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					TRAINING OF TRAINERS ON
       ADVOCACY
         May 19-23, 2010

       Gaidakot, Nawalparasi




  PROCEEDING REPORT


          Organized By:

       HIMAWANTI NEPAL



          Supported By:

           CARE Nepal
                                              Table of Contents



Overview of the programme: ................................................................................. 3

1. Background ..................................................................................................... 5

2. Participants of the Training .............................................................................. 6

3. Objectives of the Programme ........................................................................... 6

4. Methodologies applied:.................................................................................... 7

5. Outcomes of the Workshop.............................................................................. 7

6. Programme Proceedings .................................................................................. 7

7. Closing: ......................................................................................................... 47

8. Challenges ..................................................................................................... 47

9. Suggestions.................................................................................................... 47
Overview of the programme:

Training Theme: Training of Trainers on Advocacy


Organized by: Himalayan Grassroots Women Natural Resource Management Association
(HIMAWANTI) Nepal


Supported By: Care Nepal, Shakti Programme, Bhartpur, Chitwan


Date and Venue: May19-23, 2010, SAHAMATI, Gaidakot, Nawalparasi, Nepal


Participating Organizations: Community Mobilizers, Programme officers under Shakti
programme, HIMAWANTI Nepal District Chapter members


Number of Participants: 25


Resource Persons/ Key Facilitators:
Mr. Chup Bahadur Thapa
Ms. Gita Bohora
Mr. Ganesh Chaulagai


Key Documentation
Mr. Ganesh Chaulagai


Methodology: Presentations, group discussions, documentary, various games, plenary
discussion and role play and group exercises


Contents of the Programme:
      Who am I?
      Information sharing among partner organizations based on who am I session
   Rural women's right to natural resources (forestry, water and land resources)
   Shakti programme and analysis of poverty relevance
   introduction of development and initiatives in development of developing countries
   social structure and analysis of power relation
   meaning of advocacy and its rationale
   good governance and interrelation with advocacy
   stages of advocacy
   issues identification and analysis
   selection of issues, policy analysis and goal determination
   Stakeholders (target groups, supporters, neutral and opponents) analysis
   support groups for advocacy and networking
   instruments of advocacy
   media advocacy
   designing advocacy plan
   plenary discussion on advocacy plan and presentation
   implementation, monitoring and evaluation of advocacy plan
   preparation of work plan and presentation
   training evaluation and closing
1. Background
Advocacy is the process of raising voices in an effective manner in order to influence others. It is
a process rather than a product. When it is done to support or empower the marginalized it is a
means of gaining a better policy environment with implications for implementation of policies,
rather than an end in itself. The product of advocacy could be better policies or practices which
emanate from the government, but also refers to those unwritten practices which have been
taking place in communities for some length of time. The empowerment of affected people is the
ultimate destination of the kind of advocacy work that NGOs, CBOs and People's organizations
engage in, in the hope that it would help the affected people to claim their rights in a sustainable
manner.

Advocacy initiatives generally aim to promote the public good and attempt to bring about social
justice in deprived communities. It seeks to use all available media, for a method to bring issues
of public concern into the conscious agenda of those who make decision in this regard. The
prime goal of advocacy is to reorient public policy towards enhancing the capacity of those who
have a weaker voice in the existing political system. It is not only the government but also
various actors in the public and private arenas who contribute to livelihood insecurity and the
violation of human rights.

Under the bases of initiatives of advocacy- facilitating social justice, gaining access and a voice
for deprived groups in the decision making of relevant institutions; changing the power relations
between these institutions and the people affected by their decision thereby changing the
institutions themselves; and bringing a compelling and lasting improvement in the people's lives;
this trainers training has been organized for the project staffs of partner organizations. it has been
expected to enhance knowledge, skills as well as commitment for advocacy on the issues raised
and associated to PVSE women in the programme area. It has envisioned preparing VDC level
advocacy plan for each programme VDC for the influencing policy or effective implementation
of existing policies to the PVSE women. It is considered as a foundation for raising voices of
voiceless.

This report tries to summaries the events undertaken during the capacity building programme on
advocacy which has incorporated the information of carried out activities in detail. The report
has covered the date and venue where the activities were carried out; objective of the program,
participants of the program as well as overall achievements.
2. Participants of the Training

All together 25 people were participated in the workshop. The participants were shakti
programme staffs from partner organizations including HIMAWANTI- Nepal district chapter
members. The composition of the participants was as following:

Composition of Participation, Nawalparasi, 2010

 S.N. Position               Chitwan               Makwanpur      Nawalparasi         Remarks
 1    Programme              1                        1               1
      Officer
 2    Community              5                          5               5
      Mobilizers
 3    HIMAWANTI              2                          2               3          1 from Central
      Board members                                                                  committee
      Total                  8                          8               9


Out of 25 participants, 3 were males whereas remaining 22 participants were females. Those
participants were from all partner organizations of Shakti programme. 5 participants from each
partner organization had taken part in the programme where HIMAWANTI Nepal had 1 more
participant from central committee.

(See Annex- I: For details of participant)



3. Objectives of the Programme
The programme was conducted on the bases of following objectives:
       to share experiences among partner organizations for the identification of gaps and
       building linkage of advocacy
       to assess underlying causes of poverty and interventions made under Shakti programme
       comparative analysis of development paradigms in Nepalese context
       to analyze social structure and assess interrelationship between social structures
       to aware on advocacy concept, instruments, process and to build capacity to practice each
       instruments at institutional level
       to build capacity and skills to make participatory advocacy plan based on participatory
       discussion on each levels of advocacy process
       to make commitment among participants for effective implementation of advocacy plan
       in their respective communities
4. Methodologies applied:
    Basically the following methods were adopted for the training programme.

          o   Lecture Method
          o   Presentation Method
          o   Video Documentary & Photos display
          o   Group Discussions
          o   Role play sessions
          o   Questions and answer
          o   informative Games
          o   plenary discussions
          o   story and case studies


5. Outcomes of the Workshop
The programme had achieved the following outcomes after completion of the training which is
following:
              After the TOT on advocacy, participants had acquired knowledge on advocacy.
               Participants are able to differentiate between issues and problems.
              Updated on the issues raised until now for the advocacy and institutional
              experiences.
              Participants are able to get skills to facilitate on advocacy.
              Participants got skills to develop advocacy plan of action.
              Participants had prepared individual plan of action to prepare advocacy plan.


6. Programme Proceedings

Opening of the Programme:

The programme was opened informally with the remarks of Gita Bohora,
undersecretary of HIMAWANTI-Nepal. She welcomed all the participants from
partner organizations and HIMAWANTI district chapters. She hoped that there
would be experiences sharing and update over the issues raised in the
community. This training is an opportunity to enhance skills for advocacy on
Shakti themes. She wished for the successful completion of the programme
making more interactive.

Remarks for Best Wishes:
Team leader of Shakti programme, Mr. Eman Sunar had welcomed all the
participants in the programme and suggested to concentrate discussion on the
existing issues of PVSE women. He suggested for informal discussion which would
based on practice based experiences. The main objective of the programme is to
enhance skills to deliver training on advocacy. It is important to raise voices over
our local issues while we discuss on the issues. It is a way of influencing policy. He
expected that the programme would support to make VDC level advocacy plan in
each VDC of Shakti programme. He expected active participation in the training
which would help to personal development. At last, he wished for the successful
completion of the programme which would target to raises the issues of PVSE
women.

Introduction among participants

The participants were introduced each other with sharing their name, address,
representing organization and years of experiences in the field.

Who am I ?

The facilitator had discussed on the introduction which is no described by the
person who introduces him/herself saying his/her name and address. Male and
female both are introduced with various identities in our society according to
their social responsibility. For example,

Male: husband, father, son, son in law, brother in law, uncle, nephew,
grandfather, grandson, brothers etc.

Female: wife, mother, daughter, daughter in law, sister in law, aunty,
grandmother, granddaughter, sisters etc.

But he told that introduction is identity which is created by the action of
individual. It is not necessary to explain but others will evaluate and recognize as
their own performance. The attitudes and practices of individual are more
introductory than responsibility given by society. Introduction is the impression
made by the action. For example, there would be thousands of people in
someone's funeral ceremony whereas there would be no one to pick up dead
body. It is because of the impression made by someone.

He further told that we need to analyze SWOT for the better identity as:

S= Strength

W= Weakness

O= Opportunities

T= Threats

He discussed that higher strength, higher opportunities, higher weakness, and
higher threats. Strength and weakness are factors depending upon oneself where
as opportunities and threats are always obtained or arise from outsides.

Story of Heaven

An individual has various lives and deaths in a single life. There is heaven which is
also determined by the performance of individual. For example, a day of getting
result having board first in SLC exam is heaven for that student where as the day
before the day of result is as usual. The same result may be death for other if s/he
gets result being failed. Due to that information, his/her father committed
suicide, grandfather became mad and the response made by community
members to that student.

This gives the information that criticism guides to move forward.

Group work on institutional introduction

After the discussion on institutional experiences which is able to recognize
institute/organization as. The group was formed as their representing
organization. The presentation made after group discussion were as following:

Nari Ship Srijana Kendra (WOSEC), Nepal

Established in 2049 B.S.
Worked on the sector of women and children's rights

Especially worked on advocacy to improve the status/position of women

Contributed on campaign against VAW through We Can campaign, anti-trafficking
movement, women empowerment, worked to enhance access and control of
marginalized women to policy making level, advocacy on adolescents'
reproductive rights, women empowerment for livelihood improvement

working on women empowerment programme in 13 districts

Organizational Issues:

women empowerment

sustainable livelihood

end of VAW

women's access and control over policy making level

women's reproductive rights

disaster reduction programme

coordination and partnership- DDC, DEO, DAO, DFO, DSCO, WDO, women and
children cell, district police

Affiliation: AATWIN, BBS, GATW, women security pressure group, NanGan, South
Asia Alliance

HIMAWANTI-Nepal

Contact and coordination with various organizations (care Nepal, Heifer
International, NSCFP, LFP, DFID, Action aid, BISEP ST, MOF, DOF, MOHP,
FECOFUN, WOSEC, NRUSEC, Indreni)

Institutional capacity building, (personal and institutional)

Worked focusing on NRM
Advocacy for women's access and control over the rights on water, forest and
land resources

Advocacy for incorporation of the issues of women on water, forest and land
resources in upcoming constitution

Advocacy for meaningful participation of women in decision making position of
various organizations/levels

Identify and advocacy on the issues of poor women (especially on health,
domestic violence, livelihood, services, equal pay for equal job)

Internalization of 'we' and 'our' feeling

Change in the perception among NGOs and GOs

Women are able to share their experiences with their work

Supported to improve livelihood

Easy to conduct pressurizing programmes

Stressed on identification and implementation of local level programme using
local resources

NRUSEC

To identify marginalized and back warded class, and ethnic community and make
them able to acquire their rights and its utilization

To identify vulnerable area for disaster and support to mitigate disaster

To aware women about their reproductive health and problems associated to
their reproductive health and treat those women who have problem of uterus
prolapsed and aware women about their reproductive health

to aware PVSE women to acquire resources from VDC for the livelihood
improvement and ensure right to resources
conduct works on 3 themes women empowerment, livelihood improvement,
disaster management together

Organization having highest PVSE women member in Chitwan district.



Individual Change due to engagement in the respective organization:

Srijana Dahal, Harnamadi, Makwanpur

Systematize discussion on reflect center

Co-ordination with stakeholders at VDC level

Leadership development

Capacity building to advocacy

VDC recognized my contribution and remembers while they organize VDC level
activities related to women

Gita Bidari, PO, Makwanpur

Capacities build up

Create working environment

District level coordination extended

Sarala Bolakhe, Chhatiwan, Makwanpur

Exposure to never known community

Leadership/capacity development

Self confidence to face challenges

Srijana Shrestha, Faparbari, Makwanpur

Exposure to Makwanpur and Faparbari VDC
Familiar with local stakeholders

Opportunities to participate in different forums

Got recognition by VDC and political parties

Other organizations co-ordinated to replicate ability of local women

Chameli Syangtan, Dhiyal, Makwanpur

Able to put views in public forum

Capacity building to conduct programme

VDC has recognized

Sangita Rai, Raigaun, Makwanpur

Made citizenship in Makwanpur due to Shakti programme

Aware about VDC budget allocation to women in VDC

Some people indicated as leader which made women sad that encouraged me to
capacity building

Sabitri Sunar, Chitwan

Able to express feeling in public mass

Fire affected people are benefited from the relief services (goods) distributed by
NRUSEC

IGA supported to generate income that made people happy where I found my
happiness

Case studies on the way of publication

Meera Mahato, Chitwan

Increment in mobility

Able to share experience and created trust environment to rural women
Happy because community women had started Chatpate business

Able to conduct programme with VDC level political leaders and other
stakeholder in absence of programme officer



Indra Kumari B.K.

Challenged by community people while NRUSEC selected

Recognized in the VDC by stakeholders

Stakeholders are ready to coordinate

VDC trusted and even gives meeting minutes to review and copy the decision

Can share ideas to others efficiently

Males have changed their habit, i.e. males started to collect dress while put it for
dry out

Message on family planning especially on permanent method

Livelihood improvement through sewing and cutting

Sukrami Chaudhary, Chitwan

Increment in mobility

Confidences build up

PVSE women are able to generate income through sewing and cutting training

Women are able to react while there is violence (eg. you made my wife Ms. Indira
Gandhi)

Anita B.K.

Chances of exposure

Meeting with various people
Behavior of PVSE males changed (husband of a woman had bitten his wife while
she was in reflect center in the beginning where as himself is helping to discuss on
reflect center these days.)

Due to information publicize, schools also reflected to publish information

Krishna Basaula, Chitwan

Opportunities to participate in training and workshops

Habited to study which influenced to support logic

Habit of writing

Sushila Kshetri, Nawalparasi

recognized in VDC

toile campaign started

Maya Sahani, Nawalparasi

able to share ideas

Capacity building which made me to trust

Opportunity to meet with VDC level stakeholders

Parvati Tiwari, Nawalparasi

first women president in organization in Nawalparasi

Socially recognized as a good social worker

Ambika Thapaliya, Chitwan

Exposure to VDC

Encourage to dialogue

Skills development
Punya Prava Adhikari

meeting with social mobilizers

Coordination become strong

Familiar with the issues of buffer zone

Sarada Rai, Makwanpur

capacity enhanced on forest management

Strong coordination with district level stakeholders

Janaki Rai, Makwanpur

Increased mobility

Strong coordination with stakeholders

Developed self confidence

Participants were participated in horse riding game. The main aim of the game is
to encourage claiming their rights in the society. Others will dominate until we
start action in the field. Commitment and promise may not work properly if we
don't practice in the field because we are guided by deep rooted and historically
channeled by social value system. So we need to claim our rights but before that
we must be aware on the rights on particular issues. So we must go rather rivers
come if we are thirst.



Story of 'Rishi and Chara'

Rishi was meditating in a forest where hunter was killing birds. He became
unhappy due to killing of innocent birds. Then he decided to support hunter, and
call hunter and asked,' why do you kill these innocent birds?' The hunter replied
that it is his profession and matter of livelihood of his family. Then Rishi decided
to give some monitory support as equal to the earning of birds hunting. The
hunter stopped killing until Rishi gave money to him but one day, he did not get
money from Rishi but started to kill birds.

