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Shark Report pt. 2


									                                          External Features
The Head
Rostrum - lets shark move through the water more quickly
Jaws - allow food to enter digestive system
Teeth - allow shark to hold prey and feed
Eyes - allow shark to see, have reflective layer behind the retina to reflect light to boost visibility
Pupil - varies amount of light to come to the eye
Spiracles - give blood with oxygen to the eye and brain
Endolymphatic Pores - openings from the ear
Nasal Flap - water passes through allowing shark to smell water
Ampullae of Lorenzini - allows shark to detect magnetic fields, changes in temperature of the water, and saltiness of the
Gill Slits - remove water without oxygen outside of the body

The Fins
Dorsal Fins - stops shark from rolling, the spines are used for protection
Caudal Fin - provide movement and velocity
Pectoral Fins - steering and help shark to float
Pelvic Fins - help with stabilization

                                            Skeletal System
Axial Skeleton
Skull - protects brain and other sense organs; makes a section of the jaw and gill arches
Rostrum - lets shark move more easily through the water
Nasal Capsule - holds smell organs and connects them with the brain
Occipital Region - passage way for the spine to the head
Visceral Arches - provide support the the mouth and gills
Mandibular Arch - forms upper and lower jaws
External Gill Slits - allows water to leave shark
Hyoid Arch - forms the bottom of the shark’s mouth and supports the shark’s tongue
Gill Arches - are all connected, and support the gills

Appendicular Skeleton
Vertebral Column - forms the frame of the shark
Pectoral Girdle - allows the pectoral fins to turn
Coracoid Bar - helps the shark’s movement
Caudal Vertebrae - holds the caudal artery and the caudal vein
Trunk Vertebrae - holds the dorsal and ventral part of the caudal fin

                                              Sense Organs
The Ear
Perilymphatic Ducts - allows perilymph to enter
Semicircular Canals - canals used for balance and orientation

The Eye
Sclera - protective outer coating of the eye
Pupil - varies amount of light to come to the eye
Ciliary Body - protective middle coat of the eye
Retina - receives light, enables the shark to see
Lens - helps focus the light on the retina
Vitreous Chamber - gives eye it’s shape and stops it from collapsing
Conjunctiva - covers the outer layer of the eye
Cornea - protects the eye, is clear so the shark can see through it
Choroid - helps the eye take in light
Iris - helps regulate the size of the pupil

The Nose
Nares - detect chemicals in the water
Incurrent Aperture - channels water into the olfactory system
Excurrent Aperture - allows water to leave olfactory system
Olfactory Sacs - allow the shark to smell the water
Olfactory Lamellae - sends information from smells in the water to the brain

Lateral Line Canals - can detect changes in water pressure

      Ampullae of Lorenzini - can detect changes in water temperature, electric currents, and saltiness of the water

                                              Urogenital System
Kidneys - forms urine, removes waste, and controls the water and salt balance
Ovaries - make and hold eggs
Oviducts - provide a path for the eggs to go to the uterus
Shell Gland - gives groups of eggs their shells and holds sperm from the male
Ostium - takes small eggs and passes them to the oviducts
Uterus - develops fertilized eggs
Cloaca - allows shark to rid itself of urine, feces, and reproductive products
Yolk Sac - holds food for the embryo
Urogenital Papilla - used to force urine into the cloaca

Testes - make and hold sperm
Ductus Deferens - transports sperm
Sperm Sacs - hold sperm
Urogenital Papilla - rids body of urine and releases sperm int the cloaca
Urogenital Sinus - a space made by the two sperm sacs coming together
Seminal Vesicles - adds fluid to sperm, and passes it to the sperm sac
Claspers - inserted into the female’s cloaca during mating and releases sperm
Cloaca - rids shark’s body of urine, feces, and reproductive products
Epididymus - collects sperm

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