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					                            AFTERMATH OF THE WAR
I.     Cost of the War
       -official end of the war in Europe on May 7th 1945 by General Jodl in Rheims
       -deaths in WWII estimated between 40 and 60 million deaths
               -1/4 in Asia with only 300,000 Ameicans
               -but most in Eastern Europe




       -large areas had been laid to waste
               -Blitz left much of London in ruins
               -Eastern Europe and German the worst off
               -Warsaw no longer existed
               -95% of Berlin in ruins
               -many civilians had nothing
                       -little food, no shelter, and no water
                       -finances non-existent
               -much of the industry had been destroyed leaving many with no means
                       of work
       -as Red Army moved through Eastern Europe (Hungary, Czech, Poland) it took
               revenge of German-speaking populations forcing many into exile
       -refugees became a problem all over Europe
               -wandering around Europe hoping to find a place to settle
               -included survivors of camps, prisoners of war, and those fleeing the Soviet army
               -as peace treaties were signed, many people found themselves in the
                       wrong country and no way to return home
       -misery continued after the war
Aftermath of WWII
                  -1945 4000 died everyday in Berlin
                  -agriculture was disrupted everywhere
                  -transportation systems had been destroyed or disabled
                  -famine and disease spread quite quickly in 1945
          -political, social and economic recovery of Europe not yet settled

                                        Costs of World War Two
                        Direct War Costs    Military Killed/Missing Civilians Killed

      United States      $288 billion           292,131
      Great Britain      $117 billion           271,311                   60,595
      France             $111 billion           205,707                   173,260
      USSR               $93 billion            13.6 million              7.7 million
      Germany            $212 billion           3.3 million               2.9 million
      Japan              $41.3 billion          1.2 million               953,000


II.       Postwar Governments and Politics
          -several prewar governments (Belgiium, Holland, Denmark, Norway) quickly
                 returned home to take charge of postwar politics
          -however, Italy, Germany, France remained an interesting problem
                 -people tended to blame the leaders for the war and left much of the old
                          leadership in disgrace
                 -in Italy and France, many of the resistance fighters had been members of
                          local communist parties
                 -after the war, the communist parties in Italy and France made huge gains
                          in membership and elections
                 -the communist parties, however, called for the acceleration of the
                          communist revolution; their leaders called for violent strikes
                 -the electorate responded by voting for anti-communist parties throwing
                          the communist out of the governments
                 -the communist quickly lost their influence in the postwar governments as
                          governments moved towards the centre and right

III.      Attempts to Punish the Offenders
          -to make sure that the war crimes would never happen again, the Allies proceded to
                 deal with Germany’s guilt in the Holocaust and for the war
                 -several prominent Nazis were placed on trial by an International Military
                          Tribunal in Nuremberg in 1946
                 -known as the “Nuremberg Trial” Nazis were accused of “crimes against
                          peace” and “crimes against humanity”
                 -22 tried and 12 eventually sentenced to death with their bodies cremated in
                          the first concentration camp ovens in Dachau
                 -the trials laid down standards to be used as standards as to what consititued
                          war crimes



Aftermath of WWII
                    Crimes against humanity




                     Nuremberg Trials




Aftermath of WWII
           Territorial Changes in Europe as a Result of World War Two

Aftermath of WWII
IV.    The Division of Europe
       -1945 triumph had divisions of American and Russian troops come together to
               subdue the Germans and Axis Powers
       -yet victory was flawed
               -the Allies found it difficult if not impossible to cooperate politically in peace
                       making
               -motivated by different goals and misunderstanding, the US and the USSR
                       soon found themselves at loggerheads
               -within two years, Europe would be rigidly divided with West versus East in
                       a cold war that was to last well over forty years and that would have
                       international impact

       A.      Origins of the Cold War
               -as soon as the unifying threat of Germany disappeared in 1945, the US and
                      USSR began to quarrel about what to do in Europe
               -the quarrel was a logical outgrowth of military developments, wartime
                      agreements, and long-standing political and ideological differences