Then Rishi thought that giving money to hunter is fail but better to teach birds.
Then he invited all birds in the meeting and teaches about how to escape from
hunter and save lives. He made a text to guide birds as:

Shikari aaunchha,

      Jal thapchha,

Chara halchha,

Khanu hunnna hai

Then all birds crumbed the lesson. One day hunter came he heard the song from
bird and decided to back. After some time he thought to try and back again to put
his jal. That day many birds were on the jal than other time.

Learning of the participants:

Crumbed but not applied in the practice.

Commitment only does not work, need to internalize

They just crumbed but did not realize their participation

Crumb the message, but not practice

Plan without practicality

The facilitator concluded that we are also in the same condition of above story, so
we need to care about upcoming stage of pvse women in our locality.

Plenary discussion on What are the causes of poverty?

Deprived of opportunities

Dependency on wages

Less income expenditure more
Family members more

Illiteracy

Lack of house and land

Low wage rate

Discrimination on wages

Drinking alcohol

Lack of awareness

Disasterous area

Limited to household

High interest rate

Domestic violence

Exploitation of poor by rich

Facilities are obtained by rich

No access to control

Lack of information (e.g., Raigaun, Makwanpur- out of 32 household, 20 HH has
pregnancy cases where they don't know about the services of health facilities)

Excessive expense (fajul kharcha)

Practical experience of Morang

A participants of training was very poor, his dress up was poor. The workshop was
about poverty reduction. One participant told that this .... man does not speak ,
(mukh sannasale ukhelne) how can we uplift him. It was a big insult.

Next day he invited both of them in dash and started to ask

Rich                                        poor
Education- ba                                      illiterate

Training 200                                       no

Meeting 1000                                 annual meeting (otherwise 200 fine)

Where do guests live- all of guest         first year of daughters' marriage
daughter in law came in dashain but no one is comming now

Property

Social

Economic

Physical

Natural

Human

How many HH are in your VDC? (Percentage)

No response.

It has requested to focus such people as mentioned above who are identified
from UCP in each VDC.

Practical exercise on loan

A man goes to group for loan and gets 5000 and on the way a friend meets him
and take to Sahili's Bhatti and took alcohol and pay 5000 and back to home where
quarrel. Sahili saves 5000 to bank. Then who is wrong?

Seed planting barren land since 50 years by a person, after a month he visited a
field but not plants found. Then who is wrong? Man or land?

Man because:

Clear the bush-------- poor identification
Irrigation-----information dissimination

Plough------------- discussion

Making the mud fine-------------- create trust environment

Making nursary----------- planning

Planting seed----------------investment

Irrigation------------monitoring and evaluation and support

Plant ready--------poverty reduction



So, what can we do?

Need to maintain equality.

Then, a practical exercise on equity and equality

(2 people sleeping with same base but one is ling other is short and gave same
amount of chocolate to both in same distance and asked to eat but fixed the rule
not to allowed crawl but can use hand. Please see picture.)

Discussion:

Need to internalize such incidences in our VDC/community. There are thousands
of issues, eg. Case of citizenship, price of timber from community forestry, criteria
for vocational trainig (having citizenship, no child, unmarried, poor etc), drop out
from group due to unable to collect Rs. 5 in collective.

These are the issues of discussion in our community. It is essential to internalize
the issues.

Resources allocation game

Discussion:
Group        To be          Obtained   Weapon   Distance    rank         chance
             obtained

1            10             17@3=51 Big         Close       First        3

2            10             4@4=16     Medium   In          Second       3
                                                between

3            10             10@..=8    small    far         third        3



Reflect to reflect center

Resources go to relatives and relatives gives amount on credit to poor

Allocated resources discriminatorily

In community forestry, president and secretary only remain for long time

Women are involved only for signature

Women are not invited in meeting

AGA are not conducted on time, just escaping

The facilitator had concluded that there should be allocation of the resources and
facilitators equitable for social justice and equality.

Before we regret, we need to question on the systematic structure of our society
that we are discussion on UCP tools.

Plenary discussion on the understanding of development

Positive Change

Practice change

KAP change

Physical structure
To achieve 5 kinds of shakti, and proper utilization of resources is Development.

We need to understand our responsibility while we talk about our right.'

Self reflection is essential while we work in the field.

For example, CF is also talking about right but not cared about its responsibility.

'Responsibility and duties with right and right without duties and responsibilities'
need to analyze in our context (Reflect Center).

Development is developed as social and human resources development not only
physical development.

Development trend in Nepal

Exercise- fish giving-----fishing skills----- right to fish (fishing)------

Welfare approach------corrective --------right based.....equity



Examples-

Right to fishing by Bote Majhi in Chitwan

Right to get Niguro from forest, Chitwan

Right to get timber from community forest, Makwanpur

Salko pat ko tapari

We are working on Right based approach based on equity approach.

Why do we not able to raise voice on the issues of VDC? Why do we afraid if we
are supporting VDC for development?

Lack of advocacy skills and facilitation skills

CMs are focused on how to mobilize reflect center

Difficult to manage time due to new LRPs
In this regard, we need to recognize our identity through our practices in the field
which make changes.

It is required to document process and the result of your efforts and intervention.

It is required to adopt following mathematical signals:

Add good practices

Subtract Disagreements, illiteracy

Multiply Unity and agreement

Divide Responsibility/duty

BOLNEKO PITHO BIKCHHA, NABOLNEKO PITHO BIKDAINA.

Sitting arrangements helps to control the mass.



Social Structure

Reflect center

VDC

Community forest

School

Private school

Paralegal committee

Community organizations

Clubs

Health post

Cooperatives
It is required to identify the structural provision of our society.

State

Market and private sector

Civil society

The voice we are raising for the construction of system which is envisioned by the
advocacy.

There is relation among these three components where all of them have strength.

If one component is powerful, other components would be minimized.

Our meaning is not to vulnerable state and market rather it is supporting these
structures.

Civil society is leading structure where state and market move ahead.

We need to give high priority to those social issues while we work for advocacy.

We can work for the market for medicinal herbal plants.



Social structure analysis

Level                               Rights            Responsibility   Outcome

Household         Male




                  Female
Community          Dalits and
                   deprived



                   Non-dalits and
                   well standard



Note:

         …………………quantity (less)




        …………. quantity (more)



There are various big gaps in our society between male and females and among
social categories.

The issues we raise should be focused on women----- PVSE women.

We need to be understood on our current status.

Field expamples:

16 kattha land is owned by the youth club

CDOs response

in 26 households out of 32, both the mother and daughter are pregnant but the
government does not care about it .
Social Mobilization

   State




Market /Individual Civil society




Role of market

Role of civil society



Sumitra chaudhari (Nawalparasi )

Women are excluded in the VDC budget. They are not provided with clear
information about the VDC budget to the women

Counting game

Ask 5 questions and get wrong answers if answer right, stop, game over.



ADVOCACY

Raise voice on the issues of victims

To link the issues to local to district and national level
To acquire rights to those communities who have no right.

Process to recognize problem and issues to settle from village to district level

The first activity done by a new born baby is advocacy- cry for breastfeeding.

In the childhood stage, baby starts to bargain, and get success.

Ask to buy cycle, cry, fell down in the street, crying,..... until he get cycle.

The level of understanding is different but the gist is same.

To provide justice to the people deprived of their rights by doing the tasks in a
process

Advocacy is to provide justice in favor of poor



Structure

We

Hope

Diversity

Structure

The natural structure can be understood

Man made structure can be changed

WE

Culture and structure made us

We also can make a new culture and structure

HOPE

I can change
My organization can change

Our society can change

The whole world can change



Start to change yourself first and then only talk about others

Picture analysis

Civil right more

Policy less

Process less

Practice less

Use of civil rights least

We want to increase the area of using civil rights, the whole process is advocacy.

Advocacy would not be effective if we miss any of its steps.

What is Advocacy and what is not advocacy?

Immunization is advocacy or not? Issue or not?

It is not advocacy, but if there is objection on immunization, some aspects are
affecting not to conduct that programme, then efforts to prove such services as
campaign, is advocacy.

Generally advocacy makes a campaign which tries to change existing structures
which is barrier for human right utilization. It always heads to the issues
considering practice and legal provisions.

If any incidence has widen its scope, it becomes an issue but it would be a
problem which has effect to only one person.
Sometimes, single problem can be an issue, when it becomes social problem.

Public discussion and conflicting subjects can be issue.

Violation of human right incidences

Interest of community

Main root of various incidences

Group exercise

Dhad chilaune practice (picture)



It is concluded that if work on problem, it would give immediate relief rather we
find out root cause and go for that which ultimately result sustainable relief.

Dummy exercise in plenary

Gardi VDC-8, 47 hh, poor, Dalit, janajati, indigenous, settled since12 yrs, Star
Sports club has forced to clear settlement for the sports

Settlement moved to bench of river

A landlord had claimed that the current land used for settlement is belong to him
and tries to remove that settlement, where he is planning his land.

Settlement on the bench of river wants certificate of current land rather previous
settlement.

Compulsion to leave paddy cover (Dhanko Bhush) free of cost at rice mill

What is Advocacy

To make discussions                - Decisive level

Women mobility

workload
Policy                         - Amendment

Implementation

Formulation



To fulfill owns requirement



Issues of advocacy

What are the issues ?

Issue becomes a subject of public interest

Problem can be individual



Stakeholders for advocacy

We

S---Supporter

N-----Neutral

O------Opponent


                                             We        Supporter




                                             Neutral   Opponent
Objective should be SMART

S------- Specific

M-------Measurable

A----------Achievable

R-------------Reliable

T------------Time bound

Major causes of most of the problems

The issue of .......................... of community deprived of the rights.

Issues of the community interest

issues raised in public discussion and disputes.



Process of selecting issues

Listing of the problems

Prioritizing the problems

to find out the root cause of the problem

Classification of the issues

Issues related to the new laws and policies

Issues of the policy amendment

Issue of proper implementation of existing law.

No. of the targeted group related to the issues.



Sukrami Chaudhari (Chitwan)
land (47 households )

Community of poor, dalit and indigenous people

Living since 12/13 years

Youth club has constructed a playground.

Parties have supported the club to construct the playground

Land of rich people near 14 household of the dalit.



Story of DSP

DSP, CDO, Judge

Meet, wine

Invited for get together

Dsp asks for diunsoko masu,

Judge call to bring cat and measuring scale and measured that cat is 1 kg

Then, judge asks where is 1 kg meet, or where is cat?



Discussion

Not to hide reality, it will open one day

Practice until it gets result

Need to go through underlying causes



Discussed on Advocacy of Vivekananda
Makwanpur

Makawanpur (Problem indicator)

Discussions , Family problems

Due to the drinking and gambling habit of male, the violence on women has
increased and the workload also has increased

Due to lack of toilets the environment is being polluted

In the family and house of PVSE there is lack of sanitation

Mostly the problem of drinking water

The settlement is in vulnerable condition due to flood and landslide

Frazile land are more

though the presence of women in the decisive level of community forestry they
are not clear about the financial accounts

Less participation of women in the workshop and seminar of CF

CF did not support for discussion center

Lack of public land for the construction of discussion center

News of deforestation , overgrazing and firestorm

Blind belief on the witch doctor

Caste and gender biasness

Problem of school, far from house

No access of women in the VDC budget

Poor children do not get scholarship in the schools
Problem in giving skill trainings to the PVSE women out of their districts

The health organizations , VDC, Agriculture and animal service center, paralegal
,RRC, CSGs in the VDC are not responsible towards the community

VDC has not allocated the wages

Due to high interest rates, the poor are being more poor

Though there is provision of allocation of 35% of the income of the CF to the poor
but it has not been implemented

No proper arrangement for treatment to the women .

The control of male on the discussion of the household and family.

Problem in financial calculation of the savings made by the PVSE .

The use of the food grain for making liquor is more in practice

No information about birth gap, family planning and pregnancy check up in the
PVSE women.

Even after the training of unseasonable vegetable agriculture, there is problem in
agriculture due to the lack of irrigation

Problem of citizenship, no registration of marriage and birth

Due to lack of agricultural land. people go to outer districts for work

Sexual harassment by the army in phaparbari

Problem in consultation to LRP and CM

Even after the vocational training,women are not being able to start business due
to lack of financial support

Problem in financial calculation to the women who are engaged in ghumti
business
Due to early marriage in tamang community, problem of reproductive health
occours

Did not get citizenship in the name of mother

Only male's name in the Land ownership certificate.



Laligurans women discussion center

Sasu bit jwai

PVSE women can't get timber from CF although there is provision of 35% budget
allocation to PVSE and women, Now she is about to migrate to slum in another
district- Raigaun

A woman who was selected for sewing and cutting training and participated for
some days but she dropped out, no continuation



Nawalparasi

Ethnic/caste untaouchability

Darainage to Dalit community

Dalits settlements are near to Patel, high risk of fire (Rich would light fire to their
land where dalits live, dalits control fire for in daytime but they light fire in night
too, which created fear to dalits)

Rich people are using public land

Problem of uterus prolapse

Dowry problem

Women's voices are not cared on VDC

Complete
Caste Untouchability ( Harijan, Dom, mushar )

Land adhar paper

The drain water has been discrete to the dalit settlement

All public land occupied by the rich people

Uterine prolapse problem

Dowry problem

No hearing of the VDC women

Toilet problem

Money required for birth registration

Biasness between son and daughter

Blame of being bitch

Doctors are not present in the health posts so nurses do the treatments

problem of drinking habits of male

lack of irrigation

Child marriage

ghumto pratha

Children deprived of education

Even after several years of marriage, it is not registered.

Low wages

Lack of drinking water

Lack of food grain in dalit community

Transportation problem
Chitwan

Unequal and low wage

Electricity (installment meter box)

Community forestry

Public land and barren land

Drainage

Paddy cover

Women violence and domestic violence

Citizenship

Birth registration

Marriage certificate

Sanitation and toilet

Drinking water

Primary health center's services

Irrigation

Untouchability

Gambling (juwa tas)

Attack from wild animals in buffer zone

Uterus prolapsed

Scholarship

No access and control on forest
Unsafe sexual relationship and illegal child birth

Migration for safe settlement

Multiple marriages

Road construction

Accusing witch

Difficult to interact and facilitation with VDC level stakeholders

Passive paralegal committee

Difficult to adopt sewing cutting skills as profession on due to support
school is far from settlement

Lack of information on laws and rights against GBV to CM and LRPs

Group Discussion and Presentation

Issues

Domestic violence against women



Causes

Male are engaged in gambling, liquor which has increased the violence against
women.

Women are forced to make liquor out of the food grains

The workload of house is more on women

Male lose all the money in gambling therefore women do not get to use the
money for household

According to upex women work 18 hours in household and farm but male rest for
8-12 hours.
Due to the household women dont get chance to get out of office

Women dont have control and ownership on the property

women are unknown about the policy and legal information .




