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					         ZigBee



      Venkat Bahl
            Philips
Business Development Manager
   Semiconductors Division
   Market Application Landscape
                                    Graphics             Hi-Fi                 Digital
                               Text         Internet     audio     Streaming   video     Multi-channel
                                                                     video                  video

                                                                                                         WAN
                 Long Range




                                    GSM/CDMA                GPRS/3G                      LMDS



                                                                  Wi-Fi              Wi-Fi5
                                                                 802.11b                                 LAN
                                                                                   802.11a/HL2
                 Short Range




                                    ZigBee               Bluetooth 2
                                   802.15.4                                       WiMedia
                                                       Bluetooth 1                802.15.3
                                                        802.15.1                                         PAN



                               Low Data Rate                                             High Data Rate
Semiconductors                                                                                                 2
Why ZigBee?
 • Standard in a fragmented market
    – Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues
 • Low Power consumption
    – Users expect battery to last months to years!
 • Low Cost
 • High density of nodes per network
 • Simple protocol, global implementation




Semiconductors                                              3
ZigBee -Target Markets
                                                                          TV
                                                                          VCR
       Monitors                                                          DVD
       Sensors            Industrial &                Consumer
                                                                          CD
       Automation         Commercial                  Electronics        Remote
       Control

                                                                              PC
                                                                          Peripherals
                                                                                       Mouse
             Personal                     Low Data Rate                                Keyboard
            Healthcare                    Radio Devices                                Joystick
                                                                                       Gamepad

            Monitors
            Diagnostics
            Sensors                                                               Security
                                             PETs              Home
                               Toys &                                              HVAC
                                             Gameboys        Automation           Lighting
                               Games         Educational                          Closures


Semiconductors                                                                                     4
   ZigBee Technology Adoption Curve




                  Gap




     Evangelize   Technology   Early Adopters   Mature Market   Laggards
                  Leaders

       ZigBee today
Semiconductors                                                             5
   ZigBee Rate of Adoption
                                   Market Matures




              Home Control Adoption
    Volume




             Industrial Adoption




   Initial Adoption



                               Time
Semiconductors                                      6
   Standards Expectations
                               This will satisfy
                               all requirements
   Market Expectations




                                             Disillusionment

                                                                     Everything
                         Market                                        is OK
                         Interest                            Products
                          Builds                           start to ship

                                             Obituaries
                                                                        ZigBee today
                                              Written


                                       Time
Semiconductors                                                                         7
   Market Size – Low Data Rate (No                                                                    )
                                                  Low Data Rate Market


                                 600
                                 500
                 Million units




                                 400
                                 300                                        Others
                                 200                                        Industrial Applications

                                 100                                        Home Environment

                                  0
                                  2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005
                                                  Years


                 Source: ABI, Dataquest, Internal




Semiconductors                                                                                            8
   Market Segmentation 2002 - 2006
           Segment Market Share 2002
                                                    •Industrial Applications will drive initial
                                                     market
                 0%
                                                    •Home Environment will become
     48%                               Home            Important
                                                    • Over time, there will be varied
                                       Industrial
                                52%    Others


                                                      Applications (Other)


                                                                        Segm ent Market Share 2005




                                                                  18%
                                                                                                     Home
                                                            13%
                                                                                                     Industrial
                                                                                                     Others
                                                                                          69%




Semiconductors                                                                                                    9
   Some Details - Home Controls

   • Energy Management is going to be a key aspect


   • Even if we are to ignore the Building Auto and
     Industrial Markets for a few minutes….




Semiconductors                                        10
      • Founding Members                                  • Associate Members
          – Cisco                                            – ADT Security Services   – Metering Technology
          – GM                                               – Autco Distributing      – N.E.W. Customer Service
          – Invensys                                         – AVAD                      Companies
          – The NewPower                                     – Coactive Networks       – Qubit Technology
            Company                                          – CompUSA                 – Reliant Energy
          – Panasonic                                        – Connected Lifestyles    – Sage Systems
          – Sears                                            – Echelon                 – Sempra Energy Connections
                                                             – emWare                  – Ucentric Systems
      • Contributing Members                                 – Gatespace               – Visteon
         – Best Buy                                          – Home Director           – Western Digital
         – Sun                                               – Honeywell               – zBox
                                                             – Info-linc