               1.     Military Developments
                      -once the Americans entered the war, the Allies had made military
                              victory their highest priority
                      -they continually ignored any discussion of Soviet war aims and the
                              shape of the eventual peace settlement
                      -Stalin felt that the Allies had acted in bad faith during the Russo-
                              Finnish war of 1939 (Allies had had the USSR expelled
                              from the League and then threatened invasion in the war
                              continued)
                      -when Stalin asked the Allies to ratify her western borders which had
                              incorporated part of Poland, the Allies remained non-committal
                      -the Allies made Stalin aware that they resented the German-Soviet
                              Non-Aggression Pact of 1939
                      -Stalin also believed that the Allies had encouraged Hitler to attack the
                              Soviet Union so as to avoid more fighting on the western front
                      -most Allies did not feel the Soviet Union would be of any help after
                              her war with Germany finished (would be militarily weak) and
                              thus underestimated Soviet military strength
                      -Allies decision to postpone the beginning of Operation Overload in France
                              angered Stalin who wanted relief from Germany attacks
                      -Churchill also fearful of Soviet empire-building while Roosevelt resented
                              Britain’s attempts to regain the British empire at various international
                              meetings; Stalin was able to use this to his advantage

               2.     Wartime Agreements
                      -by 1943 discussions about the shape of the postwar world could no
                              longer be postponed
                      -thus the Big Three (Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt) decided to met


Aftermath of WWII
                    a.   Terehan Conference (Nov 1943)
                         -the three leaders met in the Iranian capital
                         -reaffirmed their determination to crush Germany
                         -searched for appropriate military strategy
                         -Churchill fearful of direct attack on Germany argued for
                                 a Mediterranean strategy
                                 -Allies would advance on Germany through Italy and Balkins
                                 -West hoped English and not Soviets would liberate the
                                         Balkans
                         -Roosevelt supported Stalin’s idea of a second front in France
                                 -this would become significant since it meant that Soviet
                                 and American-British armies would all come together in
                                 Germany and that only Soviet troops would liberate
                                 eastern Europe while British and American troops would
                                 liberate the west
                         -agreed that Stalin’s western borders could move at the expense
                                 of Poland (in return Poland would receive the eastern lands
                                 of Germany)
                         -Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once German was
                                 defeated
                    b.   Yalta February 1945
                         -the Big Three met once again this time in Yalta in the Russian Crimea
                                 to discuss what to do with Germany and the remainder of Europe
                                                    when surrender came
                                                    -defeat seemed eminent as Allies were within
                                                    100 miles of Berlin
                                                    -the Red Army controlled Poland, Bulgaria,
                                                    Romania, Hungary, and
                                                    part of Yugoslavia as well as part of Czech
                                                    -western Allies however not yet in Germany
                                                    (near the Rhine)
                                                    -thus Soviet position was clearly stronger than
                                                    other two
                                                    -agreement
                                                    -Germany would be divided into three zones of
                                                    occupation
                                         (a fourth would be added later)
                                 -Germans would be expected to pay reparations to USSR
                                 -Berlin, Austria (and Vienna) would also be divided
                                 -free elections were to be held in liberated areas but held
                                         by USSR under Soviet supervision
                                 -Poland remained a problem and borders still unsettled
                                         -agreed that lands east of Oder and Neisse Rivers
                                                 would be part of Poland but would have to
                                                 ratified at peace conferences
                                 -also agreed to find a new organization that would take the
                                         place of the ineffective League of Nations
Aftermath of WWII
                                     -decided to meet in San Francisco in April 1943 to
                                                     draw up blueprints
                    c.      San Francisco Conference, April 1943
                            -laid out the basis for the new United Nations
                            -also reinforced status of three other international organizations
                                     1. International Monetary Fund to be created in 1944
                                             -aim to prevent repeats of wild fluctuations in
                                                     international exchange rates
                                     2. World Bank (created in 1944)
                                             -to lend money to help rebuild war-torn Europe
                                                     and provide economic development for
                                                     poorer nations of the world
                                     3. International Trading Organization
                                             -to be created for purpose of persuading countries
                                                     to eliminate tariffs and quota systems
                                             -never actually came into existence but laid
                                                     foundations for later GATT
                    d.      Potsdam Conference, July 1945
                            -Roosevelt replaced by Truman who wanted to deal with the issue
                                     of eastern Europe
                                     -Truman called for free elections in the Soviet occupied lands
                                     -Stalin refused fearing that elections would elect anti-Soviet
                                             governments
                            -Churchill was replaced by Clement Attlee (Churchill lost election
                                     in 1945 and Attlee now prime minister)
                                     -Attlee was inexperienced and did not know how to deal
                                             with Stalin
                            -Stalin made it clear that he would not allow anyone to interfere in
                                     his plans to control the future of eastern Europe
                            -all realized that only another war could change Stalin’s position and
                                     clearly the US and Britain did not want another war