Issues

Effects of khahare in the settlement

causes

Open grazing

Deforestation

cutting down of khoriya

afforestration not done

afforested plants flooded away.

forest put on fire in an uncontrolled way

yearly soil erosion causes loss of fertility



Issue

High interest rates

Causes

Hard to join hand to mouth without doing labor

The production from own land is only enough for 3-6 months

low wages
High interest rates on loan from the landlords (5 %)

Not receiving wages on time

Taking amounts of loan from the landlords and use it in extravagates.



Then the participants are divided in various groups according to their district and
allocated responsibility to discuss on the issues and its causes.

Makwanpur

S.N.     Issues                                             Causes

1        VAW

2        Violation of women's reproductive rights

3        Effects on settlements through flood

4        High interest rate

5        No implementation of poor focused forest
         policy

6        Lack of good governance practice in community
         forestry



Among above issues, two major issues are no.6 and no. 2.

Women's reproductive right is important is:

       Males don't want to cure uterus prolapsed of wife/females

       Males said that they would get marriage next, if she dies

Health services providers are not responsible to deliver services where there is
lack of awareness on health facilities like-immunization, iron foliate, vitamin A etc.
Advocacy for services to be delivered through service providers

Awareness to local people, both males and females




Chitwan:

S.N.    Issues                                            Causes

1       Community Forestry:

        Participation

        Transparency

2       Unequal and low pay

3       Electricity (meter box)

4       VAW and domestic violence

5       Buffer zone- no presence of local community's
        participation in conservation and utilization

6       No access to barren land and public land

7       Women's Reproductive rights violation

8       Safe settlement shifting

9       Good governance of community forestry

Major 2 issues: 6 and 8.

Nawalparasi:
S.N.    Issues                                                Causes

1       No baseline document of settlement to PVSE
        women who are living in public land

2       Drainage directed to dalit settlement

3       Dowry system

4       No participation in village council

5       VAW

6       No marriage registration and no citizenship
        certificates

7       Lighting fire in the field near to dalit settlement

8       Dowry, Ghumto,

9       Reproductive rights violation- Child marriage

10      Barren land and public land

Among above issues major 2 issues are: 8, 9.

Group Discussion

S.N.    Issues                                                District

1       Reproductive rights violation                         Makwanpur

2       Deprivation of PVSE women from CF benefit
        sharing

3       Child marriage                                        Nawalparasi

4       Dowry, Ghumto,

5       No access of PVSE to barren land and public           Chitwan
         land

6        Lack of participation and transparency of PVSE
         in Bufferzone community forestry



Game: kam, bichar, fer no

This game shows the team work

It gives the information that we need to be clever on the issue.

Division of responsibility

Discussion on the process of advocacy in plenary

Identification of issues-------------------- prioritization of issues---------------analysis of
current status and expected condition/position---------------review of policies-------
identify stakeholders------strategy formation--------------------improvement in
strategy-------------preparation of advocacy plan----------------------- pass the plan in
group----------------------implementation---------------monitoring and evaluation-------
--------feed back to the plan.

There are four agents (stakeholders):

       We                    neutral

       Helper                       Opposition

Identify opponents, helper, and neutral.

We need to widen our coverage on the issues.

Discussion

How do you identify the stakeholders who are against, who are supporting?
After identifying issues, who are against our movement, who can be our
supporter and who are neutral, then communicate with supporter and plan to
influence neutral.

It is most important to list out the beneficial groups, opponents, neutrals, and
supporter and discuss with beneficiaries. If the plan is leak without concluding, it
would be challenging.

While you talk about issues, beneficiaries will cry remembering the pain.

Beneficiaries will internalize the issue and go for the advocacy collectively.



Discussion on the issues as allocated to:

Women's health--------------Nawalparasi

Deprivation of PVSE women from benefit sharing of Community forest---------------
-Makwanpur

Lack of participation of PVSE women and transparency in Buffer zone community
forestry-----------------Chitwan

The work should focus on:

Categorization of issues (policy formation, implementation or revision)

Fix the goal

Analysis of policies

Stakeholders analysis (for, against, neutral and opposite)

Strategy development



Nawalparasi

Discussion on presentation:
Due to lack of policy documents, unable to review available legal provisions

About 90% cases are under child marriage under Shakti programme area. The
baseline data is estimated as an example from out residents.

Total groups--- 79, 1700 households in Nawalparasi, Shakti project area.

Estimation should be reliable, should be based on any of statistical (data) sources
which is not necessarily data gathered by other agencies.

It is required gather reliable information which is challenging in the case of age
wise data.

Technically objectives and strategies should be to some extent different, but in
the presentation it seems somehow similar.

How to fix goal based on objectives as well as use of words.

The words should be suitable to the local context rather concentrating words.

Makwanpur

Issue - deprived PVSE women from opportunities and resources allocation from
CF.

Goal:

Objectives

Budget should be allocated to PVSE women

Women should be in decision making level

The budget should be allocated for the livelihood



Policy review

35% budget should be allocated to PVSE and women,
50 women participation, inclusive executive committee,

Either president or secretary must be women,

Woman must be in account operation.

Discussion:

While formulating, strategies and objectives we need to focus on implementation
of existing policy/forest guidelines.

If we are going to implement CF guidelines, why not issue be effective
implementation of CF guidelines.

It would be changed as it requires, with the targeted groups.

Chitwan

Issues: Transparency and participation of women in buffer zone community
forestry

Goal:

Objectives:

        Equitable representation of CCGGVA



Policy review:

35% budget should be allocated to PVSE and women,

50 women participation, inclusive executive committee,

Either president or secretary must be women,

Woman must be in account operation.

Discussion:

The representation of should specify who should be participated
Transparency is essential while we talk about representation

We need to analyze existing situation of buffer zone CF and review policies, if
policy is addressing the problem, focus on implementation.

This training objects to give skills on advocacy but the context may differ which
determines the strategies and process.



7. Closing:
   Vote of Thanks:

   At the end of the programme the organizor had provided hand outs of the training for texual
   support. All the participants had prpared their own individual plan of action to prepare
   advocacy plan of action in their own field. At last, all the particitants were thanked for their
   active participation and expected to its implementation in action. The participants were
   provided to fill up information regarding community forestry, leasehold forestry as well as
   informaion about barren public lands. During that time PAO had guided to fill up the form
   with information.



8. Challenges
      Co-ordination among HIMAWANTI - Nepal and other partner organizations as well as
       Care Nepal became a challenge. It is because the programme is overlapped in same time
       with Shakti PMT meeting and partner's programmes.

      Ownership of the programme remained a great challenge. According to project
       document, partner organizations should take such programme as their own planned
       work/activity but in reality it is not found.



9. Suggestions
      Need to feel such programmes as own programme because all the partners are member of
       Shakti.

      Care Nepal should give importance to such activities.

    Pre-programme discussion would be better than exposing idea in the mid of programme.
       It would create environment of respect and trust.
                                                                                              Annex-1

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                                                                                                 JolQmx?
gfdM dfof ;xgL
uf=lj=;=M kfNxL
qm=;+= lqmofsnfk                      slxn]        ;xof]u            s;/L             ;xeflu
!        Pn=cf/=kL=;+u tflndsf        h]7 @)       Pn=cf/=kL=        a}7s a;]/        Pn=cf/=kL=
         l;sfO{sf] af/]df hfgsf/L     ut];Dd
         cfbfg k|bfg
@        :yfgLo ;jfnx?sf] klxrfg /    h]7 @% ut]   Pn=cf/=kL         5nkmn u/]/       Pn=cf/=kL= /
         k}/jLsf nflu ;jfn lgwf{/0f   leqdf                                           ;fdflhs kl/rfns
                                                   / uf=lj=;=sf
                                                   cGo JolQm
#        k}/jL of]hgf lgdf{0f         c;f/ @ ut]   Pn=cf/=kL         a}7s a;]/        Pn=cf/=kL=,
                                      ;Dddf                                           ;dflhs kl/rfns /
                                                   / sfo{qmd
                                                                                      sfo{qmd
                                                   clws[t
                                                                                      clws[t
$        k}/jL of]hgf sfof{Gjog       c;f/ b]lv    Pn=cf/=kL=,       uf=lj=;=sf cGo   ;d'xsf
                                      lg/Gt/       ;fdflhs kl/rfns   JolQm,Nsa, ;+3   lbbLalxgL tyf
/ ;d'bfo   ;+:yf;+u ;dGjo u/]/   cGo JolQmx?
                          k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

                                                                                                                                        Annex- 2

       r'/] If]qsf ljkGg dlxnfx?sf] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/sf nflu ;zlQms/0f sfo{qmd
       >f]tdflysf] clwsf/, kx'+r / lgoGq0f clej[l4sf nflu k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; tflnd
lb   *M)) – !)M))                               !)M!% – !@M))                                !M)) – #M))                           #M!% – %M))
g

!                                               kl/rofTds ;q                                 ;fem]bf/x?sf]                         k|fs[lts >f]t dfly
                                                                                             ;+:yfut hfgsf/L                       u|fld0f dlxnfsf]
                                                ;xeflu kl/ro
                                                                                             cfbfgk|bfg                            clwsf/
                                                tflndsf] kl/ro, p2]Zo /                      HIMAWANTI NEPAL
                                                                                                                                   jg ;DjGwL clwsf/
                                                ljifoj:t'
                                                                                             INDRENI
                                                                                                                                   kfgL ;DjGwL
                                                tflndsf] d"NodfGotf                          NRUSEC
                                                                                                                                   clwsf/
                                                                                             NSSK
                                                                                                                                   e"ld ;DjGwL
                                                                                                                                   clwsf/

@ zlQm sfo{qmd /                                ljsf;sf] kl/ro / ljsf;f]Gd'v                 ljsf; ;DjGwL                          ;fdflhs ;+/rgf /
     ul/jLsf] ;Gbe{ ljZn]if0f                   b]zx?df ePsf ljsf;]                          cjwf/0ffx?                            zlQm ;DjGw
                                                k|of;x?sf] ;ldIff
     sfo{qmdsf] nIo                                                                          /fxtd"vL ljsf;                        ljZn]if0ff
     /p2]Zo                                     ljsf;sf] kl/ro
                                                                                             ;'wf/d"vL ljsf;                       ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?sf]
     ;dflhs ;+/rgf /                            g]kfnL ;dfhdf ePsf]                                                                kl/ro
                                                ljsf; k|of; j'emfO{jf/]                      clwsf/d"vL ljsf;
     ul/jLsf] ;Gbe{                                                                                                                ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?df
                                                cEof;                                        u|fld0f dlxnfx?sf]
     ul/jL Go"lgs/0fsf                                                                                                             zlQm ;DjGw
                                                zlQm sfo{qmdn]                               ljsf;df kx'+r /                       ljZn]if0f
     nflu ePsf k|of;x? /
                                                hf]8 lbg vf]lhPsf]                           lgoGq0f
     cjsf] af6f]
                                                ljsf;sf kIfx?

#    k}/jLsf] cy{ / cf}lrTo                     k}/jLsf r/0fx?                               ;jfn klxrfg / ljZn]if0f               ;jfnsf] 5gf}6, gLlt
                                                                                                                                   lgodsf] ljZn]if0f / nIo
     k}/jLsf] cy{                               k}/jLsf r/0fx?sf jf/]df                      ;d:of / ;jfn jLrsf]                   lgwf{/0f
                                                cg'ej cfbfgk|bfg                             km/s
     k}/jL s] xf] / s]                                                                                                             ;jfnsf] 5gf}6
                                                                                             sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo
                                                                               Lunch Break




                                                                                                                       Tea Break




     xf]O{g                                     k}/jL rqjf/] hfgsf/L
                                    Tea Break




                                                                                             cg';f/ ;+:yfut ?kdf                   gLltlgodsf]


                                                                  62
                                lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

    jgjsfntsf] p2]Zo /                                                   ;jfnx?sf] klxrfg                 ljZn]if0f
    cfjZoQmf
                                                                                                          k}/jLsf] nflu nIo
                                                                                                          lgwf{/0f

$   nlIft ju{, ;xof]uL, t6:y /       k}/jLsf] nflu ;xof]uL               k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?                 ;~rf/ k}/jL
    lj/f]lwx?sf] ljZn ]if0f          ;d'x / ;~hfnsf] lgdf{0f
                                                                         k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?sf]              k}/jLdf ;~rf/sf]
    nlIft ju{, ;xof]uL,              ;xof]uL ;d'xsf]                     kl/ro                            cfjZoQmf / dxTj
    t6:y / lj/f]lwx? klxrfg          cfjZoQmf
                                                                         k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?sf]              ;~rf/ k}/jLsf
    x/]s kIfsf] zlQm                 c;n ;xof]uL ;d'xsf                  ljZn]if0f / 5gf}6                kmfO{bfx?
    ljZn]if0f                        u'0fx?
                                                                                                          ;~rf/ k}/jLdf
                                     ;xof]uL ;d'x /                                                       dfWodx?sf] 5gf}6
                                     ;~hfnjLr leGgtf

%   k}/jL of]hgf lgdf{0f             k}/jL of]hgf                        sfo{of]hgf tof/L /               ;dfkg
=                                    sfof{Gjog, cg'udg /                 ;dfkg
    k}/jL of]hgf
                                     d"Nof+sg
    lgdf{0fsf] kl/ro /                                                   tflndsf] l;sfO{
    dxTj                             k}/jL of]hgf                        sfof{Gjog of]hgf
                                     sfof{Gjog
    k}/jL of]hgf lgdf{0f                                                 tflnd d"Nof+sg
    vfsf                             k}/jL of]hgf cg'udg /
                                     d"Nof+sg kl/ro /
    k}/jL of]hgf lgdf{0f
                                     k|lqmof
    cEof;




                                                               63
                             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                   k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

                                                                                                  Annex- 3
List of participants




                                                         64
                       lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

                                                                                                                 Annex- 4
      Training Handouts (distributed)

      r'/] If]qsf ul/j, hf]lvddf k/]sf, ;fdflhs ?kn] k5fl8 kfl/Psf dlxnfx?sf] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/sf nflu ;zlQms/0f

      -zlQm_ sfo{qmd

      k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd

      tflndsf p2]Zox?M of] tflndsf] cGt;Dddf ;xefuLx? lgDg s'/fx?df ;Ifd x'g]5g\ .

      zlQm sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx?n] ;+rfng u/]sf sfo{qmdx?sf] jf/]df cf–cfkm\gf] cg'ej
      cfbfgk|bfg ug{.

      sfo{qmd If]qdf /x]sf] ul/jLsf] cj:yfnfO{ ljZn]if0f ub}{ ul/jL Go"lgs/0fsf nflu ePsf k|of;x?sf] n]vfhf]vf
      ug{ .

      ljsf;sf] kl/ro / ljljw cjwf/0ffx?sf] jf/]df t'ngfTds ljj]rgf ug{ .

      ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?sf jf/]df kl/lrt x'+b} oL jLrdf /x]sf] cGt/ ;DjGwsf] ljZn]if0ffTds n]vfhf]vf ug{ .

      k}/jLsf] kl/ro, cjwf/0ff / cf}hf/x?sf] jf/]df :ki6 e}}{ o;sf x/]s r/0fx?sf] ;+:yfut ?kdf cEof; ug{ .

      k}/jL r/0fx?sf] cfwf/df ;xefuLtfd'ns 5nkmnsf] dfWodaf6 ;+:yfut ?kdf k}/jL of]hgf tof/ u/L cf–
      fkm\gf] sfo{If]qdf sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|ltj4tf hfx]/ ug{ .

lb *M)) – !)M))                   !)M!% – !@M))                          !M)) – #M))                      #M!% – %M))
g

!   d sf] x'F <                   ;fem]bf/x?sf] ;+:yfut                  k|fs[lts ;|f]t dfly              zlQm sfo{qmd /
                                  hfgsf/L cfbfgk|bfg                     u|fld0f dlxnfsf]                 ul/jLsf] ;Gbe{
                                                                         clwsf/                           ljZn]if0f
                                  HIMAWANTI NEPAL
                                                                         jg ;DjGwL clwsf/                 sfo{qmdsf] nIo
                                  INDRENI                                                                 /p2]Zo
                                                                         kfgL ;DjGwL
                                  NRUSEC                                 clwsf/                           ;fdflhs ;+/rgf /
                                  WOSEC                                                                   ul/jLsf] ;Gbe{
                                                                         e"ld ;DjGwL
                                                                         clwsf/                           ul/jL Go"lgs/0fsf
                                                                                                          nflu ePsf k|of;x?
                                                                   ศืแ พำฟำ




                                                                                                          / cjsf] af6f]



                                                               65
                             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                         k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

@ ljsf;sf] kl/ro /                  ;fdflhs ;+/rgf / zlQm                k}/jLsf] cy{ /                  ;'zf;g / k}/jLsf]
  ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx?df               ;DjGw ljZn]if0f                      cf}lrTo                         cGt/;DjGw
  ePsf ljsf;]
                                    ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?sf]                  k}/jLsf] cy{                    ;'zf;gsf] kl/ro /
  k|of;x?sf] ;ldIff
                                    kl/ro                                                                o;sf cfwf/:tDex?
                                                                         k}/jL s] xf] / s]
    ljsf;sf] kl/ro
                                    ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?df                   xf]O{g                          ;'zf;g / k}/jLsf]
    ljsf; ;DjGwL                    zlQm ;DjGw ljZn]if0f                                                 cGt/;DjGw
                                                                         k}/jLsf] p2]Zo /
    cjwf/0ff
                                                                         cfjZoQmf
    zlQm sfo{qmdn]
    hf]8 lbg
    vf]lhPsf]ljsf;sf
    kIfx?

#   k}/jLsf r/0fx?                  ;jfn klxrfg / ljZn]if0f              ;jfnsf] 5gf}6, gLlt             nlIft ju{, ;xof]uL,
                                                                         lgodsf] ljZn]if0f /             t6:y / lj/f]lwx?sf]
    k}/jLsf r/0fx?sf                ;d:of / ;jfn jLrsf]
                                                                         nIo lgwf{/0f                    ljZn ]if0f
    jf/]df cg'ej                    km/s
    cfbfgk|bfg                                                           ;jfnsf] 5gf}6                   nlIft ju{, ;xof]uL,
                                    sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo
                                                                                                         t6:y / lj/f]lwx?
    k}/jL rqmjf/]                   cg';f/ ;+:yfut ?kdf                  gLltlgodsf]
                                                                                                         klxrfg
    hfgsf/L                         ;jfnx?sf] klxrfg                     ljZn]if0f
                                                                 Lunch Break
                             Tea Break




                                                                                                  Tea Break
                                                                                                         x/]s kIfsf] zlQm
                                                                         k}/jLsf] nflu nIo
                                                                                                         ljZn]if0f
                                                                         lgwf{/0f

$   k}/jLsf] nflu                   k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?                     ;~rf/ k}/jL                     k}/jL of]hgf
    ;xof]uL ;d'x /                                                                                       lgdf{0f
                                    k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?sf]                  k}/jLdf ;~rf/sf]
    ;~hfnsf] lgdf{0f
                                    kl/ro                                cfjZoQmf / dxTj                 k}/jL of]hgf
    ;xof]uL ;d'xsf]                                                                                      lgdf{0fsf] kl/ro /
                                    k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?sf]                  ;~rf/ k}/jLsf
    cfjZoQmf                                                                                             dxTj
                                    ljZn]if0f / 5gf}6                    kmfO{bfx?
    c;n ;xof]uL ;d'xsf                                                                                   k}/jL of]hgf
                                                                         ;~rf/ k}/jLdf
    u'0fx?                                                                                               lgdf{0f vfsf
                                                                         dfWodx?sf] 5gf}6
    ;xof]uL ;d'x /                                                                                       of]hgf lgdf{0f
    ;~hfnjLr leGgtf                                                                                      cEof;

    k}/jL /0fgLlt

                                                             66
                           lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                         k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

    lgdf{0f

% k}/jL of]hgf                  k}/jL of]hgf                        sfo{of]hgf tof/L                    tflnd d"Nof+sg /
= k|:t'lts/0f / lgrf]8          sfof{Gjog, cg'udg /                                                     ;dfkg
                                                                    tflndsf] l;sfO{
                                d"Nof+sg
                                                                    sfof{Gjog of]hgf                    tflndsf]
                                k}/jL of]hgf                                                            d"Nof+sg
                                sfof{Gjog
                                                                                                        tflnd ;dfkg
                                cg'udg / d"Nof+sg




                                                             67
                           lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

;fd'bflos jgsf] dd{

hg;xefuLtf ljgf jgsf] ljsf; ;+ej gx'g] k|of]ufTds cEof; kl5 jg If]qdf ;d'bfosf] k|ToIf ;+nUgtfsf]
k|of; ePsf] xf] . @)#% ;fndf k~rfot dfkm{t hg;xefuLtf u/fpg] /0fgLlt c;kmn eP kZrft @)$!
;fndf u7g ePsf] jg ljsf; u'?of]hgf lgdf{0f sfo{bnn] @)$%/@)$^;fndf jg ljsf; u'?of]hgf tof/
u¥of] . ljleGg :yfgdf ;d'bfo4f/f Joj:yfkg u/]sf] jgsf] x}l;otdf Jofks ;'wf/ ePsf] kIfnfO{
cWoog cjnf]sg ub}{ :yflgo ;d'bfo tyf jg lj1x?sf] k/fdz{df tof/ ePsf] jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfn]
;d'bfo dfq jgsf c;n Joj:yfks x'g ;Sb5g\ eGg] kIfnfO{ hf]8 lbPsf]5 . jg ljgf; /f]Sg tyf jg
ljsf;sf] k|d'v ljsNksf] ?kdf ^ j6f k|fylds sfo{qmdx? lgwf{/0f ul/ ;f] sfof{Gjog ug{ ;/sf/nfO{
lgb]{zg u/]sf] 5 . k|fylds sfo{qmd dWo]sf] klxnf] k|fyldstf k|fKt sfo{qmd ;fd'bflos jg xf] .
TotLv]/sf] k|d'v k|fyldstfsf] ljifo jgsf] ljgf;nfO{ /f]Sg' lyof] / ;fydf jgsf] dfWodjf6 cfd
pkef]Qmf ljz]if ul/ sdhf]/ ju{sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg] s'/fnfO{ klg k|d'vtfsf ;fy x]l/Psf] lyof] .
jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfn] ljsf;sf $ cfwf/x? lgwf{/0f u/]sf] lyof] . ljz]if ul/ jg If]jf6 cfwf/e't
cfjZoQmfsf] k"/f ug'{ kg]{, jg ;Dkbfsf] lg/Gt/ ;b'kof]u, nfe tyf lg0f{o k|lqmofdf hg;xefuLtf
tyf jg If]qsf] dfWodjf6 pkef]Qmfsf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs pGgtLsf] ljifonfO{ k|d'v kIfsf] ?kdf
lnPsf] lyof] .

jg ljsf; u'?of]hgf nfu' eP kZrft g]kfnsf] jg If]qn] Ps lsl;dsf] sfFr'nL km]/]sf] b]lvG5 . jg ljsf;
u'?of]hgfn] lnPsf] gLltsf] sf/0f jg pkef]Qmf, jg sd{rf/L tyf gLlt lgdf{tfx?sf] ;s/fTds
b[li6sf]0f tyf cleofgn] jg If]qsf] ?kfGt/0f ePsf] kfO{G5 . ;fd'bflos jgsf] dd{nfO{ ljZn]if0f
ug]{ xf] eg] ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] ;+:yfut ;'zf;g, jgsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg, lhljsf]kfh{g
k|d'v ljifox? x'g\ eg] ;fd'bflos jgsf] dfWojf6 ;fdflhs Gofosf] kIfdf cleofg ;~rfng ul/ l;h{glzn
;dfhsf] l;h{gf ug'{ klg xf] .

jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfn] ul/j tyf ljkGg ju{sf] klxrfg / pgLx?sf] cfly{s :yLtL ;'b[9 ug]{ cleofgx?
;~rfng ug'{ kg]{, ;fd'bflos jgsf] k|fyldstf k|fKt vf; pkef]Qmf ul/j tyf ljkGg hf] jg;Fu
;DjGwL5g\ pgLx?sf] cu|flwsf/ sfod x'g' kg]{ h:tf kIfx?nfO{ :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
;fd'bflos jg sfo{qmd geP/ cleofgsf] ?kdf ;~rfng e}/x]sf] 5 . To;sf/0f ;fd'bflos jgsf] vf; dd{
sdhf]/ ju{sf] lglDt >f]tx?sf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng ug'{ xf] . ;fd'bflos jg cleofg cfkm}df cJjn bhf{sf]
nf]stGqsf] cEof; e} ;'zflzt cj:yfdf cfkm\gf clefogx? ;~rfng ul/g' kb{5 . cfjZos kIfsf]
;xefuLtf ;lxtsf] cfd;xdtLsf] lg0f{o k|lqmof, ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t lqmofsnfk, kf/blz{ ;+:yfut
k|0ffnL, hjfkmb]xL g]t[Tj tyf ljZj:gLotf h:tf kIfx? ;fd'bflos jgsf] d"n dd{ xf] .

;d'bfosf] rfxfgf, cfjZostf / x}l;ot cg';f/ ;d'bfo leq /x]sf sdhf]/ ju{ ;Ddfghg kxF'r clwsf/ sfod
x'Fb} ;j}sf] ;r]tgf ;lxtsf] ;Dk"0f{ >f]tsf] kl/rfng g}+ ;fd'bflos jgsf] d"n dd{ xf] . h'g ;d"xdf
cfkm' leqsf ljkGgx? klxrfg ul/ pgLx?sf] x}l;ot Ifdtfdf cfwfl/t of]hgf h'g ljkGgx?n] g}+
jgfPsf] ;d"xsf] >f]t kl/rfng x'g] kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; ul/Psf] 5}g To:tf ;d"x ;fd'bflos jg xf]O{g
eGbf cTo"QmL x'b}g . jt{dfg cj:yfdf ;fd'bflos jg leqsf s]lx l;ldt 6f7fjf7fsf] xflnd'xfnL /x]sf] /
ljkGg ju{nfO{ yk c;lhnf] jgfPsf pbfx/0fx? klg 5g To:tf ;d"x ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"x x'g
;Sb}g . To:tf s]lx ;fd'bflos jg jf s]lx JolQmsf] sf/0f ;du| ;fd'bflos jg cleofg k|lt g}+ k|Zgjfrs

                                                        68
                      lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

lrGx v8f ePsf] 5 . To:tf] lrGx cfpg' c:jefljs xf]O{g . ;fd'bflos jgsf lxdfotLx?n] o; jf/]df j]n}df
;r]t e} cfjZostf cg';f/ cleofg ;~rfng ug'{ ckl/xfo{ e};s]sf]5 .

b]zsf] /fhgLlts 36gfqmdn] ;d]t ;fd'bflos jg cleofg kl/:s[t Pj+ cg's/l0fo cleofg l;4 ePsf] 5 .
jg >f]t dfly ;d'bfosf] cu|flwsf/, sdhf]/ ju{sf clwsf/ ;'/Iffsf] Uof/]G6L h:tf nf]stGq cJjn kIfx?
xfd|f] ;fd'bflos jgdf klxnf g}+ :yflkt dfGotfx? x'g\ . tL dfGotf jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfn] @)$^ ;fndf
cfTd;ft ul/;s]sf] 5 . o; cy{df klg eGg' kbf{ ;fd'bflos jg cleofg b]zsf] /fhgLlts 36gfqmdx?sf]
;f]r eGbf klg cu|ufdL ;f]rdf cfwfl/t lyof] . jf:tjdf eGg' kbf{ jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfn] lglb{i6 u/]sf]
jf6f]df dfq klg xfd|f] ;fd'bflos jg cleofgnfO{ 8f]¥ofpg ;s]df /fi6«sf] nflu ;d]t ;fd'bflos jgsf]
ct'nlgo of]ubfg x'g;S5 . jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfsf s]lx d"Vo kIfx? jS;f x]/f}+ .
                 jg ljsf; u'?of]hgfdf pNn]v ePsf dxTjk"0f{ s]lx j'Fbfx?

     1.  hgtfsf] Go"gtd\ cfwf/e't cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ ePsf] v08df dfq zflGt z'/Iff h:tf /fli6«o
         ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/ sfod x'g ;Sb5 .
     2. pTkfbg IfdtfnfO{ gljufl/sg plrt ;+/If0fsf ;fy a'l4dtfk"0f{ Joa:yfkg / pkof]u ug{ ;s]df
         dfq jg ;Dkbfn] b]zbnfO{ lg/Gt/ ;3fp k'¥ofO/xg ;Qm5g\ .
     3. lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/sf] cTolws s]lGb|s/0fn] hgtfsf] cfTdljZjf; / pT;fxnfO{ wSsf
         k'¥ofp“5 .
     4. hg :t/df /x]sf cufw >f]t / zlQmnfO{ ;fd'bflos jg ljsf; sfo{qmd dfkm{t ;[hgfTds
         Joa:yfkg sfo{df kl/rfng ug{ ;lsG5 .
     5. jg ;Dkbfdf lge{/ /xg] pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] tx;Dd lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ k'Uof] eg]
         pgLx?af6 ePsf lg0f{ox? sfo{d"ns x'g] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 .
     6. b]zsf jg ;Dkbfx?sf] ;ttM ljsf; ug]{ d"n sl8 g} pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] lg0f{o ug]{ / nfef+;
         lx:;]bf/ x'g kfpg] x'g' xf] .
     7. Go"gtd cfw/e't cfjZostfx? k'/f eP/ klg hLjg :t/ p7fpg] cj;/ ePg eg] b]zsf] zflGt /
         cdgr}g vNalng ;Qm5 .
     8. ;dfhdf lg/k]If u/Lljdf /x]sf ;d"xnfO{ ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg' kb{5 .
     9. vfgf / jg lgodfjnL, bfp/f, df ePsf sf7, j:t'efpsf]
jg P]g, @)$(ksfpgsf] lglDt @)%! 3/ agfpg k|d'v ljifox? lglDt :ofpnf / :jf:Yosf] lglDt
         hl8a'6Lx? k|fyldstf k|fKt pTkfbgx? x'g\ .
     10. @)$( df /x]sf h+unsf] Joa:yfkg hg;xefuLtfaf6} ul/g]5
-jg P]g, ufp“n]sf] glhssf;fd'bflos jg ;DaGwL sfg"gL Aoj:yfx?_ .
     11. lgMz'Ns bfp/f / :ofpnf a6'Ng] k/Dk/fut xsnfO{ hgtfs} lg0f{o / Joa:yfkg
         of]hgfx?jf6 JoaL:yt ul/g]5 .
     12. jf:tljs pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ g} jg ;+/If0f / Joa:yfkgsf] lhDdf nufO{ ;fd'bflos jgsf]
         –%
kl/R5]b k|jw{g ug]{ .
     13. 3/fo;L b}lgs lg0f{ox? jf:tjdf dlxnfx?n] g} ug]{ x'“bf vf; ul/ To:tf dlxnfx? / c?
           jg;DjGwL Joj:yf
;fd'bflosbfp/]x?sf] ;d]tsf] ljZjf; lhTg k|rf/k|;f/ sfo{df hf]8 lbg] . pkef]Qmf ;ldtLx?df Ps
         ltxfO{ dlxnf ;b:o /fVg] .
     14. u/La tyf ;'s'Djf;L hgtfx?nfO{ jg ;DjGwL sfo{4f/f lhljsf]kfh{g ug{ lbg] .
     15. cfwf/e"t cfjZoQmf / ljs]lGb|s/0f ;DjGwL gLlt cg';f/ lg0f{o ug{ nfef+z ljt/0f ug]{
         k|lqmof4f/f dlxnf e"ldlxg bfp/] h:tf vf; pkef]Qmfx?sf] lxtnfO{ hu]gf{ ul/g]5 .



jg P]g @)$( / jg lgodfjnL @)%! df ePsf ;fd'bflos jg ;DjGwL k|d"v JoJ:yfx?




