before they end up feeling like they are no longer using technology, but are being used by it". There is pressure to keep up with the times as well as "a cost-of-entry issue regarding technology in education. Without a certain level of technology services and learning options, many students will not consider attending a certain institution". Mark Milliron claims that "any technology has to prove that it will ultimately improve or expand learning". This will come about if educators "slow down, look around, and get on the road to dotcom—a place to thoughtfully engage and explore all aspects of technology, good, bad, or indifferent... A place with mindful focus on the people and passions that make life worth living". Should online learning be an issue of control or should students be convinced of its value as an authentic learning tool? Fear and a threatening environment don't enhance learning according to brain-based learning research. "How students feel about a learning situation determines the amount of attention they devote to it." "Positive emotions ensure that learning will be retained." It's very. important to discuss with students how they feel about technology and online learning so that they feel good about what they are doing. The process of implementing online distance learning is a slow and delicate one. Change will eventually come about but it will take time. 11. There are many good and bad aspects of online distance learning. One good thing about it is______. A. easy to do B. cheaper than face-to-face learning C. convenient D. very fast going 12. Sometimes online distance learning can be a problem because ______. A. learners don't have the money to pay for it B. some learners don't need face-to-face cues C. it is face-to-face learning D. some students feel it time consuming to read so many texts 13. Online distance classes are learning environments that are ______. A. available all the time B. not always available C. very expensive D. very cheap 14. Which of the following is not true? A. While choosing a school, students will take its availability of technology into consideration. B. Discussion among participants in virtual learning environment is carried on without knowing the others. C. Educators feel online education is a pressure because they are used by technology. D. It seems all the communication in online communication is by written forms. 15. It can be inferred from the passage that ______. A. online education slows down ]earning B. both students and educators are against online education C. online education is at the phase of research D. there are some problems with the technology applied in online education In recent speeches at Republican fundraisers, President Bush has taken to criticizing the press for baring government secrets. The outgoing secretary of the Treasury, John Snow, in what may have been his last official act, wrote to The New York Times that in exposing the monitoring of bank transfers, it had undermined a successful counterterrorism program. A house resolution, passed by a party line vote, called on the media to safeguard classified programs. The government has discovered what governments have discovered before, that an undercurrent of hostility towards the news media runs through the country and that there could be political advantage in campaigning against the press in general. The champion press hater, of course, was President Nixon, who told his staff that the press is the enemy, and he proceeded to declare his own private war against the media. In 1969, he had a speech written by speechwriter Pat Buchanan denouncing the media as a "tiny and closed fraternity of privileged men". And he gave it to Vice President Spiro Agnew to deliver. That speech is best remembered today for the line contributed by another speechwriter, William Safire, about "nattering nabobs of negativism". It is not clear that the public hates the press as much as officialdom would like to think. A recent Pew Research report found that public attitudes towards the press have been on a downward track for years. Growing numbers of people questioned the news media's patriotism and fairness. And yet most Americans continue to say they like mainstream news outlets. And so, as The Christian Science Monitor headlined the other day: "Amid war on terror, a war with the press." You would not expect that I, as a journalist, would exhibit total neutrality in such a war. And so let me quote Justice Potter Stewart in his opinion in the Pentagon Papers ease in 1971: "In the absence of governmental checks and balances present in other areas of our national life, the only effective restraint upon executive policy and power in the area of national defense and international affairs may lie in an enlightened citizenry... Without an informed and free press, there cannot be an enlightened people;" That remains true, even when Mr. Bush proclaims a state of war with the terrorists. 16. What's the best title for the passage.? A. The Free Press Exposed Government Secrets. B. The Government's Current War with the Free Press. C. The Unfriendly Relationship between President and the Free Press. D. The Free Press Bares Government Secrets. 