    Potsdam - Attlee, Truman, Stalin

Aftermath of WWII
               3.     Ideological Differences
                      -fundamental part of Soviet policy was the overthrow of the capitalist system
                      -thus Stalin made it possible for communist regimes to take over the
                              governments of eastern European countries
                              -he had already done so in Poland
                              -had arrested non-communist leaders while in Moscow
                              -placed communists in key government posts to prepare for a takeover
                      -the creation of communist states in eastern Europe would also act as
                              a buffer zone against any possible attack from the west
                              -Stalin who had lived through two German invasions also wanted
                                       absolute military security from Germany and its potential
                                       eastern allies
                              -felt that only communist states could be trusted allies
                              -realized that free elections could result in non-communist, hostile states
                      -the crippling of France from the war and the impoverishment of Britain
                              ensured that any confrontation over Europe would come between
                              US and USSR
                      -America responded to Stalin’s concern of security by ‘getting tough’
                              -Truman wanted free elections and thus decided to cut off all
                                       aid to the USSR
                              -Truman also declared that the US would not recognize any gov’t
                                       established without free elections
                      -thus the hot war of the forties became the cold war

                                Superpower Aims in Europe
             United States                    Soviet Union

   -encourages the development of                  -encourages communism in other countries as
   democracy in other countries to                 part of worldwide revolution
   help prevent the rise of communism
   governments
   -gain access to raw materials and markets       -rebuilt its war-ravaged economy using
   to fuel booming industries                      Eastern Europe’s industrial equipment and
   -rebuild European governments to                raw materials
   promote stability and create new markets        -control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet
   for American goods and as counter to            borders and balance the US influences in
   communist threats                               Western Europe
   -reunite Germany to stabilize it and
   increase the security of Europe                 -keep Germany divided to prevent its waging



     B.        Peace Treaties
               -at Potsdam a council was established to draft peace treaties with Germany’s
                       allies (satelites)
                       -several meetings broke up without agreement
                       -finally in 1947 agreement was reached on five separate peace treaties

Aftermath of WWII
               1.     Treaties with Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland
                      -USSR kept Romanian provinces of Bessarabia and Bukovina
                      -Russian troops would remain in Romania and Romania would pay
                               reparations to the Soviet Union
                      -Bulgaria returned Thrace to Greece
                      -Hungary returned Tansylvania to Romania and Slovakia to Czech
                      -reparations were paid by Bulgaria to Greece and Yugoslavia as well as
                               by Hungary to Yug, Czech, and USSR
                      -Finland lost land to USSR (Karelian and Petsamo) but kept independence
               2.     Treaty with Italy
                      -Italy lost some lands to Yugoslavia that she had taken in 1919
                      -Trieste was placed under control of United Nations
                      -Dodecanese Islands given to Greece
                      -Italy kept part of Tyrol but forced to pay reparations to USSR, Ethiopia,
                               Albania, Greece, and Yugoslavia
                      -Italy lost all colonies in Africa
               3.     Agreements with Czech and Poland
                      -USSR signed agreements with Czech and Poland before Paris treaties
                      -Czech transferred Ruthenia to USSR
                      -gave Teschen to Poland
                      -in 1947 Britain and France agreed to these terms
               4.     Austria
                      -seen as victim of Nazi Germany, Austria treated more leniently
                      -peace delayed for 10 years as cold war heated up
                      -divided into four zones of military occupation
                      -1955 USSR agreed to withdraw and Austria received boundaries of 1938
                      -promised to remain neutral and hold no nuclear weapons
               -because of cold war no easy peace treaty would come for Germany