                                                      69
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

@%= ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkg] M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d'xn] sfo{of]hgf adf]lhd jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/If0f,
pkof]u, Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf :jtGq ?kn] jg k}bfjf/sf] d"No lgwf{/0f u/L laqmL ljt/0f ug{ kfpg]
u/L lhNnf jg clws[tn] /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} efu t]flsP adf]lhd ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf pkef]Qmf
;d"xnfO{ ;'Dkg ;Sg]5 . To;/L ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkbf lhNnf jg clws[tn] ;fd'bflos jg x:tfGt/0fsf]
k|df0f–kq lbg]5 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu lhNnf jg clws[tn] pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ kl/rfng u/L tf]lsP
adf]lhd pkef]Qmf ;d'x u7g ug{ / sfo{ of]hgf tof/ ug{ cfjZos k|fljlws Pj+ cGo ;xof]u pknJw
u/fpg ;Sg]5 .

@^= sfo{ of]hgfdf ;+zf]wg M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jg Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL
sfo{of]hgfdf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;dofg's"n ;+zf]wg ug{ ;Sg]5 / To:tf] ;+zf]wgsf] hfgsf/L lhNnf jg
clws[tnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{ of]hgfdf u/]sf] ;+zf]wgn] jftfj/0fdf
pNn]vgLo k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ b]lvPdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] To:tf] ;+zf]wgsf] hfgsf/L k|FKt ePsf]
tL; lbgleq pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;f] ;+zf]wg nfu" gug{ lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg]5 / To:tf] lgb]{zgsf]
kfngf ug'{ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] st{Jo x'g]5 .

@&= ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] M -!_ bkmf @% adf]lhd ;'lDkPsf] ;fd'bflos jgdf
pkef]Qmf ;d'xn] sfo{ of]hgf adf]lhd sfo{ ;~rfng ug{ g;s]df jf jftfj/0fdf pNn]vgLo k|lts"n c;/
kg]{ s'g} sfo{ u/]df jf of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]lhd kfng ug'{ kg]{ zt{x? kfng
gu/]df lhNnf jg clws[tn] tf]lsP adf]lhd To:tf] pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf{ vf/]h ug{ / To:tf]
;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 .

      t/ To;/L pkef]Qmf ;d'xsf] btf{ vf/]h u/L ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug'{ cl3 To:tf]
pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ cfkm\gf] ;kmfO{ k]z ug]{ df}sf lbOg]5 .



-!=s_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] ;d'bfosf]
lxtsf] gfddf lawfg / sfo{of]hgf lakl/t s'g} sfd sf/jfxL u/]sf] egL pkef]Qmfsf] ph'/L k/]df To:tf
kbflwsf/LnfO{ o; P]g adf]lhd ;hfo x'g]51 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lhNnf jg clws[tn] u/]sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga'em\g] pkef]Qmf
;d"xn] tf]lsP adf]lhd If]qLo jg lgb]{zs ;dIf ph'/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . To:tf] ph'/Ldf If]qLo jg
lgb]{zsn] u/]sf] lg0f{o clGtd x'g]5 .




1
    klxnf] ;+zf]wg @)%% åf/f yk ul/Psf] .

                                                      70
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-#_ pkbkmf -!_ / -@_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?n]
;d'bfosf] lxtsf] gfddf of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod lakl/t s'g} sfd sf/jfxL u/]df
lghx?nfO{ o; P]g adf]lhd ;hfo ug{ afwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g2 .

@*= ;fd'bflos jg k'gM ;'Dkg ;lsg] M bkmf @& sf] pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lkmtf{ lnPsf]
;fd'bflos jg ;f]xL bkmfsf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd tT;DjGwL lg0f{o ab/ ePdf lhNnf jg clws[tn]
;fljss} pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ k'gM ;'Dkg' kg]{5 . To:tf] lg0f{o ;b/ ePdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] bkmf
@% adf]lhdsf] k|lqmof k"/f u/L pkef]Qmf ;d"x k'g{u7g u/L ;f] ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkg' kg]{5 .

@(= sfo{ of]hgf ljk/Lt sfd ug]{nfO{ x'g] ;hfoM ;fd'bflos jgdf s'g} pkef]Qmfn] sfo{ of]hgf
ljkl/t x'g] s'g} sfd u/]df lghnfO{ ;DjlGwt pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] pko'Qm ;hfo ug{ ;Sg]5 / s'g}
xfgL gf]S;fgL ePsf]df ljuf] ;d]t c;'n pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .

#)= ;fd'bflos jgnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{ M o; P]gdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg
;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;'Dkg' pko'Qm x'g] /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} klg efunfO{
sj'lnotL jgsf] ?kdf lbOg] 5}g\ .

#)s=;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;sf] nflu vr{ ug'{ kg]{M ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{ of]hgf
adf]lhd cfh{g u/]sf] cfoaf6 sDtLdf kRrL; k|ltzt /sd ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/If0f / Aoa:yfkg
sfo{df vr{ ug'{ kg]{5 / af“sL /sd cGo ljsf; sfo{sf] nflu vr{ ug{ ;Sg]53 .

kl/R5]b – (

pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] u7g;DjGwL Joj:yf



$!= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] u7g M ;fd'lxs lxtsf nflu s'g} jgsf] ljsf; / ;+/If0f ug{ tyf jg k}bfj/sf]
pkof]u ug{ rfxg] To:tf] jgsf] ;DalGwt pkef]Qmfx?n] tf]lsP adf]lhd pkef]Qmf ;d"x u7g ug{
;Sg]5g\ .

$@= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf{ M -!_ bkmf $! adf]lhd u7g ul/Psf] pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ btf{
u/fpg pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] ljwfg;lxt lhNnf jg clws[t ;dIf tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] 9f“rfdf b/vf:t lbg'
kg]{5 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] b/vf:t kg{ cfPdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] cfjZos hf“ra'em u/L To:tf]
pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ tf]lsP adf]lhd btf{ u/L tf]lsPsf] 9f“rfdf btf{sf] k|df0f–kq lbg' kg]{5 .




2
    klxnf] ;+zf]wg @)%% åf/f yk ul/Psf] .
3
     klxnf] ;+zf]wg @)%% åf/f yk ul/Psf] .

                                                      71
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-#_ jg P]g, @)!* cGtu{t sfo{ of]hgf adf]lhd ;fd'bflos jgsf] Joj:yfkg ul//x]sf pkef]Qmf
;d"xn] klg of] P]g k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] Ps jif{leq btf{sf] nflu pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd bvf{:t lbg'
kg]{5 .

-$_    pkbkmf -#_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu lhNnf jg clws[tn] cfjZos ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg ;Sg]5 .

$#= pkef]Qmf ;d"x ;+ul7t ;+:yf x'g] M -!_ bkmf $! adf]lhd ul7t pkef]Qmf ;d"x cljlR5Gg
pQ/flwsf/jfnf Ps :jzfl;t / ;+ul7t ;+:yf x'g]5 .

-@_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfkm\gf] Pp6f 5'§} 5fk x'g]5 .

-#_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] JolQm ;/x rn crn ;DklQ k|fKt ug{, pkef]u ug{, a]r lavg ug{ jf cGo
lsl;dn] aGbf]j:t ug{ ;Sg]5 .

-$_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] JolQm ;/x cfkm\gf] gfdaf6 gfln; ph'/ ug{ / ;f] pk/ klg ;f]xL gfdaf6
gfln; ph'/ nfUg ;Sg]5 .

$$= k|ltj]bg lbg' kg]{ M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] k|To]s jif{ cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq
tf]lsP adf]lhd cfly{s laa/0f tyf ;fd'bflos jgsf] l:ylt ;d]t v'nfO{ cfkm\gf] lqmofsnfksf] jflif{s
k|ltj]bg lhNnf jg sfof{no ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd k|fKt jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df lhNnf jg sfof{non] ;DjlGwt
pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ cfjZos ;'emfj lbg ;Sg]5 .



$%= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]if M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfkm\gf] Pp6f 5'§} sf]if x'g]5 .

-@_ sf]ifdf b]xfosf /sdx? hDdf ul/g]5 M–



 -s_ g]kfnaf6 k|fKt cg'bfg /sd,

-v_    s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yfaf6 k|fKt cg'bfg, ;xfotf jf bfg bftJosf] /sd,

-u_ jg k}bfjf/sf] laqmL lat/0faf6 k|fKt /sd,

-3_ hl/jfgfaf6 k|fKt /sd,

-ª_ cGo s'g} >f]taf6 k|fKt /sd .

-#_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] tkm{af6 ul/g] vr{ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] sf]ifaf6 Joxf]l/g] 5 .

-$_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;sf] lgldQ vr{u/L sf]ifdf af“sL /x]sf] /sd cGo ;fj{hlgs
lxtsf] sfo{df vr{ ug{ ;Sg]5 .

                                                     72
                   lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-%_ sf]ifsf] ;~rfng tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 .

kl/R5]b – !#

ljljw

^&= >L %sf] ;/sf/sf] e"–:jfldTj /xg]M o; P]g adf]lhdsf] ;fd'bflos jg, sa'lnotL jg tyf wfld{s
jg IF]qx/mdf g]kfnsf] e"–:jfldTj /xg]5 .

^*= jg k|of]u ug{ ;Sg]M -!_ o; P]gdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg /fli6«o k|fyldstf
k|fKt of]hgf ;~rfng ug{ jgsf] k|of]u ug'{ afx]s cGo s'g}klg ljsNk gePdf / To:tf] of]hgf
;+rfng ubf{ jftfj/0fdf pNn]vgLo k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{ ePdf To:tf] of]hgf ;~rfng ug{sf] lgldQ
g]kfnn] ;/sf/4f/f Jojl:yt jg, ;+/lIFt jg, ;fd'bflos jg, sa'lnotL jg jf wfld{s jgsf] s'g} efu k|of]u
ug{ :jLs[lt lbg ;Sg]5 .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd jgsf] k|of]u ug{ :jLs[lt lb+bf s'g} JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ s'g} xflg
gf]S;fgL x'g] ePdf g]kfnn] tT;DaGwdf pko'Qm Joj:yf u/L lbg' kg]{5 .

^(= k|fljlws ;xof]u lbg]M s'g} pkef]Qmf ;d"x, k§fjfnf, wfld{s lgsfo, ;d"x jf ;d'bfo jf lghL
jgsf] wgLn] ;fd'bflos jg, sa'lnotL jg wfld{s jg jf lghL jgsf] ljsf; / ;+/If0fsf] nfuL s'g} k|fljlws
;xof]u dfu u/]df ;DalGwt lhNnf jg clws[tn] To:tf] k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fO{ lbg ;Sg]5 .

&)= jg IF]qdf k|j]z lgif]wM -!_ jg ;+/If0fsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 cfjZos b]lvPdf tf]lsPsf] clws[tn]
/fli6«o jg jf ;+/lIFt jgsf] ;Dk"0f{ efu jf s'g} efudf lglZrt ;dosf] nflu ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L k|j]z
lgif]w ug{ ;Sg]5 .

t/ tf]lsPsf] clws[tn] tf]lslbPsf] af6f]af6 cfjt hfjt ug{ o;n] s'g} k|ltaGw nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .

-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lgif]w u/]sf] IF]qdf lgif]wf1f pNnª\3g u/L k|j]z ug]{nfO{ kf“r;o
/mk}of“;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps dxLgf;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 .

&!= c;n lgotn] sfd u/]sf]df arfpM o; P]gn] lbPsf] clwsf/sf] k|of]u c;n lgotn] u/]sf]df s'g}
klg ;/sf/L sd{rf/L JolQmut tj/n] pQ/bflo x'g]5}g .

&@= lgod agfpg] clwsf/M o; P]gsf ljleGg kl/R5]bdf pNn]lvt p2]Zo k"lt{ ug{sf] nfuL
g]kfnn] cfjZos lgodx/m agfpg ;Sg]5 .

&#= aflemPdf ug]{M of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf lgodx/mdf n]lvPsf]df ;f]xL adf]lhd /
c/mdf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 .




                                                      73
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




kl/R5]b – $

;fd'bflos jg

@^= ;fd'bflos jgsf] lgwf{/0fM -!_ lhNnf jg clws[tn] /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} efu pkef]Qmf
;d"xnfO{ ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf ;'Dkbf ufp“ a:tLaf6 h·nsf] b"/Lsf ;fy} jg Joj:yfkg ug]{ :yfgLo
pkef]Qmfx?sf] rfxgf / Joj:yfkg Ifdtf ;d]tnfO{ Wofg lbg' kg]{5 .

 -@_ /fli6«o jg If]qeGbf aflx/sf] ;fj{hlgs hUufdf :yfgLo pkef]Qmfx?n] jf c? s;}n] ?v la?jf
nufO{ ?v la?jfsf] ;+/If0f u/]sf] /x]5 eg] jf :yfgLo pkef]Qmfx?n] pkef]Qmf ;d"x u7g u/L
To:tf] hUufdf :jfldTj ePsf] ;+:yfsf] :jLs[lt lnO{ ;f]xL ;+:yfdf hUufsf] :jfldTj /xg] u/L ?v la?jf
nufpg rfx]df lhNnf jg clws[tn] ;f] jg If]qnfO{ ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf dfGotf lbg ;Sg]5 .

@&= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] u7g / btf{M -!_ ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf jg Joj:yfkg ug{ rfxg]
pkef]Qmfx?n] ;DjlGwt Onfsf jg sfof{no dfkm{t jf ;f]em} lhNnf jg clws[t ;dIf lnlvt ?kdf
lgj]bg lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhdsf] lgj]bg k|fKt ePdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] oyfzSo rf“8f] k|fljlws Pj+
cGo ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg k|fljlws sd{rf/LnfO{ ;DalGwt If]qdf v6fpg' kg]{5 .