17. The passage shows that the author is ______. A. on neutral ground B. pro free press C. indifferent to the situation D. critical of free press 18. We can infer from the passage that ______. A. Americans disagree with pursuing fairness at the expense of national interest B. Americans prefer patriotism to fairness C. the free press has some relationship with terrorists D. the free press is often antagonistic to governments 19. According to the passage, who might hate the free press most? A. President Bush. B. John Snow. C. President Nixon. D. Pat Buchanan. 20. According to the passage, the free press is blamed because______. A. it is a tiny and closed fraternity of privileged men B. there is an undercurrent of hostility towards the news media C. the monitoring of bank transfers is made known D. it sympathizes the terrorists Part Ⅱ Vocabulary (15%) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part; for each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. 21. Sorry, I can't repay you this week. I'm completely______. A. broken B. destroyed C. broke D. dead 22. I tried to call you lost night but your line was______. A. occupied B. taken C. connected D. engaged 23. Competition will enable customers to______ the quality of service they want. A. keep tn B. hold on C. insist on D. hang on 24. In this way people will get themselves ______ talking about certain issues. A. involved in B. taken in C. given in D. gone into 25. His highly ______ movie, Shindler's List is popular all over the world. A. abstained B. abolished C. accommodated D. acclaimed 26. Japan has ______ its steps towards putting into effect an international treaty banning chemical weapons. A. hurried B. bustled C. accelerated D. rushed 27. The motion of ocean water ______ at different depths below the surface. A. modifies B. varies C. alters D. differs 28. The two countries are obliged to abide by the international conventions and ______ of these chemical weapons under the convention. A. impose B. disclose C. dispose D. depose 29. Since Xerox couldn't work smoothly, he assumed that someone had ______ with it. A. scampered B. pampered C. hampered D. tampered 30. In the time______ it is impossible for me to answer all the questions involved within this one question. A. allocated B. allotted C. distributed D. assigned 31. This report examines the social and economic development policies enacted by three countries to ______ a resurgence of terrorism within their jurisdictions. A. forbid B. prohibit C. inhibit D. ban 32. The changes regarding the learning of a foreign language should have some bearing on the ______i.e. the classroom, where we are expected to learn it. A. arena B. field C. area D. district 33. The other two bills ______existing laws in Japan and aimed to give the government the power to mobilize the Self-Defense Force. A. rectified B. revised C. rewrote D. polished 34. He sent me an ______ biography of Theodore Roosevelt which helped me understand American history better. A. authorized B. authoritative C. authoritarian D. authority 35. Under a new law, universities must ______ smoke-free policies on their campuses. A. endow B. endeavor C. enact D. endorse 36. The judge's decision ______ Montez's hopes of receiving a reduced prison sentence. A. abashed B. dashed C. gashed D. crashed 37. In a field with a large number of candidates, there will be lower salaries and ______ competition. A. some B. steep C. stiff D. stout 38. When the time came to close the business down, its entire ______ had to be calculated so that the creditors could be paid off. A. property B. wealth C. belongs D. assets 39. The role those anthropologists ______ to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints. A. owed B. ascribed C. accredited D. contributed 40. You can______ to your daughter's membership in the honor society when boasting about her. A. elude B. turn C. come D. allude 41. The universal historians give contradictory replies to that question, while the historians of culture ______ giving a direct answer. A. evade B. miss C. shirk D. steer 42. One ______ to define a republic is if a government at least derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people. A. standard B. criterion C. measure D. principle 43. Instantly the vast assemblage, as with one ______, struck up the national hymn of the United States, and "Yankee Doodle." A. tone B. voice C. accord D. sound 44. Publishers are using a blitz of advertising, Web sites, as well as traditional methods to ______for elusive teens market. A. angle B. allow C. budget D. care 45. Jones had audaciously slapped my face, and that I had been obliged to ______ against him by knocking him down. A. revenge B. avenge C. reward D. retaliate 46. She couldn't pay the full amount she owed, so she ______ part of it to the next month. A. carried off B. carried over C. carried out D. carried through 47. To appropriately recognize donors for their generosity, you should always ______ their names under the appropriate membership category in your annual report. A. keep down B. let down C. put down D. slow down 48. Don't ______ stocks as they are not appropriate investments for people who will need access