AH 6 WWI

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					Chapter 6
6-1 From Neutrality to War

What caused WWI?
      1. Nationalism
• Devotion to one’s nation
• Single ethnic group
  How did many Europeans’
 idea of nationalism change
      in the late 1800s?
• Began to reject the idea of a
  nation with different ethnic
  groups and turn toward the
  idea of a nation representing
  a single ethnic group
        2. Militarism
• Glorification of the military

Countries began building up
 armies & stockpiling
 weapons.
Why did militarism make it
more difficult to avoid the
    outbreak of war?
• Made it more tempting to
  resort to violence and to use
  weapons that had been
  stockpiled in the arms race
      3. Imperialism
• Political, military, and
  economic domination of
  strong nations over weaker
  territories
  4. Alliances between
  European Countries
• Triple Alliance: Germany,
  Austria-Hungary, and Italy

• Triple Entente: France,
  Russia, and Great Britain
Why did European countries
 form so many alliances?
• Protection
• A country is stronger fighting
  with an ally than alone
• Deter other countries from
  entering war with them and
  their allies
5. Assassination of the arch-
   duke of Austria-Hungary

 • Francis Ferdinand, heir to
   the throne of A-H & wife
   were shot in Sarajevo,
   Bosina by Gavrilo Princip
        Fighting Begins

• Serbia did not agree to
  cooperate w/ an investigation
  of the death SO
• July 28, 1914 A-H
  declares war on Serbia
     Central Powers

• Germany
• Austria-Hungary
• Ottoman Empire
      Allied Powers
• Britain
• France
• Russia
• Serbia
• German soldiers moved
  through Belgium & southwest
  France
• Sept. 1914 French & British
  counterattacked 30 miles
  outside Paris (Battle of the
  Marne
• Stopped Germans near the
  Marne River
         Stalemate
- Each built trenches
- Stalemate developed & war
  dragged on for years
- New military technology led
  to millions of casualties
• Western Front: France
     Trench Warfare
• Horrible conditions
 –Lice
 –Millions of rats
 –Trench foot
 –Dead bodies
 –unsanitary
TRENCH FOOT
Trench Patterns
     No Man’s Land
• Area between the trenches
          Casualties
•   1st
     3 months almost 1
  million French soldiers killed
  or wounded
• Germans only slightly fewer
      Animals in the War

• Camels- used to transport of
  supplies- British
• Goats- food, milk, cheese,
  mascots
• Cats- companions, mascots,
  spread of certain airborne
  things, war tactic (mobile
  bomb)
• Donkey & mules- transport
  goods
• Dogs- carried medicine,
  sent & received messages,
  locate people who were
  wounded, trained dogs to
  clear barbed wire on the
  open no man’s land, had to
  wear gas masks
• Horses- supply train,
  transport was hard on them
  overseas, were worked to
  death in many cases
• Pigeons-mostly
  messengers, widely used,
  some were awarded medals
   Wilson Urges Neutrality
• “impartial in thought as well
  as action”
• 1st many saw as a distant
  fight
• Businesses benefited
       Choosing sides

• Many chose the side in
  which they were born
• German’s invasion of
  neutral Belgium swayed
  many
        Isolationists
• War was none of U.S.
  business
      Interventionists

• Felt war affected U.S.
  interests & should side with
  Allies
       Internationalists
• Should play an active role in
  achieving peace
• But not enter war
    G.B. Blocks Germany
• To keep essential goods
  from reaching Germany
• International law allows
  contraband goods
  (weapons, etc.) to be
  confiscated
• G.B. expanded definition of
  contraband until it included
  everything
       U-Boats (Subs)

• Germany responds to G.B.
  actions by trying to block
  them
• Feb. 1915 by using U-Boats
  they sink allied ships
• Lusitania sunk on May 7,
  1915- British passenger
  liner
• Germany claimed it was
  carrying contrabands
      Sussex Pledge
• Germany kept the U.S. out
  of war by promising not to
  sink anymore passenger
  ships
    National Defense Act
• 1916
• Increase army
• Naval Construction Act-
  more warships
     Zimmermann Note
• Germany sent a telegram to
  Mexico, stating if U.S.
  declares war on Germany,
  Mexico should declare war
  on U.S.
• In return, Mexico would get
  back states of TX, NM, & AZ
• Then Germany announced
  unrestricted warfare
• April 2, 1917
• Wilson asked Congress for
  a Declaration of war against
  Germany
        Weapons Used
• Poison Gas
 –1st used in WW I
 –Did not have significant
  effect on war (gas masks)
 –But Inspired TERROR
      Other Weapons

• Page 174
           Trench Facts

•    Each battalion had its own
    supply of rum that it
    distributed to its soldiers.
    Each division of 20,000 men
    received 300 gallons.
• Every soldier carried iron
  rations -- emergency food
  that consisted of a can of
  bully bee, biscuits and a tin
  of tea and sugar.
• A total of 3,894 men in the
 British Army were convicted
 of self-inflicted wounds. A
 firing-squad offense -- none
 were executed, but all
 served prison terms.
• The British Army treated
  20,000 soldiers for trench
  foot during the winter of
  1914-15.
• One-third of all casualties
  on the Western Front may
  have been killed or
  wounded in a trench.
•    Soldiers in the trenches
    often depended on impure
    water collected from shell-
    holes or other cavities,
    causing dysentery.
• Chapter 6 Section 2 & 3
  – Activities done in class
    6-4 Effects of the War
• Move from war to peace was
  even more difficult due to:
  –Influenza outbreak (1918-
   1919)
  –Killed millions worldwide
  –Began in U.S.
Temporary Hospital
     Women & Blacks
• W/ soldiers home not
  enough jobs for women
• Riots due to racism
 –Chicago
 –Tulsa, OK- 35 city blocks
  burned
Tulsa Riot
           Inflation
• Rising prices
• Could buy things now
• Farm prices tumble
• Industrial workers
 –Strike
      RED SCARE
• Fear of radicals &
  communists
  –Thought to be planning
   a revolution
• Palmer Raids
  –Arrest of thousands
   •Radicals
   •Immigrants from
    southern Europe
• American Civil Liberties
  Union
 –To protect liberties
• Sacco & Vanzetti
  –Italian immigrants
  –Accused of robbery&
   murder
  –Little hard evidence but
   found guilty
  –executed
      Harding elected
• Becomes
  President in
  1920
• Return to
  Normalcy
U.S. Position in the World
       after W.W. I

• Economic giant
• Creditor nation

				
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posted:8/25/2012
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