                                                        The Connected Home:
           •      The features of a connected home exist today; they are not dreams of tomorrow. This home is
                  connected in the sense that normally independent systems are linked to a centrally controlled
                  system. In a connected home, your home computer, TV, lighting and heating controls, home
                  security system and many appliances within the home can talk to each other via the Internet. These
                  linked systems can be controlled through various devices, including your pager, cellular phone, TV,
                  home PC, PDA, or even your automobile.
           •      More specifically, the connected home offers the following: new forms of entertainment; anywhere,
                  anytime communication with family, friends and coworkers; advanced home control and security;
                  new ways to buy over the Internet; safe and secure e-mail and other communications; and always-on,
                  high speed Internet access - all from reliable providers.
 Source: Internet Home Alliance the Advantage magazine.

Semiconductors                                                                                                          11
Internet Home Alliance Survey Findings
 Zigbee can provide or help provide 3 of the 5 top features customers want
in a connected home
                                                           Interest in Individual Features
                                                               of the Connected Home
              100%
                                                                                                        Zigbee use in thermostat
                                         Zigbee sensors eliminate the need to
               90%                                                                                        simplifies wiring and
                                         run wires throughout the house and
                                                                                                       connectivity to the Internet
               80%                       make adding a new system to an old
                                                    house realistic
               70%
                                                                                                                          Zigbee’s technical
            60%                                                                                                       characteristics and cost are
    % of
                                                                                                                      ideal for DAP applications
respondents50%
 interested
            40%

               30%

               20%

               10%

                 0%
                        Video on Demand Web-based Home                           Anywhere,      Internet control of    e-Kitchen
                                           Security                              anytime file       heat/HVAC
                                                                                   access

Semiconductors
 Source: Zanthus CEO interview, Internet Home Alliance The Advantage magazine.
                                                                                                                                                12
Connected Home Pilot Programs

                           Energy Management               OnStar at Home

            • June to October 2001             • To begin Q1 2002
               –300 households                    –100 households
            • Tested the effectiveness of      • Integrated OnStar’s Virtual Advisor
              energy management systems          service with home security, control
               –NewPower initiated               and telecommunications
                                                 components
                periodic energy
                curtailments (e.g. raising        –Provides an easy to use,
                the temperature a few               consistent interface to control
                degrees during peak hours)          home systems such as lighting,
                to save money                       temperature and home security
               –Individuals could override        –Homeowners will be able to
                the curtailments manually           control their home operations
                or through a Web portal             from any, PC, telephone, WAP
                                                    phone or wireless PDA in
                                                    addition to OnStar’s PCS service

Source: Website, Mercer interview.
Semiconductors                                                                         13
Home Networking
Home appliances will complement additional Zigbee markets

                                       Volume Comparison Between Home Appliances and CE devices
           50                                                           (Unit shipments in the US in 2000)

           45
           40
           35
     Unit
 Shipments 30
   in 2000
           25
(in millions)
           20
           15
           10
             5
             0
                   Washer/        Micro-         A/C        Fridge/       Water Cooking Dish- Furnace         Cell   TV   VCR   DVD
                    Dryer         wave                      Freezer       Heater        washer               Phone



  Semiconductors
  Source: US shipments in 2000 from Appliance Magazine March 2001, Time “Machine of the Year 2000”.
                                                                                                                                14
   Market Requirements

   •   Global licence free ISM band operation
   •   Unrestricted geographic use
   •   RF penetration through walls & ceilings
   •   Automatic/semi-automatic installation
   •   Ability to add or remove devices
   •   Possible voice support




Semiconductors                                   15
   Market Requirements, cont...

   •   10k-115.2kbps data throughput
   •   10-75m coverage range (home/garden)
   •   Support for 32-255 nodes
   •   Support for 4 critical devices
   •   4-100 co-located networks
   •   0.5-2 year battery life
   •   Up to 5m/sec. (18kmph) permitted mobility
   •   Module cost: $1.5-$2.5 in 2004/5!