to their money in the near future. A. believe in B. call on C. count on D. find out 49. A U.N. post on its side was hit by a missile—although the observer team said it was a ______Israeli shell. A. stray B. streak C. strait D. strain 50. He had a considerable reputation in England as a critic and was the ______ exponent in this country of modem French literature. A. ascribed B. accredited C. prescribed D. attributed Part Ⅲ Cloze (10%) Directions: For each numbered bracket in the following passage, fill in a suitable word in the blank on the ANSWER SHEET. English remains a dominant and universal language, which presently (51) as a connection-link between great varieties of different nations. Now English is spoken mainly in every corner of the world. It is very convenient in (52) of facilitating contacts between people from different countries. The British council put the figure of 750 million English language speakers. The only (53) that the percentage of papers published in English has gone from 65% to 85% in the last 25 years is self-explanatory and only (54) the prevalence of English in all spheres of life. The importance of English skills has been exaggerated to the (55) that it overweighs practically everything in assessing person's competency. (56) of controversial information that English dominance will be replaced by Chinese, Arabic or Hindi languages by 2050, which was introduced by a linguist and methodologist David Graddol, a quantity of English language learners is increasing by (57) and bounds. It is quite reasonable that everybody in the world should be (58) an opportunity to learn English in order to be able to communicate effectively at the global level Though, this is by no (59) always the case that English learning comes easily to people. Many English learners struggle with English to no purpose for years and cannot master it, whatever (60) they exert. The point is that some people have (61) linguistic abilities, so called a feeling for languages and a way (62) for others is to learn how to learn English effectively. Most of us can succeed (63) dint of our diligence and perseverance. Undoubtedly, every person eau become a successful English learner. The main thing is to sort (64) and develop a set of successful language learning techniques, which, indeed, (65) from one learner to another. 1. Have curiosity to learn English and cognate something new, opening unexplored horizons of knowledge. Curiosity is a (66) force, which will push you up in English learning. You can be inquisitive about language, culture, traditions, or even people who (67) this country. You should always try to find a force, which will make you tick and help you advance with rapid strides. Someone calls it motivation; others name it an eager (68) to learn. No matter how it is called, the main thing is that it brings lasting and positive results. 2. Treat realistically a (69) of your goal, your potential and your time. Remember that English learning is impossible to limit within some frameworks. Because language learning has a beginning, but it does not have an exact ending, as English learning prolongs in the whole (70) of your life. Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation (15%) Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese on the ANSWER SHEET. 71. Not so long ago it was assumed that the dangers man would meet in space would be terrible, the main ones being radiation and. the danger of being hit by meteors. It is perhaps worth remembering that less than two centuries ago, the dangers of train travel seemed similarly terrible. A man would certainly die, it was thought, if carried along at a Speed of 30 miles per hour. There are two sorts of radiation man must fear in space. The first is radiation from the sun, and this is particularly dangerous when the sun is very active and explosions are occurring on its surface. The second, less harmful form comes from the so-called Van Allen Belts. These are two areas of radiation about 1 ,500 miles away from the earth. 72. Neither of these forms of radiation are a danger to us on the earth, since we are protected by our atmosphere. Specifically, it is that part of our atmosphere known as the ozonosphere which protects us. This is a belt of the chemical ozone between 12 and 21 miles from the ground which absorbs all the radiation. Once outside the atmosphere, however, man is no longer protected, and radiation can be harmful in a number of ways. 73. A distinction must be drawn between the short-and long-term effects of radiation. The former are merely unpleasant, but just because an astronaut returning from a journey in space does not seem to have been greatly harmed, we cannot assume that he is safe. The long-term effects can be extremely serious, even leading to death. One solution to the dangers of radiation is to protect the spaceship by putting some kind of shield around it. This was in fact done on the Apollo spaceships which landed on the moon. But this solution is not possible for longer journeys—to Mars for example—because the shield would need to be very large, and could not be carried. Another solution, not in fact possible at present, would be to surround the spaceship with a magnetic field to deflect the radiation. In all, we have to conclude that there is at present no complete solution to the problem of radiation. Part Ⅴ Chinese-English Translation (15%) Directions: Translate the following short paragraph into English and write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. 