colour mutant alopecia by lanyuehua

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									colour mutant alopecia (Blue Dobermann syndrome) is a recognised clinical
condition.

Color Mutant Alopecia (Blue Doberman Syndrome) -
      A hereditary disease most often seen in fawn and blue coated Dobermans. Color
      mutant Dobermans are born with a healthy hair coat but at 4 to 6 months the coat
      becomes thin, brittle, and dry. The skin becomes rough and scaly. Blackheads,
      papules, and pustules appear over the body. The symptoms may not appear until the
      dog is 3 years old. There is no cure, only treatments to relieve the surface condition.


                Parental                                                                  Fawn &
                                         Black & Rust         Brown & Rust Blue & Rust
                 type                                                                      Rust
                                  BBDD BBDd BbDD BbDd bbDD bbDd BBdd Bbdd                 bbdd

                BBDD x     BBDD   100

                           BBDd    50      50

                           BbDD    50            50

                           BbDd    25      25    25     25

                           bbDD                  100

                           bbDd                  50     50

                           BBdd           100

                           Bbdd            50           50

                           bbdd                         100

                 BBDd x    BBDd    25      50                               25

                           BbDD    25      25    25     25

                           BbDD   12.5     25    12.5   25                  12.5   12.5

                           bbDD                  50     50

                           bbDd                  25     50                         25

                           BBdd            50                               50

                           Bbdd            25           25                  25     25

                           bbdd                         50                         50

                 BbDD x    BbDD    25            50            25

                           BbDd   12.5    12.5   25     25    12.5   12.5

                           bbDD                  50            50

                           bbDd                  25     25     25     25

                           BBdd            50           50

                           Bbdd            25           50            25

                           bbdd                         50            50
                 BbDd x    BbDd   6.25    12.5   12.5   25    6.25   12.5   6.25   12.5    6.25
                           bbDD                  25     25     25     25