Semiconductors                                     16
ZigBee - General Characteristics
 •   Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps
 •   Star topology, peer to peer possible
 •   255 devices per network
 •   CSMA-CA channel access
 •   Optional Guaranteed Time Slot
 •   Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability
 •   Low power (battery life multi-month to years)
 •   Dual PHY (2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz)
 •   Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%)
 •   Range: 10m nominal (1-100m based on settings)
 •   Location Aware: Yes, but optional
Semiconductors                                            17
ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - Customer
Relationship

                             Application


                       Application Interface

                           Network Layer




                                                                  ZigBee Alliance
                           Data Link Layer

                             MAC Layer
                             MAC Layer




                                                           IEEE
                             PHY Layer

                                ZigBee
                 Silicon                     Application
                                 Stack

Semiconductors                                                                      18
   Range Estimation (Meters)


                          0dBm 10dBm 20dBm
         250kbps
                             10            20   40




 Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation model
Semiconductors                                       19
   Network Topology

                      Network coordinator
                      Network node

                      IEEE node



                      Communications flow

                      Virtual links


Semiconductors                              20
   Other Network Forms


                                           Network coordinator
                 Ad-hoc network
                                           Network node

                                           Gateway



                                           Communications flow
                 Gateway enabled network

Semiconductors                                                   21
   Supported Traffic Types

   • Periodic data
      – Application defined rate

   • Intermittent
      – Basic communication

   • Repetitive low latency data
      – Allocation of guaranteed time slots


Semiconductors                                22
   The Network Coordinator
   • Transmits network beacons

   • Sets up a network

   • Manages network nodes

   • Stores network node information

   • Routes messages between paired nodes

   • Receives constantly
Semiconductors                              23
   The Network Node
   • Is generally battery powered

   • Searches for available networks

   • Transfers data from its application as necessary

   • Determines whether data is pending

   • Requests data from the network coordinator

   • Can sleep for extended periods
Semiconductors                                          24
   Stack System Requirements
   • 8-bit C, e.g. 80c51

   • Full protocol stack <32k

   • Simple node only stack ~4k

   • Coordinators require extra RAM
     – node device database
     – transaction table
     – pairing table
Semiconductors                        25
The ZigBee Alliance
Some Participants



     CompXs




Semiconductors      27
  Standardization Challenge
  How do we make a protocol a standard?
   • ZigBee Alliance created with companies who share a
       common vision
   • Alliance initiates need for low data rate W-PAN in
       IEEE, 802.15.4 is born
   • Both MAC and PHY proposals win vote in IEEE
   • Alliance is focussed on:
        – Upper Layers of stack
        – Interoperability
        – Marketing
   • Keep initial participants limited until spec basics are
       defined
Semiconductors                                                 28
ZigBee vs Bluetooth



Competition or Complementary?
                                 But ZigBee is
 Bluetooth is Best
                                    Better
 For :                       IF :

 • Ad-hoc networks between   •   The Network is static
   capable devices           •   Lots of devices
 • Handsfree audio           •   Infrequently used
 • Screen graphics,          •   Small Data Packets
   pictures…
 • File transfer




Semiconductors                                           30
Air Interface:
    ZigBee                  Bluetooth
    DSSS                    FHSS
    11 chips/ symbol        1 M Symbol / second
    62.5 K symbols/s
    4 Bits/ symbol
                            Peak Information Rate
    Peak Information Rate
                               ~720 Kbit/second
       ~128 Kbit/second




Semiconductors                                      31
   ZigBee Protocol Stack
   Size/Complexity
                             Application


                       Application Interface

                           Network Layer


                           Data Link Layer

                             MAC Layer
                             MAC Layer

                             PHY Layer

                               ZigBee
                 Silicon                     Application
                                Stack


Semiconductors                                             32
   Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity

                                                                                User Interface




                                                          Group Call
                                               Cordless
                         Intercom
                                    Headset




                                                                                               vMessage



                                                                                                          Networking
                                                                       vCard


                                                                                       vNote
                                                                                vCal




                                                                                                            Dial-up
                                                                                                                        Fax     Service
                                                                                                                               Discovery
                         Telephony                                             OBEX                                            Protocol
                 Voice