-#_ pklgod -@_ adf]lhd vl6Psf sd{rf/Ln] :yfgLo lgsfo ;d]tsf] ;xof]u lnO{ pkef]Qmf ;d"x
u7g ug{ / To;sf] ljwfg tof/ ug{ pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;xof]u ug'{ kg]{5 . pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf]
ljwfgdf cGo s'/fx?sf] cltl/Qm cg';"rL–!! df pNn]lvt s'/fx?sf] ;DaGwdf Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'g'
kg]{5 .

-$_ pklgod -#_ adf]lhdsf] ljwfg tof/ ubf{ / ljwfg cg';f/sf] pkef]Qmf ;d"x u7g ubf{ j8f,
ufp“, gu/ tyf lhNnfsf] l;dfgfn] c;/ gkfg]{ u/L ;j{;Ddltsf] cfwf/df ug'{ kg]{5 .

-%_ pklgod -#_ adf]lhd klxrfg ePsf pkef]Qmfx?n] pklgod -$_ adf]lhd tof/ ePsf] ljwfgdf
pNn]v eP cg'?k ;Dk"0f{ pkef]Qmfx? /xg] u/L Ps pkef]Qmf ;d"x u7g u/L pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf]
ljwfg ;lxt cg';"rL–!@ adf]lhdsf] 9f“rfdf ;DalGwt Onfsf jg sfof{no dfkm{t jf ;f]em} lhNnf jg
sfof{nodf pkef]Qmf ;d"x btf{ u/fpg bvf{:t lbg' kg]{5 .

-^_ pklgod -%_ adf]lhdsf] bvf{:t lbg] pkef]Qmf ;d"x To;sf] ljwfg cg'?k u7g ePsf] b]lvg
cfPdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] To:tf] pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ btf{ u/L P]g, o; lgodfjnL tyf g]kfnn]
tf]lslbPsf] zt{x? kfng ug]{ sa'lnot u/fO{ cg';"rL–!# adf]lhdsf] 9f“rfdf k|df0f–kq lbg' kg]{5 .



@*= ;fd'bflos jgsf] sfo{of]hgfM -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] b]xfosf s'/fx? ;dfj]z u/L ;fd'bflos
jgsf] sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 M


                                                     74
                   lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                   k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-s_ jgsf] ljj/0fM gfd, l;dfgf, IF]qkmn, jgsf] cj:yf / jgsf] lsl;d,

-v_ jgsf] gS;f,

-u_ Ans ljefhg / o;sf] laa/0fM gfd, l;dfgf, If]qkmn, df]x8f, le/fnf]kg, df6f], jgsf] lsl;d, d'Vo
hft, pkof]uL hft, pd]/ tyf k|fs[lts k'g?Tkfbgsf] l:ylt,

-3_ jg Aoj:yfkgsf] p2]Zo,

-ª_ jg ;+/If0fsf] tl/sf,

-r_ jg ;Dj4{gsf sfo{x?–lylg·, k'|lg·, lSnlg· / cGo jg ;Da4{gsf sfo{x?,

-5_ g;{/L, j[Iff/f]k0f, cfod"ns sfo{qmd / ;do tflnsf,

-h_ h8La'6L v]tLsf] nflu ;DefJo If]qsf] ljj/0f, h8La'6Lsf hftL k|hftL, v]tLsf] sfo{qmd / ;do
tflnsf,

-em_ jg k}bfjf/sf] laqmL lat/0f / cGo >f]taf6 k|fKt x'g] cfDbfgLsf] pkof]u ;DaGwL Joj:y,

-`_ P]gsf] bkmf @( adf]lhd pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ x'g ;Sg] ;hfo ;DaGwL Joj:yf,

-6_ jGo hGt'sf] ;+/If0f ;DaGwL k|fjwfg,

-7_ laefun] tf]s]sf] cGo laifox? .

-@_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jgdf d'Vo jg k}bfjf/sf] 3gTj (crown cover) / pTkfbgdf Xf;
gcfpg] u/L cGg afnL afx]ssf nfdf] calw;Dd Pp6} af]6n] pTkfbg lbg] vfnsf gub] afnL
nufpg rfx]df ;f] ;DaGwL laa/0f sfo{of]hgfdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .

-#_ lhNnf jg clws[tn] o; lgod adf]lhd sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug{ ;DalGwt pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{
cfjZos k|fljlws P+j cGo ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg' kg]{5 .

@(= ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkg] k|s[ofM -!_ /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} efunfO{ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos
jgsf] ?kdf lng rfx]df cg';"rL–!$ adf]lhdsf] 9f“rfdf lhNnf jg clws[t ;dIf lgj]bg lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhd kg{ cfPsf] lgj]bg / pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z u/]sf]
sfo{of]hgf pk/ lhNnf jg clws[tn] cfjZos hf“rj'em u/L sfo{of]hgfdf yk36 ug'{ kg]{ ePdf
pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] ;xdlt lnO{ yk36 u/L :jLs[t ul/Psf] sfo{of]hgf adf]lhdsf] jg If]q ;fd'bflos
jgsf] ?kdf pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ g]kfnn] tf]s]sf] zt{x? kfng ug]{ sa'lnot u/fO{ ;fd'bflos jgsf]
?kdf ;'Dkg]5 . To;/L ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkbf cg';"rL – !% adf]lhdsf] k|df0f–kq klg ;DalGwt
pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/g]5 .

-#_     jg If]q ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf ;'Dk“bf ufp“, gu/ tyf lhNnfsf] l;dfgfn] c;/ kfg]{ 5}g .



                                                       75
                     lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-$_ ;fd'bflos jgsf] ?kdf ;'lDkg] jg If]q b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L lhNnf leq kg]{ ePdf h'g
lhNnfsf lhNnf jg clws[t ;dIf lgj]bg k/]sf] xf] lghn] cGo lhNnfsf lhNnf jg clws[tsf] ;xdlt lnO{
;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkg ;Sg]5 .

-%_ pklgod -@_ / -$_ adf]lhd ;'lDkPsf] ;fd'bflos jgsf] cg'udg tyf d"Nof°g ;DalGwt
lhNnfsf lhNnf jg clws[tn] ug'{ kg]{5 .



#)= ;fd'bflos jgsf] nut /fVg]M lhNnf jg clws[tn] lgod @( adf]lhd pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{
;fd'bflos jg ;'lDkPkl5 ;f]sf] nut cfkm\gf] sfof{nodf /fvL To;sf] Ps–Ps k|lt ljefu tyf ;DalGwt
If]qLo jg sfof{nodf k7fpg' kg]{5 .

#!= ;fd'bflos jgdf ug{ gx'g] sfdM -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jgdf sfo{of]hgfn] lgif]w
u/]sf] sfo{sf] cltl/Qm b]xfosf] s'g} sfo{ ;d]t ug'{ u/fpg' x'b}gM–

-s_ jg df:g, ;fd'bflos jgn] rr]{sf] hUuf lwtf] aGwsL /fVg jf c? s'g} lsl;dn] x:tfGt/0f ug{,

-v_ vf]l/of km8fgL ug{,

-u_ 3/ 5fk|f] agfpg,

-3_ e"–Ifo x'g] s'g} sfd ug{,

-ª_ k|rlnt sfg"g lakl/t jGohGt' kqmg jf dfg{,

-r_ r§fg, df6f], 9'+uf, lu§L, afn'jf cflb lgsfNg jf cf];f/k;f/ ug{ .

-@_ pklgod -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / -u_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg lhNnf jg clws[tsf] :jLs[lt
lnO{ ;fd'bflos jg ljsf;sf] nflu ;fd'bflos jgsf] jg k}bfjf/ lwtf] aGws /fvL ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 C0f
k|fKt ug{ jf ;'/Iffsf] nflu cfaZos kg]{ 3/ jf 5fk|f] agfpg ;lsg]5 .



#@= jg k}bfjf/sf] ;+sng tyf laqmL lat/0fM -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{ of]hgf adf]lhd k|fKt
x'g] jg k}bfjf/sf] dfq ;+sng tyf laqmL lat/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhd sf7,bfp/f / cGo jg k}bfjf/ lgsfn]kl5 pQm jg If]qdf pkef]Qmf
;d"xn] oyfzL3| a[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ jf k'g?Tyfgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .

-#_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] jg k}bfj/sf] laqmL b/sf] hfgsf/L ;DalGwt lhNnf jg sfof{nonfO{ lbg'
kg]{5 .




                                                      76
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-$_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ jg k}bfj/df cfwfl/t pBf]u ;~rfng ug{ ;Sg] ePdf
lhNnf jg clws[tsf] l;kmfl/;df ;DalGwt lgsfosf] :jLs[lt lnO{ ;fd'bflos jg If]q aflx/ To:tf] pBf]u
;~rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 .

##= jg k}bfj/sf] /l;b / nutM -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{of]hgf adf]lhd k|fKt x'g] jg k}bfjf/
pkef]Qmf ;d"xdf vkt x'g] ePdf ;f] jg k}bfjf/sf] nut /fvL cg';"rL –!^ adf]lhdsf] cg'dlt kq lbO{
lat/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 .

-@_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] jg k}bfj/sf] laqmL ljt/0f ubf{ cg';"rL – !& sf] 9f“rfdf tLg k|lt /l;b agfO{
Ps k|lt vl/b ug]{ JolQmnfO{ / Ps k|lt ;DalGwt Onfsf jg sfof{nonfO{ lbO{ / Ps k|lt cfkm}n]
/fVg' kg]{5 .

-#_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jgaf6 laqmL lat/0f ePsf] jg k}bfjf/sf] nut tyf cfDbfgL vr{sf]
lx;fj b'?:t /fVg' kg]{5 .

#$= 6f“rf btf{ ug'{ kg]{M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;fd'bflos jgsf] sf7 cf];f/k;f/sf] nflu kmnfd] 6f“rf
agfO{ lhNnf jg sfof{nodf 6f“rf btf{ u/fO{ kfp“ egL lgj]bg lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhd kg{ cfPsf] lgj]bg pk/ 6f“rfsf] gfd bf]xf]/f] gkg]{ u/L lhNnf jg
clws[tn] 6f“rf lgMz'Ns btf{ u/L lbg' kg]{5 .



#%= jg k}bfjf/sf] cf];f/k;f/M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn]] laqmL u/]sf] sf7 pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] If]q
eGbf aflx/ cf];f/k;f/ ubf{ pkef]Qmf ;d'xn] tf]s]sf] JolQm jf ;ldltn] lgod #$ adf]lhdsf] 6f“rf
nufO{ cg';"rL – !^ adf]lhdsf] cg'klt kq lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhd sf7 cf];f/k;f/ ubf{ ;DalGwt jg sfof{nonfO{ cu|Ld hfgsf/L lbO{
af6f]df kg]{ r]skf]i6df b/lk7 u/fO{ n}hfg' kg]{5 .

-#_ sf7 afx]s cGo jg k}bfjf/sf] cf];f/k;f/ ubf{ lhNnf jg sfof{nonfO{ clu|d hfgsf/L lbO{
pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] tf]s]sf] JolQm jf ;ldltaf6 cg'dlt kq lnO{ n}hfg' kg]{5 .



#^= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]ifsf] ;~rfngM -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]if / vftfsf] ;~rfng pkef]Qmf
;d"xn] tf]s]sf] ;f] ;d"xsf b'O{hgf kbflwsf/Lsf] ;+o'Qm b:tvtaf6 ;~rfng x'g]5 .

-@_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfDbfgL / vr{sf] jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] tf]s]sf] JolQm jf
lgsfoaf6 x'g]5 .

-#_ pklgod -@_ adf]lhdsf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ljj]bgsf] Ps k|lt pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] ;DalGwt lhNnf jg
sfof{nodf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .


                                                      77
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

-$_ clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Ln] pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] /fv]sf] cfDbfgL / vr{sf] n]vf ;do–;dodf hf“ra'em
ug{ ;Sg]5 .

#&= ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng]M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{of]hgf adf]lhd sfo{ ;~rfng ug{
g;s]sf] jf jftfj/0fdf pNn]vgLo k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ s'g} sfo{ u/]sf] jf P]g jf o; lgodfjnL tyf g]kfnn]
tf]s]sf] zt{x? kfngf gu/]sf] eGg] hfgsf/L k|fKt x'g cfPdf lhNnf jg clws[tn] oyfzSo rf“8f]
sd{rf/L v6fO{ :ynut lg/LIf0f u/fO{ ;f] sf] k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df b]xfo adf]lhd sf/jfxL ug'{ kg]{5
M

-s_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] sfo{ of]hgf adf]lhd sfo{ ;+rfng ug{ g;s]sf] jf jftfj/0fdf pNn]vgLo
k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ s'g} sfo{ u/]sf] jf P]g jf o; lgodfjnL tyf g]kfnn] tf]s]sf] zt{x? kfngf gu/]sf]
eGg] k|ltj]bgaf6 b]lvPdf pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ kGw| lbgsf] Dofb lbO{ :ki6Ls/0f dfu ug'{
kg]{5 .

-v_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] k]z u/]sf] :ki6Ls/0f ;Gtf]ifhgs gePdf jf :ynut k|ltj]bgaf6 ;fd'bflos jg
lkmtf{ lng plrt 7x¥ofPdf lhNnf jg clws[nt] ;f] jg lkmtf{ lng / pQm pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf{
vf/]h ug{ ;Sg]5 .

-u_ ;DalGwt pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lnPsf] / pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf{ vf/]h
u/]sf] hfgsf/L ;f] eP u/]sf] ldltn] kGw lbg leq lbg' kg]{5 .

-@_ pklgod -!_ adf]lhd ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng] / btf{ vf/]h ug]{ u/L ul/Psf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ
ga'e\mg] pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] To:tf] lg0f{osf] ;"rgf kfPsf] k}+tL; lbg leq ;DalGwt lgb]{zs ;dIf
ph'/L lbg ;Sg]5 .

-#_ pklgod -@_ adf]lhdsf] ph"/L pk/sf] lg0f{o ph"/L k/]sf] ldltn] () lbg leq lg0f{o u/L
;Sg' kg]{5 .



#*= ;xof]u lng ;Sg]M o; kl/R5]b adf]lhdsf] sfo{sf] nflu ljefu tyf pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] /fli6«o
tyf cGt{/fli6«o, ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf;+u cfjZos ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5 .

kl/R5]b – *

ljljw

^%= k|fyldstf k|fKt of]hgfsf] ;~rfngM -!_ s'g} jg If]qleq /fli6«o k|fyldstf k|fKt of]hgf
;+rfng ubf{ ;f] af6 :yfgLo JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ s'g} xfgL gf]S;fgL x'g uPdf ;f] jfktsf]
Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd ;DalGwt of]hgf ;+rfngstf{n] g} Jofxf]g'{ kg]{5 .

-@_ :jLs[t k|fKt of]hgfn] k|of]u ug]{ jg If]qsf] jg k}bfjf/ sf6\bf, 6'qmfp“bf tyf 9'jfgL ubf{sf]
;Dk"0f{ vr{ of]hgf ;+rfngstf{n] g} Joxf]g'{ kg]{5 .