                           bbDd                  12.5   25    12.5    25    12.5           12.5

                           BBdd            25           25                  25     25

                           Bbdd           12.5          25           12.5   12.5   25      12.5

                           bbdd                         25            25           25       25

                 bbDD x    bbDD                                100

                           bbDd                                50     50

                           BBdd                         100
         Bbdd       50                    50

         bbdd                            100

bbDd x   bbDd                       25    50               25

         BBdd                  50                    50

         Bbdd                  25         25         25    25

         bbdd                             50               50

BBdd x   BBdd                                  100

         Bbdd                                  50    50

         bbdd                                        100

Bbdd x   Bbdd                                  25    50    25

         bbdd                                        50    50

 bbdd    bbdd                                              100


  White (albino) is not an accepted Dobermann colour but an
   unkind freak of nature perpetuated by *cruel humans and
 therefore does not appear in the genetics of the Dobermann
  colour chart. The albino coat apparently masks the genetic
 colour and therefore the chart is still accurate. Both parents
need to carry the albino gene for "white" pups to be produced.
  *In my opinion it is Cruel because they suffer from various
    health and temperament problems associated with their
   "colour" including photophobia (being unable to tolerate
           sunlight) & increased risk of skin cancers
This chart has been prepared, with help from Malcolm Willis's
book "Genetics of the Dog", by Kerioak Dobermanns for your
                           information
                            Alopecia and Follicular dysplasia
Follicular dysplasia and atrophy with marked clumping of melanin, follicular keratosis, and
epidermal melanin clumping, consistent with color-dilution alopecia. Follicular (infundibular)
cysts. Folliculitis and furunculosis are present in some areas. The gross and microscopic
findings are consistent with a diagnosis of color-dilution alopecia (CDA). CDA is an
hereditary dysplastic disease which occurs in the hair follicles of dogs with blue coats or other
color-diluted mutations. CDA is seen most frequently in the blue Doberman Pinscher, but also
is seen in other breeds such as the Dachshund, Great Dane, Whippet, Italian Greyhound,
Chow Chow, Standard Poodle, Yorkshire Terrier, Miniature Pinscher, Chihuahua, Burnese
Mountain Dog, Shetland Sheepdog and Schipperke. It has been speculated that defects in
melanosome transfer to the hair matrix cell may result in disruption of hair matrix
keratinocytes and cause malformed hair shafts and eventual senescence. Therefore, melanin
clumping within the follicular keratin, hair shafts, and hair bulbs, as well as in perifollicular
melanophages is quite diagnostic for CDA. However, some special feature of the dilution
gene or other unknown defects may be involved in weakening of the hairs and hair loss. CDA
should be a preventable disorder if restrictive breeding is followed. AFIP Diagnosis. Haired
skin: Dysplasia, follicular, with ectasia, hyperkeratosis, melanin clumping, and pigmentary
incontinence, Doberman Pinscher, canine. Conference Note. Most conference participants
considered color-dilution alopecia and black-hair follicular dysplasia to be the most likely
diagnoses. The histopathologic features of color-dilution alopecia and black-hair follicular
dysplasia are virtually identical and must be distinguished clinically. Black-hair follicular
dysplasia likely represents focal expression of color-dilution alopecia. Although melanin
clumping can occur perifollicularly in a variety of inflammatory conditions, clumped melanin
within the follicle indicates color dilution. Hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism were
discussed but not favored. These endocrinopathies may appear grossly similar to color-
dilution alopecia but have distinguishing clinicopathologic and histopathologic features not
present in this case. Canine color-dilution alopecia is also reported in the red Doberman
Pinscher, as well as in the fawn Irish Setter and Doberman Pinscher. Affected animals
develop the syndrome between 4 months and 6 years of age. Initially, the hair coat is dry and
brittle. Hair shaft fragmentation and poor regrowth result in progressive alopecia that may
become complete on the trunk. Seborrhea sicca, comedones, follicular cysts, and folliculitis
may also develop. Black-hair follicular dysplasia is a rare hereditary skin disease reported in
mongrel and purebred dogs with black spots, and in the cow and horse. Only black areas of
the coat and underlying skin are affected.
The clinical, histopathologic and immunopathologic features of a novel form of isthmus mural
folliculitis in dogs, which resembles pseudopelade in humans, were characterized. Clinically,
dogs exhibited variably distributed foci of alopecia that persisted without treatment or did not
respond to immunosuppressive therapy. Histopathologically, mixed mononuclear cell
infiltrates, largely lymphocytes, infiltrated the follicular isthmus. Occasionally, inflammation
extended above and below the follicular isthmus but did not involve the hair bulb or the
epidermis. Severe follicular atrophy and variable atrophy of sebaceous glands occurred in all
dogs. Folliculotropic lymphocytes exhibited most commonly CD3 and CD8 (cytotoxic T
cells). Autoantibodies specific for the lower hair follicle were detected in the serum of
affected patients. Western immunoblotting demonstrated binding of these antibodies to
multiple follicular keratinocyte proteins, including hair keratins and trichohyalin. Lack of hair
regrowth (in contrast to canine alopecia areata), as well as location of inflammation and
extreme atrophy of adnexal units are similar to findings seen in human pseudopelade.
Hot Spots (traumatic moist dermatitis) are a result of hyper sensitivity to flea bites and
allergic reactions to foods such as corn and wheat. It is a bacterial infection and can rapidly
spread over the skin, if not treated by a qualified veterinarian. It occurs because the dog is
constantly licking, biting and scratching the inflamed area.
Alopecia is the partial or the complete lack of hairs in areas where they are normally present.
There are two categories - congenital (hereditary), and acquired. Here we will be discussing
acquired alopecia. In this type of alopecia the dog is born with a normal hair coat and the
problem can develop due to a disease, which destroys the hair follicle or hair shaft. The
disease interferes with the growth of the hair and causes the dog discomfort, leading to self-
trauma and loss of hair. Diseases that can directly inhibit or slow hair follicle growth include
nutritional deficiencies (particularly protein deficiencies), hypothyroidism, etc. There are
many other causes as well, but we are concerned with nutritional aspect. Scientific evidence
points to the conclusion that if the dog is fed on a biologically appropriate diet the immune
system should be functioning at an optimal level, thereby reducing the risk of causative
diseases.
Alopecia
Simply put, alopecia is the loss or absence of hair. The hair loss may be localized or may be
complete. Causes are wide ranging including, but not limited to:
· Genetic
· Endocrine problems (such as hypothyroidism, alopecia X and Cushing's Disease)
· Nutrition (iodine or selenium deficiency)
· Parasites or bacteria
· Immune-mediated disorders (like Lupus erythematosus)
· Stress
· Corticosteroids
Samoyeds as a breed are at an increased risk for post-clipping alopecia, alopecia X and
sebaceous adenitis.
Melatonin is a hormone produced in the pineal gland of the brain. It is involved in the
regulation of several bodily physiologic processes, including the reproductive cycle, skin
pigmentation, thermoregulation, photoreceptivity, and other processes including hair growth
cycles.
Veterinary dermatologist are currently engaged in "clinical trials" using constant-release
melatonin implants for the treatment of "Alopecia-X" as well as for several other canine hair
loss conditions. For more information your veterinarian may consult Current Veterinary
Therapy XIII, pages 546-549 (article entitled "Melatonin Therapy for Canine Alopecia), or
the author of the article Dr. Manon Paradis, Professor of Veterinary Dermatology, Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Dr. Mark Meadow
Meadow Veterinary Hospital
White Plains, New York
The Blue and the Fawn colored Doberman tend to have more coat problems...thin coats...dull
coats...these colored dobes need extra special attention paid to them to get a better looking
coat and sheen to them....They need proper nutrition, brushing, a supplement of safflower oil
or pure olive oil, or whatever supplement your veterinarian suggests...and certain vitamins.....
Test Should be Done for Thyroi

