Shark Report pt. 1 by liam.delucia


									                                        Digestive System
Liver – stores lighter-than-water oils and energy for the shark
Gall Bladder – stores bile that breaks down fat
Bile Duct – transports bile from gallbladder to intestine
Esophagus – muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to stomach by peristalsis
Stomach – breaks down and digests food. Uses peristalsis for mechanical digestion and uses hydrochloric acid and
pepsin for chemical digestion
       Rugae – muscular folds in the stomach that allow it to expand
       Pyloric Sphincter – allows food to enter duodenum from stomach
Pancreas – produces enzymes that breakdown proteins
Duodenum – uses enzymes to break down foods
Spleen – produces, stores, and destroys red blood cells
Intestine – has intestinal valves that absorb nutrients from food
Rectal Gland – releases excess body salt to keep osmotic balance in seawater
Colon – removes salt and water from solid waste
Cloaca – Opening to intestinal, urinary, and genital tracks
                                     Respiratory System
Mouth – breaks down food by chemical and mechanical digestion. Sends food to esophagus and takes in water and
sends it to pharynx
Pharynx – prevents food from entering the gills
Esophagus - muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to stomach by peristalsis
Gills – absorbs oxygen from oxygenated water as it passes over them
Internal Gill Slits – removes un-oxygenated blood
Gill Rakers – finger-like projections than protect the gill lamellae
Gill Arches – provide support to gill filaments and gill rakers
Gill Lamellae – Plate-like structure attached to interbrachial septum to increase surface contact with water
Interbrachial Septa – holds gill lamellae in place and prevents reverse water flow
                                        Circulatory System
Pericardium – Protests the heart and releases small amounts of lymph fluid to lubricate the heart
Heart – Pumps blood through body
       Atrium – forces blood through trioventicular valve by contracting
       Ventricle – contracts to force blood through the conus arteries
Dorsal Aorta – distributes re-oxygenated blood to all parts of the sharks body from the gills
Iliac Arteries – brings blood to claspers and pelvic veins
Caudal Arteries – takes blood to tail
Inferior Jugular Veins – takes blood from brain to heart
                                            Nervous System
Ampullae of Lorenzini – contain sensory cells that detect the salinity of the water, the temperature, and any electrical
currents in the water
Lateral Line Canals – contain sensory cells that detect changes in the water pressure and things in the water
Thalamus – receives and controls motor functions of shark
Hypothalamus – Part of the brain that controls homeostasis
Medulla Oblongata – connection between brain and spinal cord that controls spinal movement
Vertebral Column – Protects spinal cord
Cerebral Hemispheres – the two lobes of the brain
Cerebellum – controls coordination of muscles
Spinal Cord – controls muscular movement and the skin
Optic Nerve – connects the retina of the eyes to the optic lobes
Oculomotor Nerve – controls the muscles in the eye
Vagus Nerve – controls pharynx, gills, esophagus, heart, intestine, body wall, and heart
Optic Lobes – receives and processes signals from the eyes
Olfactory Bulbs – connections between olfactory sacs and the olfactory lobes
Olfactory Tracks – protrudes from the olfactory bulbs
Olfactory Lobes – receives and processes signals from olfactory sacs

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