                                                      78
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

^^= lnnfd las|L ;DaGwL Joj:yfM s'g} klg jg k}bfjf/sf] kRrL; nfv /mk}of“;Ddsf] lnnfd
las|L ug]{ u/fpg] clwsf/ dxflgb]{zsnfO{ / kf“r nfv /mk}of“;Ddsf] jg k}bfjf/sf] lnnfd las|L
ug]{ u/fpg] clwsf/ lhNnf jg clws[tnfO{ x'g]5 .

^&= lgb]{lzsf agfpg ;Sg]M o; lgodfjnLsf] p2]Zo k"/f ug{sf] nflu dGqfnon] cfjZos
lgb]{lzsf agfO{ hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 / To;/L hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{lzsfsf] kfngf ug'{ ;DalGwt ;a}sf]
st{Ao x'g]5 .

^*= cg';"rLdf yk36 jf x]/km]/ ug{ ;Sg]M g]kfnn] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L
cfjZostfg';f/ cg';"rLdf yk36 jf x]/km]/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .

;fd'bflos jg ljsf; sfo{qmd dfu{bz{g, @)^% -kl/dflh{t_

kl/dflh{t dfu{bz{gsf k|d'v ljz]iftf

bf];|f] kl/dflh{t dfu{bz{gsf s]lx ;f/e't ljz]iftf /x]sf 5g\ . ;fd'bflos jg ljsf; sfo{qmdnfO{ ul/jL
Go"gLs/0fsf] cleofg;Fu ;dflxt ul/Psf] 5 . h:sf] sf/0f ;fd'bflos jg ul/jd"vL x'g ;sf];\ eGg]
clek|fo /flvPsf] 5 . x/]s ;d"xn] ;DkGgtf :tl/s/0f ug]{ / ;d"xsf] cfDbfgLsf] sDtLdf #% k|ltzt
/sd ljkGgsf] of]hgf cg';f/ ;d"xn] ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;ldltdf sDtLdf %)
k|ltzt dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj, cWoIf / ;lrj dWo] ! dlxnf x'g' kg]{ Joj:yf ul/ dlxnf g]t[Tj ljsf;sf] nflu
dfu{ k|z:t u/]sf] 5 . ;fd'bflos jg cleofg ;/fsf]/ tyf clwsf/ /fVg] ;j}sf] e"ldsfsf] ls6fgL ul/ :yflgo
;xhstf{ kl/rfng ;DjGwL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . of] dfu{bz{gn] pkef]Qmf, ;ldlt, lhNnf jg sfof{no
;j}nfO{ lhDd]jf/ jgfPsf]5 . ;d"xsf] ljwfg tyf jg sfo{of]hgf #) lbg leq lhNnf jg sfof{nojf6 btf{ jf
l:js[t ul/ ;Sg' kg]{5 . obL g;Sg] cj:yf ePdf ;f]xL cjwL leq ;d"xnfO{ lnlvt hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{,
sDtLdf jif{sf] ! k6s ;/sf/L ;]jf k|bfos sd{rf/Lx?n] x/]s ;d"xdf u}+ ;d"x;Fu 5nkmn tyf ;'emfj
cfbfg k|bfg ug'{ kg]{ jfWofTds Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . x/]s ;d"xn] x/]s jif{ ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ ug'{ kg]{,
;d"xsf] ultljlwsf] n]vfhf]vf tyf ;ldIff ubf{ ljkGg ju{sf] lhljsf]kfh{gdf k'¥ofPsf] pknJwLnfO{
ljZn]if0f ug'{ kg]{ h:tf Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

kl/dflh{t dfu{bz{gsf] s]lx k|d'v ljz]iftfx?

;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;+nUgtf / ;xdltdf kl/dfh{g ul/Psf] ;xdtLsf] b:tfj]h xf] .

;xhstf{sf nflu dfq geP/ ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] xf] .

pkef]Qmfx?sf] ;zlQms/0fdf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 .

k|lqmofdf a9L s]lGb|t ePsf] 5 .

;fd'bflos ag pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ a9L ;dfa]zL agfOPsf]] 5 .

n}lËs ;+a]bgzLntfdf ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf]5 .

;fd'bflos agnfO{ ul/ad"lv agfpg] cfwf/x? ls6fg ul/Psf]5 .

                                                      79
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

;fd'bflos jg ;DjGwL ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf :ki6 kfl/Psf] 5 .

;d"xsf] cfDbfgLsf] sDtLdf klg #% k|ltzt /sd ljkGg -dlxnf, blnt, cflbaf;L hghftL_ sf nflu nlIft
sfo{qmddf kl/rfng ug]{ ls6fgL ul/Psf]5 .

ljkGg au{sf] cfo cfh{gsf nflu ;fd'bflos agsf] hUuf 5'6\ofpg ;lsg] k|fjwfg ;dfj]z ul/Psf]5 .

hLlasf]kfh{g of]hgf tof/ ug]{ tl/sf ;dfj]z ul/Psf]5 .

;d"xsf] aflif{s of]hgfdf lakGg 3/w'/LnfO{ ul/g] a:t'ut / cfly{s ;xof]u Plsg ug]{ ljifo ls6fg
ul/Psf]5 .

lakGg au{n] k|fKt u/]sf] pknAwL / nufgLsf] cw{aflif{s ?kdf ;ldIff tyf laZn]if0f ug]{ Joj:yf
/x]sf]5 .

cg'udg k|0ffnLnfO{ ljkGgd"vL agfpg] k|of; ePsf] 5 .

lawfgdf w/d"nLsf] gfd n]Vbf dlxnf k'?if b'a}sf] gfd ;dfa]z x'g'kg]{ jfWofTds Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

;d"xsf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf x/]s 3/w'/Laf6 jo:s Ps dlxnf / Ps k'?if k|ltlglw u/L b'O{ hgfn] efu
lng] Joj:yf 5 .

;ldltdf slDtdf %) k|ltzt dlxnfsf] clgjfo{ k|ltlglwTj x'g' kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

;ldltsf] cWoIf / ;lrj dWo] Ps hgf dlxnf x'g'kg]{ ls6fgL Joj:yf 5 .

;d"xsf] cWoIf jf ;lra / sf]iffWoIf ;lxt @ hgfsf] ;+o'Qm x:tfIf/af6 ;d"xsf] vftf ;+rfng x'g kg]{ .
To; dWo] ! hgf dlxnf clgjfo{ x'g' kg]{ 5 .

;fd'bflos jgsf] ;+/If0f tyf Joj:yfkgdf ;xefuL x'g g;Sg] 6f9fsf pkef]Qmfx?sf] nflu ckgfpg
;lsg] pkfox?sf] vf]hL ul/Psf] 5 .

pkef]Qmf ;ldltdf ljkGg, blnt, cflbaf;L hghflt dlxnfsf] ;dfg'kflts k|ltltlwTj x'g' kg]{ Joj:yf
/x]sf]5 .

t/fO{df ;fd'bflos agn] 6f9fsf pkef]QmfnfO{ klg ;fd'bflos agsf] ag k}bfjf/ pknAw u/fpg]
pkfo ;dfj]z ul/Psf]5 .

pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfa:ostf k"/f u/L a9L ePsf] sf7, bfp/f glhssf] pkef]Qmf / ;f]xL lhNnfsf
6f9fsf pkef]QmfnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy laqmL ug'{ kg]{ ls6fgL ul/Psf]5 .

6f9fsf pkef]QmfnfO{ sf7, bfp/f pknAw u/fpg l8kf] ;+rfng ug{ / a[If/f]k0fsf nflu lj?jf pTkfbg
ug{ cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] h:tf pkfox? /flvPsf]5 .




                                                      80
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

:jLs[t sfo{of]hgf adf]lhd ;d"xsf] cfjZostf k'/f u/L a9L ePsf] jg k}bfjf/ cfd;efsf] lg0f{o cg';f/
;d"x aflx/ lalqm ljt/0f ug]{ Joj:yf ;dfj]z ul/Psf]5 .

laqmL lat/0fsf nflu k|fyldstf lbbf bfx ;+:sf/, 3/sfh, lasf; lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ cfwf/ lng] .

?= @%,))). eGbf sd cfDbfgL x'g] pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] n]vfkl/If0f ;d"xn] tf]s]sf] AolQm jf
;ldltaf6 u/] k'Ug] Joj:yf ul/Psf]5 .

;d"xn] u/]sf sfdsf] sDtLdf jif{sf] ! k6s ;fa{hlgs n]vf kl/If0f ug'{ kg]{ / ;fa{hlgs n]vfkl/If0f
ubf{ / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ljkGg, dlxnf, blntnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg' kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .

;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] n]vfkl/Ifs ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f ;efjf6 tf]lsg' kg]{5 .

agsf] ;+/If0f, lasf; / Aoa:yfkgdf pkef]Qmfn] u/]sf] hg>dbfg a/fa/sf] /sd ag lasf;df
pkef]Qmfn] ug'{ kg]{ @% k|ltzt vr{df ;dfa]z ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .

;fwf/0f ;efaf6 :jLs[t aflif{s sfo{qmd cg';f/ dfq pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]ifsf] /sd vr{ ug]{ Aoa:yf
x'g' kg]{ lgwf{/0f ul/Psf]5 .

;d"x eGbf aflx/ jg k}bfj/ ljqmL ubf{ ;fwf/0f ;efsf] lg0f{o x'g' kg]{ Aoa:yf ljwfgdf pNn]v ul/g'
kg]{ 5 .

;d"xdf ;'zf;g ;'b[9 ug{sf] nflu cfjZos ;"rssf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .

hLlasf]kfh{g sfo{qmd cGt/ut k'¥ofO{Psf] ;xof]usf] cg'udg, d'NofÍg tyf clen]vg u/L ;d"xn]
lhNnf jg sfof{no tyf ;xof]uL lgsfox?nfO{ k|lta]bg k7fpg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

;ldltsf kbflwsf/L x]/km]/ x'bf clgafo{ ?kdf a/a'emf/t ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .

aflif{s sfo{qmd ;fwf/0f ;efaf6 kfl/t gu/fO{ nfu' ug{ gkfOg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

:jLs[t aflif{s of]hgf cg';f/ dfq pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]if vr{ ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf pNn]v ePsf] 5 .

;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0ff u/]sf] dflg cfly{s clgoldttf ug]{ kbflwsf/L pk/
sf/afxL ul/g] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

lhNnf jg clws[tn] ljwfg k]z u/]sf] #) lbg leq pkef]Qmf ;d"x btf{ u/L k|df0fkq lbg' kb{5 . olb
;f] cjlwdf ;d"x btf{ ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf eP ;f]sf] sf/0f :ki6 ?kdf v'nfO{ lnlvt ?kdf ;DalGwt
pkef]Qmf ;d"xnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .

sfo{of]hgf k]z u/]sf] #) lbg leq :jLs[t ug'{ kb{5 . :jLs[t ug{ g;lsg] ca:yf ePdf ;f] sf] sf/0f ;lxt
lnlvt hfgsf/L ;d"xnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 .

;d"xn] aflif{s of]hgf tof/ u/]/ dfq sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]5 .



                                                      81
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                  k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L

/]~hkf]i6, O{nfsf jg sfof{no / lhNnf jg sfof{non] sDtLdf jif{sf] ! k6s k|To]s ;fd'bflos jg
pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] lgoldt cg'udg ul/ /fo ;'emfj lng] lbg] k|s[of ckgfpg' kg]{5 .

;fd'bflos jgjf6 pknJw x'g] jftfj/0fLo ;]jfx?sf] ;+efjfgfsf] vf]hL u/L jftfj/0fLo ;]jf z'Nssf]
cjwf/0ffnfO{ cuf8L j9fpg ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

ag k}bfjf/ ;+sng ug{ 7]s]bf/nfO{ ;fd'bflos jg leq k:g glbg] Joj:yf ls6fgL ul/Psf] 5 .




                                                      82
                    lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




ljsf; ;DjGwL cfwf/eút cjwf/)ffx?



ljsf; ;DjGwL cjwf/)FfnfO{ /fxtd'lv, ;Úwf/d'lv / clwsf/d'lvdf ljefhg u/L tLg
efudf x]g{ ;lsG% . Ps wf/)Ff csf]{ wf/)ffsf] lg/Gt/tf xf], PSnf] wf/)ff xf]Og .



;+:yfsf] sfd /fxt lbg], hgtfsf] sfd /fxt lng]

        /fxtd'vL ljsf;
tTsfn ;xof]u, k|ToIf ;xof]u

lg)f{o lng] ;+:yfn,] cgÚ;/)f ug]{ hgtfn]

      RELIEF k|efjsf/L
cfkb ljkbdf APPROACH




/fxtsf] ;fy;fy} !fg, ;Lk, Ifdtfsf] ljsf;
         ;Úwf/d'vL ljsf;
;r]tLs/)f, ;xeflutf / ;fdÚlxs k|of;
    REFORM APPROACH
JolQmut Ifdtf ljsf;df ljz]if hf]*




cfwf/eút cfjZostf, cfwf/eút clwsf/

:ki^ gLlt, kf/bzL{ ;+/rgf / sfo{ k|lqmof
       clwsf/d'vL ljsf;
gLlt lgdf{)f / sfof{Gjogdf gful/s ;dfhsf] k|efjsf/L ;xeflutf
    RIGHT BASED APPROACH
cfwf/eút k|fjwfg ->f]t, Ifdtf, ;Lk=====_

;a} txdf hjfkmb]xLkg

;fj{hlgs n]vfhf]vf/cgÚudg / dúNof+sg

kl/jt{gsf] k|qm[of–JolQmut, ;+:yfut / ;fdflhs txdf

                                                     83
                   lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




s]xL lgrf]*x?

To;}n] clwsf/d"vL cjwf/)ffdf sfd ug]{ eg]sf] /fxt / ;"wf/sf kIfx?nfO{ clwsf/
:yfkgfsf lglDt kl/rfng ug"{ xf] .

/fxt / ;"wf/nfO{ clwsf/ :yfkgfsf lglDt ;+/rgfut ;"wf/ jf ?kfGt/)f ;Dd hf]*b}
n}hfg" h?/L x"G% .

dflysf] lrqdf b]vfOPsf ljGb""x?n] s:tf lsl;dsf ljsf;sf k|of;x?n] slt;Ddsf] ;fdflhs
pknAwL xfl;n ug{ ;lsG% eGg] ;Defjgf k|:t"t\ u/]sf] % .