                          Control
                          Protocol                                                             RFCOMM
                                                                                               (Serial Port)
                                                                                                                                            HOST
                                                                                                   L2CAP
                                                                               Host Control Interface
                                                                                       Link Manager
                                                                                                                                           MODULE
                                                                               Link Controller
                                                                                       Baseband
                                                                                                   RF
                                                                                           Bluetooth
                                              Silicon                                                                  Applications
                                                                                             Stack

Semiconductors                                                                                                                                      33
Timing Considerations
                 ZigBee:
                 • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically
                 • Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically
                 • Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically



                 Bluetooth:
                 • New slave enumeration = >3s
                 • Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically
                 • Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically


        ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applications

Semiconductors                                                          34
Initial Enumeration
             ZigBee        Bluetooth
             Coordinator    Coordinator




Semiconductors                            35
Power Considerations
   ZigBee                         Bluetooth

   • 2+ years from ‘normal’       • Power model as a mobile
     batteries                      phone (regular charging)
   • Designed to optimise slave   • Designed to maximise ad-
     power requirements             hoc functionality


             Application example of a light
             switch with respect to latency and
             power consumption …...


Semiconductors                                                 36
                 Battery Life & Latency in a
                 Lightswitch
                 • Bluetooth would either :
                    – keep a counter running so that it
                      could predict which hop
                      frequency the light would have
                      reached or
                    – use the inquiry procedure to find
                      the light each time the switch was
                      operated.



Semiconductors                                             37
       To reduce latency, Bluetooth would:
• The two devices must stay within 60 us (~1/10 of a hop)
• 30ppm crystals => could increase at 60us per second.
• Devices communicate once a second to track each other's
  clocks.
• Possibly could be improved by a factor of 100.

•      The devices would then need to communicate once every 100
      seconds to maintain synchronisation.

• => 900 communications / day with no information transfer
• + perhaps 4 communications on demand

• 99.5% Battery Power wasted
    Semiconductors                                                 38
   To reduce power consumption, Bluetooth
   would
     • Undertake Bluetooth inquiry procedure when light switch
       operated
     • May typically take 10 seconds using Bluetooth 1.1 ?
     • Much Better In Bluetooth 1.2
        – possibly reduced to tens of ms BUT
        – Not all requirements have been adopted yet




Semiconductors                                                   39
   Light switch Conclusion


   • ZigBee radio using DSSS need only perform CSMA
     before transmitting, a delay of only 200 us (Radio
     wake up time)

   • In the case of a light switch, ZigBee offers longer
     battery life and lower latency than a Bluetooth
     equivalent.



Semiconductors                                             40
Solution Prices

                 ZigBee:
                 • Price 2003 - $6
                 • Price 2005 - $1.5-2.5



                 Bluetooth:
                 • Price Now - $10
                 • Price 2005 - $5


        Two different solutions optimised for different applications…...

Semiconductors                                                             42
Conclusion
• ZigBee and Bluetooth are two solutions for two application
  areas




Semiconductors                                                 43
   ZigBee in Building Automation
   • Existing solutions are either:
      – Power Line Carrier based (PLC)
            • Expensive ($15 - $40 BOM)
            • Restricted to where there is existing power lines
            • No mobility
            • Interference from noisy inductance into the system
              (adding a fan, etc.)
            • Security issues, PLC goes outside the home
            • Interoperability is questionable
        – Or proprietary
            • Interoperability among various manufacturers
            • Cost
            • Existing RF solutions have limited capabilities
Semiconductors                                                     44
   ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC Comparison
                  Zig Bee     Blueto o th   PLC
  Cost (BOM)      $5          $10           $15-$40
  Pow er          yea rs      hours         N/ A
  Da ta Ra te     250Kb p s   720Kb p s     3/ 10 Mb p s
  Com p lexity    Low         Med ium       Hig h
  Density         255 +       7             20-250
  Interop         Yes         Yes           No
  Ea se of Use    Sim p le    Mod era te    Restric tive
  La tenc y       15m s       >3s           <15m s
  Interferenc e   Low         Hig h         Hig h
  Sec urity       Hig h       Hig h         Low
Semiconductors                                             45
Thank You

				
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