special treatment and supplements that one give a blue Doberman. The symptoms
of CDA include bilateral balding, which commonly begins on the flanks or
along the topline and spreads down the back.

Severe cases may begin as puppies, although the vast majority of puppy
problems turn out to be simple "puppy staph." In a typical case of CDA, the
coat may not begin to thin until the dog is between one and three years of age.
In severe (and rare) cases, all the blue (or fawn) hairs can fall out. Most often,
dogs with CDA end up with very thin coats along their back and flanks, but do
not go completely bald. The dogs remain healthy and happy, despite a thin
coat.

Be aware that thyroid problems are often assumed to be CDA in blue
Dobermans. Many vets who see a blue Doberman with a thin coat may just
assume that the cause is CDA and overlook or fail to recommend a thyroid
test. ALWAYS PERFORM A THYROID TEST ON A BLUE DOBERMAN
WITH A THIN COAT! The problem may not be CDA at all.
Hypothyroidism is very common in all colors of the Doberman (I believe that
every Doberman should have its thyroid checked periodically). A thin coat is
a common symptom of hypothyroidism and it may affect blues to a greater
degree -- or it may just be more apparent since blues have less hairs per
square inch to begin with.

There are two commonly used thyroid tests. A complete thyroid panel from
MSU, or a simple test available from any veterinary laboratory. I recommend
the full MSU panel. Hypothyroidism is easily treated once diagnosed. If the
thyroid is the cause of the coat problems, the coat will come back once the
thyroid is supplemented.