是不是有的人天生聪明， 而有的人天生就愚笨呢?还有， 人的智力是由环境和经历造就 的吗?令人吃惊的是这两个问题的答案都是肯定的。在某种程度上，人的智力是天赋的。对 一个先天弱智的儿童无论进行多少特殊教育也无法使其变为天才。 另一方面， 一个生活在枯 燥单调环境中的孩子的智力发展往往不如生活在富有和丰富多彩环境中的孩子。由此可见， 一个人的智力极限是与生俱来的， 但他能否达到其智力极限则取决于环境。 这个为当今绝大 多数专家所赞同的观点可以从几个方面得到论证。 Part Ⅵ Writing (15%) Directions: For this part, you are required to write a composition on the topic What Should Be Done with Urban Congestion ? You are required to use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. You should write in no less 200 words and base your composition on the outlines below: Outlines: 1)我国迅速发展的汽车业促使许多人拥有了私家车，但也带来了一系列问题。 2)有人认为解决问题的出路在于多修公路和停车场；有人提议改善城市交通设施，限制 私家车的使用。 3)你的看法。 参考答案 Part Ⅰ Reading Comprehension 1.C 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. A 8. A 9. B 10.C 11.C 12. D 13.A 14. C 15. C 16. D .17. B 18. A 19. E 20. C Part Ⅱ Vocabulary 21. C 22. D 23. C 24. A 25. D 26. C 27. B 28. C 29. D 30. B 31. C 32. A 33. B 34. B 35. C 36. B 37. C 38. D 39. B 40. D 41. A 42. B 43. C 44. A 45. D 46. B 47. C 48. C 49. A 50. B Part Ⅲ Cloze 51. serves 52. terms 53. fact 54. confirms 55. extent 56. Irrespective 57. leaps 58. given 59. means 60. efforts 61. inherited 62. out 63. by 64. out 65. vary 66. driving 67. inhabit 68. desire 69. combination 70. course Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation 71．不久前，人们认为在太空旅行会遇到极大的危险，主要是辐射和被流星撞击。也许我们 应当记得，即在不到两百年前，乘火车旅行似乎也同样令人生畏。 72．两种辐射对地球上的人类都不造成危害，因为我们受到大气层的保护。明确地说，正是 大气层中被称为臭氧层的那部分保护了我们。 这是一个距地面 12 至 21 英里的一个化学臭氧 层带，它吸收了全部辐射。 73．辐射的近期影响和远期影响须区别对待。前者仅仅是令人不适，但我们不能仅凭从太空 归来的宇航员表面上没有受到严重伤害这一点就认为他安然无恙。 而后者可以产生极其严重 的后果，甚至导致死亡。 Part Ⅴ Chinese-English Translation Are some people horn clever and others born stupid? Or is intelligence developed by our environment and our experiences? Strangely enough, the answer to both these questions is yes. To some extent our intelligence is given us at birth, and no amount of special education can make a genius out of a child born with low intelligence, on the other hand, a child who lives in a boring environment will develop his intelligence less than one who fives in rich and varied surroundings. Thus the limits of a person's intelligence are fixed at birth, but whether or not he reaches those limits will depend on his environment. This view, now held by most experts, can be supported in a number of ways. Part Ⅵ Writing What Should Be Done with Urban Congestion? Rapid development of our country's auto industry has stimulated an increasing number of people to own private vehicles. With that increase, a series of problems follow along. Many drivers find themselves struggling with unendurable traffic jams every day. Downtown streets are often congested because of temporary parking cars. More ironically, drivers often have to drive around and around a parking lot many times before they can ultimately get a vacant position. Thus amid the complaints about the lack of spacious roads and parking lots appear the popular demand for the construction of more roads and parking lots, and the opponents to the increasing number of ownership of private cars, claiming motor vehicles account for one third of the country's total petroleum consumption, and that China will rely more on foreign oil imports as the country's consumption already exceeds its production. Actually, China is feverishly constructing roads and highways. For example, more arable land has given way to roads and parking lots, but the results turn out to be hardly satisfactory. So the solution to urban congestion does not lie solely in road construction but in public transportation improvement and government intervention. By improving public transportation, all cities should set up a sound public traffic network to help residents' daily commuting, in addition to building more mass transit. Speeding up the buses crawling along and arranging for more reasonable stops available, though pressing and demanding, are all feasible methods. At the same time, government taxes car sales or gas sales for potential air pollution and the costs of building roads, or imposes a "road congestion fee" on private car owners. For example, a system can be set up to charge cars that drive downtown during rush hour a lot more khan usual. Then, people will avoid the fee by parking outside the special-fee area and taking mass transit into town. When all these external costs from private car use are accounted for, people will hesitate to buy private cars and choose to take mass transit. All in all, to tackle the problem of urban congestion, I insist priority should be given to public transport, because expanded use of public transportation decreases dependence on foreign oil, improves air quality, relieves traffic congestion and parking problems and helps hold off wage inflation by providing a lower cost alternative to the increasingly expensive driving habit.
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