aftermath of WW2 by lanyuehua

VIEWS: 36 PAGES: 11

									        Aftermath of WW2
• Yalta, 2/1945
  – Held at Crimea on the Black Sea
  – Purpose: to make immediate
    arrangements for the post war situation
    • Adopt a general policy for the liberated
      states of Europe (Poland in particular)
    • Determine the post war administration of
      the conquered territories of Germany and
      Austria
    • Determine voting arrangements in the UN
              Aftermath of WW2
• Decisions made at Yalta
  – To divide Germany into 3 military occupation zones
    (American, Soviet, and British); France was added
    later
    • Berlin, the capital would also be in zones
  – Austria would also have military occupation zones
  – Germany was to pay reparations
    • An initial figure was $20 billion, half of which would go to
      the USSR
       – Britain wanted no set number sp as tp destroy German war
         potential
  – Free elections were to be held throughout eastern
    Europe
             Aftermath of WW2
– USSR would retain what is gained in 1939 from Poland
   • The USSR would also ask for Germany east of the Oder and
     Neisse rivers, British and Americans do not agree.
– Non-communist Polish members exiled in London were
  allowed to return home and join the communist Polish
  gov’t set up in Lublin
– Stalin agreed to join the fight in Japan 2-3 months after
  the war was over in Europe in return for some land in
  Manchuria
– the San Francisco conference was planned to form the
  UN
   • The great powers decided they owned a veto on any measures
     passed in the UN
    Potsdam Conference, July 1945
• Purpose: the war in Europe was over but
  there were still some terms to come to
  agreement with
  – Very negative mood
    • Truman and Churchill were personally hostile
      towards Stalin and the USSR
    • Truman felt pretty powerful with the new Atomic-
      Bomb by his side
    • Truman and Churchill were particularly annoyed with
      the USSR since they help Germany east of the Oder
      and Neisse line and made it a part of Communist
      Poland
       – They had expelled 5 million Germans living there
    • Stalin was annoyed Truman was going to use the A-
      Bomb to keep the USSR out of the Pacific
    Potsdam Conference, July 1945
  – No significant decisions were made. This made
    the Cold War seem inevitable and imminent.
• The Potsdam Conference also called upon
  Japan to unconditionally surrender or
“The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter
  destruction.”
              Results of WW2
• Millions are dead (See transparency)
• Infrastructure is shot
  – European coal production down 40% of pre-war
    levels; 23% of Europeans farmland is out of
    commission
    • The decrease in farm production would lead to
      hardship in the winter of 1947-48
  – Over 20 million people are displaced from home
    in 1945
    • Refugees fleeing from invading armies
    • Slave workers from occupied Europe taken to
      Germany and Austria
    • Prisoners in concentration camps
            Results of WW2
• Displaced Jews lead to the inheritance and
  displacement of the Palestinians with the
  establishment of Israel
• Reprisals in Nazi occupied countries by
  lynchings and public humiliation of
  perpetrators
• Fascism failed:
  – Militarism led to defeat
  – Anti-Bolshevism led to extension of
    communism over much of central and eastern
    Europe
            Rise of Superpowers
• European domination of the world ended
  – USA emerged as clear power
  – Germany was destroyed as a power
  – Britain and France are destroyed as imperial powers,
    although they cling to this status for a while
  – The USSR had
     • Recovered and extended its empire
     • Formed a glacis in the west
     • Became a dominant military power in Europe
     • Gained prestige in defeat of the Nazis
     • Gained prestige outside its border as leading communist
       countries
     • The only power that could resist the USA (Even though much
       weaker economically, devastated by war, and without nuclear
       weapons)
• USA dominated the world by default
  – No body to keep them in check except the Soviets
  – Because the two powers don’t get along there is no
    peace process post WWII at a time when one was
    needed
• Japanese strength during WWII had ended the
  myth of white superiority
  – The reoccupation of the Japanese occupied
    territory made those people angry and eventually
    break up the imperial powers over them
• Racism and anti-Semitism became unaceptable
  to Western public opinion (except in some of
  the southern US)
   EUROPE READY FOR CHANGE
• People were ready for reform
  – Conditions are ripe for social revolution; gov’ts
    comprised many socialist measures
     • Social security systems
     • Nationalization of the means of production and
       distribution
     • Progressive income tax
     • Measures to create full employment
  – In Eastern Europe many of the people were getting
    on board with Communism
             Other results




• Technological and scientific developments
                 – Like the Atomic-Bomb
     – What was the impact of the technological &
       scientific developments?? Write down a few
                thoughts before we discuss.

								
To top