You should also eliminate other potential causes of alopecia, including fungal
problems and demodectic mange. Consult with your veterinarian.

occur in combination with other problems like severe folliculitis and
opportunistic bacterial infections. "Bumps" cause by opportunistic infections
sometimes seen in Dobermans with CDA can be treated with antibiotics (also
see the grooming tips, below). Some bumps are due to dysplasia of the hair
follicle, and will not respond to antibiotics. Often times, the grooming and
supplement ideas on this page may be enough to keep the skin healthy and
keep the bumps under control.
shampoo every 7 to 21 days, depending on how clean the coat stays. Nova
Pearls shampoo (made by Tomlyn) that contains Sulfur and Salicylic Acid
(available from UPCO at 1-800-254-8726 or The Dog's Outfitter at 1-800-367-
3647). If notice anything out of the ordinary, like bumps or possible staph,
add a few drops of Tincture of Iodine to the first handful of shampoo, and
treat with a DROP of pure tea tree oil on a wet Q-tip (directly on any bumps)
after shampoo. (NOTE: Some dogs may be sensitive to tea tree oil. Try in in
one spot, to begin with.)

a conditioner, use Mega Tek Cell Rebuilder. Rub a handfull into the coat
after shampooing, wait, and rinse out. also use it as a spray conditioner,
diluted to 10% in distilled water in a spray bottle. also use "Miracle Coat Pet
Lusterizer/Conditioner Spray" (also available from UPCO and Dog's
Outfitter) because it contains a small amount of tea tree oil. Tea tree oil is said
to kill staph, as well as other bacteria and fungi.

NOTE: If your blue of fawn Doberman has significant bumps or staph
problems, you may want to try stronger grooming products. Ask your vet
about the following shampoo and conditioner, both made by Allerderm:
Pyoben Shampoo with 3% Benzoyl Peroxide; Resichlor medicated leave on
conditioner with 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate (not Resicort -- that is a
different product!) . Both products are also available from UPCO. These
products contain stronger antibacterial agents, but may not be as gentle to the
skin and coat.

Between shampoos, use a 10% solution of Listerine (two ounces Listerine to 18
ounces water). The solution is sprayed on liberally and wiped off with a clean
terry cloth towel. If you try this, be careful around the eyes and nose! finish
by brushing through a few sprays of Miracle Coat described above. If the dog
does not smell or look dirty, skip the Listerine and just use the Miracle Coat
Lusterizer or Mega Tek. Other people have Listerine formulas that include
conditioners. These formulas are not necessary if you finish with Miracle Coat
Lusterizer.

high in Linoleic acid (Omega-6 fatty acid), from sunflower oil and contains
omega-3 acids. fatty acids are probably the single most important skin and
coat supplement for any dog. a 75 to 80 pound blue Doberman should get
enough fish body oils to provide up to 1.5 grams of EPA daily. This dosage can
be adjusted for body weight. DO NOT use cod liver oil or other fish liver oils in
this quantity! Liver oils contain too much Vitamin A and D to be used in
quantities sufficient to provide enough EPA. A little bit of Cod Liver Oil may be
good, but a lot is VERY BAD
Vitamin E is a good anti-oxidant which also benefits the skin and coat. Be
aware that some premium foods (like Innova) use Vitamin E as a
preservative. Many people supplement in the 400 to 800 IU per day range.

Kelp is an excellent natural source of trace nutrients. Modern farming and
food processing techniques remove the trace minerals that once were present
in all diets. Many people claim that kelp deepens the rust coloration in
Dobermans and Rottweilers with tan markings. It is also an excellent source
of iodine, which may help thyroid function.

Yeast is an excellent natural source of B Vitamins. Brewer's Yeast is inactive,
and cannot produce bloating or fermentation in the stomach. Garlic is
thought to repel fleas, and possibly provide other benefits. You can find
brewer's yeast and garlic preparations at any pet food store or in any mail
order catalog.

B vitamins are very good for the skin and coat. They are also indicated in
times of high stress. If your dog is not a blue or a fawn, they may get enough B
Vitamins from the brewer's yeast.

use B-50 tablets, up to two per day. See the note regarding Folic Acid dosage,
below in red.

B complex vitamins (B-50) can be purchased at any pharmacy, over the
counter, or from various mail order sources.

Some people give up to four B-50's a day. use two per day. If you use more
than two, Ask you vet about possible kidney problems with HIGH doses of
Vitamin B.

