Aftermath of WW2 • Yalta, 2/1945 – Held at Crimea on the Black Sea – Purpose: to make immediate arrangements for the post war situation • Adopt a general policy for the liberated states of Europe (Poland in particular) • Determine the post war administration of the conquered territories of Germany and Austria • Determine voting arrangements in the UN Aftermath of WW2 • Decisions made at Yalta – To divide Germany into 3 military occupation zones (American, Soviet, and British); France was added later • Berlin, the capital would also be in zones – Austria would also have military occupation zones – Germany was to pay reparations • An initial figure was $20 billion, half of which would go to the USSR – Britain wanted no set number sp as tp destroy German war potential – Free elections were to be held throughout eastern Europe Aftermath of WW2 – USSR would retain what is gained in 1939 from Poland • The USSR would also ask for Germany east of the Oder and Neisse rivers, British and Americans do not agree. – Non-communist Polish members exiled in London were allowed to return home and join the communist Polish gov’t set up in Lublin – Stalin agreed to join the fight in Japan 2-3 months after the war was over in Europe in return for some land in Manchuria – the San Francisco conference was planned to form the UN • The great powers decided they owned a veto on any measures passed in the UN Potsdam Conference, July 1945 • Purpose: the war in Europe was over but there were still some terms to come to agreement with – Very negative mood • Truman and Churchill were personally hostile towards Stalin and the USSR • Truman felt pretty powerful with the new Atomic- Bomb by his side • Truman and Churchill were particularly annoyed with the USSR since they help Germany east of the Oder and Neisse line and made it a part of Communist Poland – They had expelled 5 million Germans living there • Stalin was annoyed Truman was going to use the A- Bomb to keep the USSR out of the Pacific Potsdam Conference, July 1945 – No significant decisions were made. This made the Cold War seem inevitable and imminent. • The Potsdam Conference also called upon Japan to unconditionally surrender or “The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.” Results of WW2 • Millions are dead (See transparency) • Infrastructure is shot – European coal production down 40% of pre-war levels; 23% of Europeans farmland is out of commission • The decrease in farm production would lead to hardship in the winter of 1947-48 – Over 20 million people are displaced from home in 1945 • Refugees fleeing from invading armies • Slave workers from occupied Europe taken to Germany and Austria • Prisoners in concentration camps Results of WW2 • Displaced Jews lead to the inheritance and displacement of the Palestinians with the establishment of Israel • Reprisals in Nazi occupied countries by lynchings and public humiliation of perpetrators • Fascism failed: – Militarism led to defeat – Anti-Bolshevism led to extension of communism over much of central and eastern Europe Rise of Superpowers • European domination of the world ended – USA emerged as clear power – Germany was destroyed as a power – Britain and France are destroyed as imperial powers, although they cling to this status for a while – The USSR had • Recovered and extended its empire • Formed a glacis in the west • Became a dominant military power in Europe • Gained prestige in defeat of the Nazis • Gained prestige outside its border as leading communist countries • The only power that could resist the USA (Even though much weaker economically, devastated by war, and without nuclear weapons) • USA dominated the world by default – No body to keep them in check except the Soviets – Because the two powers don’t get along there is no peace process post WWII at a time when one was needed • Japanese strength during WWII had ended the myth of white superiority – The reoccupation of the Japanese occupied territory made those people angry and eventually break up the imperial powers over them • Racism and anti-Semitism became unaceptable to Western public opinion (except in some of the southern US) EUROPE READY FOR CHANGE • People were ready for reform – Conditions are ripe for social revolution; gov’ts comprised many socialist measures • Social security systems • Nationalization of the means of production and distribution • Progressive income tax • Measures to create full employment – In Eastern Europe many of the people were getting on board with Communism Other results • Technological and scientific developments – Like the Atomic-Bomb – What was the impact of the technological & scientific developments?? Write down a few thoughts before we discuss.
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