       C.      The Cold War –West versus East in Europe
               -to guarantee the necessary buffers Stalin began to instal communist governments
                       in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia
               -once surrender came, the Russians began the division of Germany, Berlin, Austria,
                       and Vienna
                       -reparations were collected immediately (taking much needed cash)
                       -de-Nazification programs main priority in all zones
               -although out of power, Churchill continued to warn of the dangers of Soviet
                       expansion
                       -in 1946 at Fulton he coined the term “Iron Curtain” to describe how the
                               Soviet Union was dealing with eastern Europe
                       -his speech fueled hostility in the US against anything Russian
                               -emotional, moralistic denunciations of Stalin and communism
                                      emerged as part of American political life
                               -Americans became convinced that Stalin was determined to
                                      export communism by subversion worldwide
               -by 1947 most of eastern Europe had communist governments
               -Czech followed in 1948
Aftermath of WWII
Aftermath of WWII
                                   Truman, Tito, and Marshall


               -only did Tito in Yugoslavia maintain independence from Stalin following his
                      own course (Stalin’s attempt to get rid of him failed miserably)
               1.     Confrontation
                      a.       Iran
                               -first serious confrontation between two superpowers was in Iran
                               -Iran had vast supplies of oil and Russia wanted it
                               -during WWII Iran had been occupied by British and Soviet troops
                                        who had agreed to withdraw when war ended
                               -Soviets refused to withdraw and instead supported a communist
                                        revolt
                               -intense diplomatic pressure forced the Soviets to withdraw in 1946
                               -Iran afterwards would be considered as an ally of the US
                      b.       Turkey
                               -during the war Turkey had remained neutral
                               -the USSR however wanted a shipping route through Turkish waters
                               -Stalin sent troops into Turkey but was forced to backdown and
                                        withdraw when Americans sent its navy to secure Turkish
                                        independence
                      c.       Greece
                               -a civil war between royalists and communists broke out in Greece
                                        after the war
                               -the British supported the monarchists but had no money to help
                               -the US wanted to remain neutral
                               -when the British withdrew her troops in 1947 the situation turned
                                        for the worse
                               -Truman fearing Soviet occupation declared economic and military
                                        support for Greece (became known as the Truman Doctrine)
                               -thus US would now help to build buffer states on the Soviet
                                        periphary in order to contain communism
                                        -both Turkey and Greece seen as buffers
Aftermath of WWII
                                 -later would add other buffers around the world
                    d.   Czechoslovakia
                         -in 1948 communists seized control of the government
                         -left no doubt that the Soviet Union would keep tight control
                                 over all her satelites
                                 -clearly leaders in the republics took orders from Moscow
                                 -industries were to be re-organized to support Soviet needs
                                         -coal from Poland
                                         -machine tools from Czech
                                         -oil from Romania
                                 -trade with the Soviet Union would be enforced
                         -the confrontation in Czech leads to the development of the
                                 Marshall Plan or Marshall Aid Program
                    e.   Impasse Over Germany
                         -Stalin realized that if he were to unify Germany under one communist
                                 government, he would have to get the Allies to leave
                         -he proposed that Allies should withdraw all troops from occupied
                                 zones as precondition for German reunification
                                 -proposal would allow Red Army poised on eastern borders
                                         with weak French army on western
                         -Western Allies rejected the proposal
                         -the Allies also without Soviet agreement decided to provide
                                 Germany with Marshall Aid
                                 -although afraid of an economically strong Germany,
                                         Allies realized that recovery of Europe was bound
                                         up with economic recovery of Germany, and that a
                                         strong economy in Europe would withstand the
                                         military threat of the Soviet Union
                         -1948 Allies created the Federal Republic of West Germany and
                                 introduced a new German currency –the Deutschmark
                         -in June 1948 Stalin replied by cutting off all rail and road links
                                 between Berlin and the west
                                 -hoped to force Allies out of Berlin at least
                                 -saw Berlin as a thorn to Russia and a symbol of the
                                         eventual unification of Germany
                         -Berlin thus became centre of a Cold War confrontation
                                 -Allies realized that any attempt to reach Berlin by land
                                         might result in war
                                 -refused to hand over Berlin as contrary to Truman Doctrine
                                 -thus decided to airlift needed goods into Berlin