Folic Acid is another one of the "trendy" "miracle drugs." It has been found
to ELIMINATE certain types of birth defects when given to women. It may
also provide protection from certain cancers and heart diseases. It is used in
Storm's regimen for its benefit on the skin and coat. You may also want to
give the folic acid tablets at a different time of the day, since the B complex
already has folic acid in it.

Important dosage note: You may have to adjust your dosage based on the
type and amount of Vitamin B complex that you use! Try to give around 1 to
1.2 mg. per day. The common pill dosage is 400 mcg. (MICRO grams). 400
mcg. equals .4 mg (four-tenths of a milligram).

Folic Acid is available at any pharmacy, over the counter.
I Ester C with bioflavinoids. Vitamin C is said to benefit skin and coat, and is
also an excellent anti-oxidant. The "Ester-C" product is said to stay in the
system longer than other forms of Vitamin C and be gentler on the stomach.
NOTE: I am currently trying to find information on "Vitamin C ester" with
is NOT the same as "Ester-C." Vitamin C ester is fat soluble.

Lecithin contains ingredients beneficial to the skin and coat. It is also an
emulsifier, and may allow the fatty acids to be absorbed and utilized more
readily. Readily available over the counter and from your favorite mail order
source.

Yogurt helps keep a good natural balance of beneficial bacteria in the system,
aiding in digestion. If your dog doesn't like it or can't tolerate dairy products,
you can get freeze dried acidophilus.

Digestive enzymes help the dog break down all of the food and supplements so
that they are bio-available. Common choices are K-Zyme or Pro-Zyme. They
are available from pet food stores or mail order.

Zinc is an essential element for healthy skin and coat.

Silica is an essential element for healthy skin and coat. It can be purchased in
a gel form.

using two additional product that have nothing to do with skin and coat -- they
are excellent antioxidants and are thought to combat cancer on a cellular level.

Both products are available from The Vitamin Shoppe.

The first product is called "Antioxidant Phyters" (item number VS-1430). It
contains ingredients such as extracts of green tea, red wine, licorice, pine bark
(pycnogenol), bilberry, ginko biloba, and marigold and sunflowers.

The second product is Lycopene (item number VS-1270). Lycopene is a potent
antioxidant that is present in tomatoes (and other vegetables).

Suggested Supplements for Older Dobermans:
Older Dobermans may benefit from Co-Q10, L-Carnitine and L-Taurine.
These products are thought to help cardiac function. Glucosamine,
Chondroitin and MSM may benefit dogs with joint soreness. Innova Senior
contains Glucosamine.

Glycoflex is also benefit Dobermanns.
"TREATING SEASONAL FLANK ALOPECIA" by JEFFERS, JAMES,
VMD, DIP ACVD Seasonal flank alopecia is a recently described syndrome
usually seen in Airedales and Boxers which has, as its main clinical feature, the
development of flank alopecia and hyperpigmentation in the fall with
spontaneous regrowth by springtime. Dogs with seasonal flank alopecia have
received melatonin implants (available for foxes and mink) in the fall which
averted the disease. More interestingly, two Boxers who also had concurrent
pattern baldness (a hair follicular dysplasia) grew hair in the alopecic area. A
dosage of 0.2 mg/kg/day of oral melatonin is being currently investigated for
its ability to non specifically stimulate hair regrowth in dogs with follicular
dysplasia or nonhormonal hair cycle abnormalities. The drug is most widely
available as 1.5 or 3 mg tablets.

The above is reprinted with permission from Dr. Jeffers.

[Note: 0.2 mg/kg/day is approximately 1 mg per 11 pounds of body weight.
Dr. Jeffers told me that he uses this dosage.]

Since CDA is a form of FD, and melatonin seems to work in some cases of FD,
some vets are now recommending melatonin for blue and fawn Dobermans
with CDA. Dr. Jeffers told me that it seems to work in about half of the cases.
Only time will tell whether it is a good treatment for CDA.

								
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