                         i.      Berlin Airlift (1948-1949)
                                 -daily West Berlin needed 4000 tons of foodstuff and raw
                                         materials such as coal to survive
                                 -needed one flight every 30 seconds to feed the population
                                 -for 11 months the flights continued
                                 -by April 1949 able to transport over 8000 tons daily
                                 -Stalin offered Berliners food if they would join the east
Aftermath of WWII
Aftermath of WWII
                                   -only 20% responded
                           -once blockade became counter-productive, Stalin called it off
                                   (May 1949)
                           -results very significant in development of Cold War
                                   -war was seen as a real possibility
                                   -greatly increased tension in Europe and around the world
                                   -West felt she had won a moral victory standing up to Stalin
                                   -in April 1949 the West set up NATO with 11
                                            nations pledging to defend Europe from communism
                                            -West Germany joined in 1955
                                   -morale in West Berlin high and thus West Germany
                                            moved closer to political aims of the West
                                   -ended any immediate chance of German unification
                    ii.    Creation of Two Germanys
                           -May/August 1949 Federal Republic of West Germany
                                   officially proclaimed
                                   -capital at Bonn (Berlin treated as city state)
                                   -implied authority over East Germany
                                   -President chosen from assembly while Chancellor
                                            from lower house of parliament
                                   -military occupation was to continue under
                                            authority of Allied High Commission
                           -as a counter, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was
                                   created in October of 1949
                                   -Otto Grotewohl became Chancellor in east and Adenauer in
                                            west under Christian Democratic Party
                    iii.   Economic Recovery of West Germany
                           -in contrast to what was happening in East Germany, West
                                   Germany began a quick recovery
                           -due to
                                   -hard work of Germans and determination to rebuild
                                   -industrial modernization with Marshall Aid which
                                            restored needed machinery
                                   -political stability
                                            -provided leadership in government and
                                                    absence of strive in industry
                    iv.    Second Berlin Crisis, 1958
                           -as West Germany moved far ahead of East Germany, refugees fleeing
                                   became a serious problem
                           -also USSR still feared possibility of reunification
                           -thus in November 1958 Khrushchev demanded that all
                                   foreign troops withdraw from Berlin
                           -Americans refused to make any concessions and a
                                   stalemate continued
                           -in 1961 East Germany began the construction of the Berlin Wall
                           -West Germany adopted the Hallstein Doctrine
                                   -refused to recognize the legal existence of East Germany
Aftermath of WWII
                                                 or diplomatic relations with her
                                 -tensions eased by 1970’s under Willi Brandt’s Ostpolitik
                                         (Eastern Policy) program
                    2.   Truman Doctrine
                         -became official rejection of communism from 1947
                         -containment policy directed at blocking Soviet influence
                                 and preventing expansion of communism
                         -declared that US had to adopt a policy to support free people
                                 who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by
                                 outside pressure
                         -interventionist in nature
                         -policies included creating alliances, creating buffers, helping weak
                                 countries resist Soviet or communist advances
                         -became fundamental part of the cold war
                    3.   Marshall Plan
                         -economic devastation in Europe concerned the US
                         -many believed that poverty encouraged the development of
                                 communism and thus western Europe was certainly
                                 vulnerable
                                 -invited action by communist controlled labour organizations
                                         and thus eventual domination by USSR
                         -program suggest by General George Marshall now Secretary of State
                                 -believed that best defense against Soviet expansion was to
                                         help rebuild economies of Europe
                                 -his proposal became known as Marshall Plan
                                 -provided for funds for the reconstruction of 16 European
                                         nations
                                 -to be administered by Organization of European Economic
                                         Cooperation (OEEC)
                                 -the Soviet Union refused any help
                         -program able to provided 13 billion in aid from 1948-1952
                         -to counter American influence through Marshall Plan, Stalin set up his own
                                 vision in the form of Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic
                                 Assistance)




                         Berlin Airlift

Aftermath of WWII

				
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