                                                    84
                  lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                              k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




ljsf; ;DjGwL wf/)ffx?sf] ;+lIfKt ;dLIff
                      /fxt                                   ;"wf/                                           clwsf/




                 ljr/fn] b"Mv                                                                 DffG%] g} xf], t/ s:tf]
                                                     ljr/fsf]    r]tgf
                                                                                                cdfgjLo            cj:yfdf
;jfnnfO




                kfof]                                 g} %}g
 { x]g]{




                 p klg dfG%]                                                                   k"¥ofOPsf]
   b[li^




                                                     Dff}sf kfP p;n]
                g} xf]                                                                         p /x/n] u/Lj jg]sf] xf]Og
                                                      klg ubf]{ xf]
                                                                                               of]    ;+/rgf     /x"Gh]n
                 s;}sf] sd{ o:t}                    ;j}n] Ps}rf]^L
                                                                                                o:tf] ;d:of /lxg} /xG%
                xf]                                   ug{ ;St}gg\




                 t"?Gt} ef}lts                        lbP/ ;fWo                             sf]lx JolQm u/Lj,
                                                        rNb}g                                  pTkLl*t x"g"df p /x]sf]
                  ;xof]u                                                                       ;+/rgf s], s;/L lhDd]jf/ %
;dfwfg




                  lbg" k%{                              r]tgf / ;Lk
                                                                                               vf]Hg]
  k|of;




                 Eff]sfnfO{                            lbg" k%{
   sf]




                  ef]nL    xf]Og,                      Pp^fnfO{
                                                                                              kLl*t     x"g" JolQmut
                  cfh}      vfgf                        u/]/     x"Gg
                                                                                                 sdhf]/L eGbf ;fdflhs
                  rflxG%                                ;d'xnfO{                                 clwsf/jf^ j+lrt ePsf]n]
                                                        ;#fpg" k%{                               clwsf/ :yfkgfsf lglDt
                                                                                                 k|of; ug"{k%{

                                                                  85
                                lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


ljsf;sf] jbln+bf] cjwf/)ff

/fxtd'lv ljsf;sf] cjwf/)ffM

z"? z"?df ljsf; eg]/ x"g] JolQm÷;+:yfn] gx"g] JolQm÷;+:yfnfO{, ePsfn]
gePsfnfO{ jf wgLn] u/LjnfO{ æef]sfnfO{ ef]nL xf]Og cfh g} lbg"k%{Æ
egL k|ToIf ;xof]u :j?k ljsf;sf ljleGg sfdx? eP . To; cjwf/)ffdf ;+:yfsf] sfd
/fxt lbg] / hgtfsf] sfd /fxt lng] lyof] . To:tf] cjef/)Ffdf tTsfnsf]
kmfObfsf] nflu ul/g] k|ToIf ;]jf jf ;xof]unfO{ ljsf; eGg] j"lemGYof] .
cfjZostf klxrfg, sfo{qmdsf] to, sfof{Gjog, cg"udg tyf d'Nof°g ug]{
lg)f{o ;+:yf PSn}n] g} ub{Yof] . o;/L sfd ug]{ cjwf/)ffnfO{ /fxtd'lv
cjwf/)ff elgG% .

;"wf/d'lv ljsf;sf] cjwf/)ffM

o; cjwf/)ffdf /x]/ sfd ubf{ ;+:yfx?n] cfzf u/] cg";f/sf pknJwLx? kfpg ;s]gg\
lj:tf/} ljsf;sf sfdx? ug]{ ;+:yfx?df sfd ug]{ k|s[ofdf kl/jt{g cfpg yfNof] .
;w} lbP/ ;fWo rNb}g, hgtfx?nfO{ r]tgf, !fg / ;Lk lbg" kb{%, Pp^f
JolQmnfO{ xf]Og ;d'xnfO{ g} ;zQm jgfP/ ;j}sf] ;xeflutfdf sfd ug{ k%{
eGg] ;f]rsf] ljsf; eof], Tolx cg";f/sf sfdx? eP, h;nfO{ ;"wf/d'lv ljsf;sf]
cjwf/)Ff elgG% .

clwsf/d'lv ljsf;sf] cjwf/)ffM

o; cjwf/)Ffjf^ sfd ubf{ klg ;+:yfx?n] ck]Iff u/] cg";f/sf pknJwLx? xfl;n
ug{ ;ls/x]sf %}gg\, hgtfsf] u"h/f ug]{ tl/sfnfO{ /fd|f] jgfpg ;s]g . emg w]/}
dfG%] u/LjLsf] /]vfd"gL hLjg wfGg jfWo eP . JolQmnfO{ r]tgf klg lbof],
!fg klg %, ;Lk klg % t/ p /x]sf] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g gcfP;Dd p;nfO{
u/Lljkg Go"gLs/)f / ;fdflhs cGofojf^ d"Qm ug{ ;lsb}+g, p u/Lj x"g"sf
d"Vo sf/)f s] xf] Tof] kQF gnufP ;Dd p;n] u/LjLkgjf^ d"Qm x"g / cfly{s,
/fhgLlts / ;fdflhs Gofo k|fKt ug{ ;lsb}+g, p u/Lj x"g", pTkLl*t x"g"sf]
nIf)fdf x}g d'n sf/)f s] xf] kQf nufO{ d'n sf/)fdf p:sf] u/LjL / pTkLl*t
cj:yf x^fpg] vfnsf sfd u/\of] eg] To:tf sfdx? lbuf] / k|efjsf/L x"G% eGg]
;f]+r cfof] / To;} cg";f/ sfd ug]{ tl/sf / k|s[ofdf kl/jt{g eof] Tof] ljsf;sf]
clwsf/d'lv cjwf/)ff xf] egL ;xefuLx?nfO{ :ki^ kfg]{ . ;xefuLx?jf^ s] To;f]
eP o; eGbf cufl* u/]sf ;j} sfdx? unt lyP t < eGg] k|Zg klg cfpg ;Sb% . kSs}
klg o; eGbf cufl* ul/Psf / ePsf ;j} sfdx? unt lyPgg\, To; jvt /fd|f] cfzosf
;fy tL sfdx? ePsf x"g\, of] t ljsf; ug]{ tl/sfx?df ;do cg";f/ cfPsf] kl/jt{g
xf] . lxhf] sfd ug]{ tl/sf Pp^f lyof] eg] ef]ln cs}{ x"g ;Sb% .

clwsf/d'vL cjwf/)ffsf] s"/f ug{ yfn]kl% cj /fxt / ;"wf/sf sfd g} gug]{ t <
eGg] k|Zg klg cfpg ;S% . of] kSsf xf]Og, lxhf] h:t} /fxt / ;"wf/sf sfdx?
klg k|z:t dfqfdf ug"{ kg]{ x"G% . km/s olQ dfq xf] ls lxhf] clwsf/sf
s"/fnfO{ r^Ss} lj;]{/ /fxtjf^ dfq ;j} x"G% eGg] ;f]rfO{ lyof] eg] cfh
clwsf/nfO{ klg ;fy;fy} n}hfg" kb{% eGg] xf] . j? /fxt / ;"wf/ kfpg"nfO{
klg clwsf/sf] ?kdf lnP/ hfg" kb{% egL :ki^ jgfpg] .


                                                86
              lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


cfjZostf / clwsf/d'lv ljsf;sf] cjwf/)ffM

To;}n] ;dfhsf] cfjZostfnfO{ klxrfg u/L tTsfn k'lt{ ug]{ u/L ePsf]
ljsf;sf] sfdnfO{ cfjZostfd'lv cjwf/)ffdf ePsf] sfd eGg ;lsG% eg] ;dfhdf
/x]sf cfwf/e't cfjZostfnfO{ cfwf/e't clwsf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{sf nflu
ul/g] ljsf;sf] sfdx? rflx+ clwsf/d'lv cjwf/)ffdf ePsf] sfd xf] egL
;xefuLx?nfO{ :ki^ kfg]{ . s]P/ g]kfn;+usf] ;xsfo{tfdf ;+rfng ePsf] zlQm
sfo{qmd klg ljsf;sf] clwsf/d'lv cjwf/)ffdf cfwfl/t % .




                                               87
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] ljZn]if)F




                                               /fHo




           ahf/÷Jofkf/                                                 gful/s ;dfh



%nkmn tyf cGt/lqmofsf] lglDt ;jfnx?M

/fHo cGtu{t s], s:tf lgsfo, ;+:yfx? lqmofzLn %g < gful/sn] cfwf/eút
clwsf/ pkef]u ug]{ cj:yf l;h{gf ug{ /fHo cGtu{tsf ;+:yfx?sf] s], s:tf]
eúldsf xÚgÚ k%{ <

ahf/ cGtu{t s], s:tf ;+:yfx? %g < ahf/nfO{ ;dfhk|lt pQ/bfoL agfpg s], s:tf
k|fjwfgx? cfjZos %g <

gful/s ;dfh cGtu{t s], s:tf ;+:yfx? sfo{/t %g\ < cfwf/eút clwsf/x?
;Úlgof]lht tÚNofpg gful/s ;dfhsf] eúldsf s] xÚgÚ k%{ <




                                               88
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
               k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




/fHo, ahf/ / gful/s ;dfhsf] e'ldsf / o; cGtu{t kg]{ lgsfox?M

/fHo (STATE): o; cGt/ut ;fwf/)ftof,

;+ljwfg, /fh;+:yf, sfo{kflnsf, ;/sf/, Gofokflnsf, Joj:yflksf, sd{rf/LtGq,
;/sf/L lzIf)f ;+:yf, ;/sf/L c:ktfn, cflb .

    ;+ljwfg                     sfo{kflnsf                               ;]jfbfoL ;/sf/L lgsfox?

    /fh;+:yf                    ;/sf/                                    -s[lif, ag, :jf:Yo lzIff cflb_

    Joj:yflksf                  :yflgo ;/sf/                             g]kfn /fi^« a}°

    Gofokflnsf                  ;]gf, Kf|x/L, sd{rf/LtGq



/fHosf] e'ldsfM

/fHosf] dxTjk')f{ sfd hgtfsf] cfwf/e't clwsf/ ;"lglZrt ug]{, cfjZos ;]jf
pknJw u/fpg], sfgÚgL /fHo :yfkgf ug]{, / cfd gful/snfO{ ;Ú/lIft hLjg
ofkgsf] cgÚeútL lbgÚ xÚG% . ;fy} d"n"s / ;dfhsf] ;+k|e"tf /Iff ub}{
cGt//fli^«o ;DaGw sfod /fVg" xf] .

jhf//gLlh If]q (Market/Private Sector)M

o; cGt/ut ;fwf/)ftofM pBf]ux?, jfl)fHo a}+sx? cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?, pTkfbs
;+:yfx?, ;xsf/L ;+:yf, xf]^n, /]i^"/]G^, ko{^g Joj;fo, lghL :sún, oftfoft Joj;fo,
yf]s ljs|]tf, v"b|f Aofkf/Lx?, ;fx"dxfhg, bnfn cflb .

jhf/sf] e'ldsfM

ahf/sf] d"Vo nIf pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ u")f:t/Lo j:tÚ jf ;]jf pTkfbg tyf k|bfg u/L
gfkmf sdfpg] Aoj;fo ug"{ xf] .

gful/s ;dfh (CIVIL SOCIETY)M

;d'x / ;d'xsf ;b:ox?sf] lxt / ;"/Iffsf] nflu ;+ul&t eO{ sfd ug]{ cf}krfl/s jf
cgf}krfl/s ?kdf sfd ub}{ cfPsf ;d'xx?nfO{ gful/s ;dfh eGg] ul/G% .
;fdfGotof gful/s ;dfh ;d'xx?n] efjgf / ljrf/ cleJoQm ug{, hfgsf/L cfbfg
k|bfg ug{, kf/:kl/s nIf k|fKtL ug{, /fHo;+u dfu ug{ / /fhsLo sd{rf/LnfO{
hgtf k|lt hjfkmb]xL agfpg ;fj{hlgs If]qdf s[oflzn gful/sx?nfO{ ;fd]n
u/fp+% .Æ - *fod)*




                                                   89
                 lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


o; cGt/ut ;fwf/)ftof,

kl/jf/, %/l%d]sL ^f]n, j:tL, pkef]Qmf ;dúxx?, u}x| ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, ljleGg k]zfut
;+#x? h:t} k|fWofks ;+#, lzIfs ;+#, >lds ;+u&g, ljBfyL{ ;+u&g, ;xsf/L ;+#
;+:yfx?, ljleGg d~rx?, k/Dk/fut ;dúxx? h:t} u"&L, Snjx?, wfld{s ;+# ;+:yfx?,
cflb .

gful/s ;dfhsf] e'ldsfM

gful/s ;dfh cGt/ut ;d'x, ;+#, ;+:yfx? :jt:km't{ jf lgof]lht, k/Dk/fut jf
cfw"lgs, cf}krfl/s jf cgf}krfl/s, cNksfnLg jf bL#{sfnLg ;do ;Dd
s[ofzLn x"g] x"g ;S% . ;a}sf] clGtd nIf ;fdflhs ;]jf / Ps cfk;df ;xof]u ugÚ{
xÚG% . gful/s ;dfhsf] Wo]o gful/sx? jLr kf/:kl/s ;xof]u a(fpg", gful/s
clwsf/sf] kIfaf^ /fHo jf jhf/sf zlQmx?sf] af~%gLo e'ldsfaf/] k}/jL Pj+
;r]tLs/)f ugÚ{ xf] .

/fHo, ahf/ / gful/s ;dfhsf] zlQm ;Gt"ng

;"zf;g k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] /fHo ;+/rgf, cfly{s k|ultsf] afxs aGg ;Sg] ahf/ ;+/rgf
/ cfd gful/ssf] xs lxt / ;";+:s[ltsf] lgdf{)f ug]{ h"emf? gful/s ;dfh /xg]
cj:yf g} pTs[i^ zlQm ;+t"ngsf] cj:yf xf] .

/fHo, ahf/ jf gful/s ;dfh s"g} klg ;+/rgf sdhf]/ x"g", c;kmn x"g" ;du|
;dfhsf] lglDt xfgLsf/s x"G% . /fHo dfq xfjL eP/ jhf/ / gful/s ;dfh sdhf]/
x+"bf g} lg/+s"ztf a(\g], cfly{s cjGglt z"? x"g] cj:yf cfp+b% .

ahf/ jf gful/s ;+/rgf xfjL eP/ /fHo / gful/s ;dfh dfly cTolws lgoGq)f
sfod x"g hf+bf ;fdflhs Gofosf] cj:yf sdhf]/ x"g] ul/aL a(\g], gful/ssf]
cfwf/e't clwsf/ klg xgg\ x"g hfG% .

gful/s ;dfh leq klg cdfgjLo Pj+ s";+:sf/sf kIfw/x? x"G%g\, h:tf] jf]S;L k|yf,
o:tf c;Eo Pj+ cdfgjLo zlQm xfjL x"g uPdf c/fhstf a(\% .




;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf zltm ;+tÚngsf] cj:yf

Power Balance in Social Structure



                                                90
              lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




                                             /fHoSTATE
                                     zltm
                                    ;+tÚngsf]
                                      cj:yf



zltm ;+tÚngsf]

 cj:yf

          Jofkf/÷ahf/                                                                gful/s
            MARKET                                                                 ;dfh CIVIL
                                                                                    SOCIETY




dflysf] cj:yfdf,

/fHo w]/} zltmzfnL % . k|foM s]lGb|s[t zf;g k|)fflndf o; k|sf/sf] cj:yf
xÚG% .

gful/s ;dfh Hofb} sdhf]/ % . gful/s ;dfhn] /fHonfO{ lgoGq)f ug{ ;Sb}g .

ahf/sf] cj:yf &Ls} % t/ /fHosf] tÚngfdf sdhf]/ % . ahf/ ;d]t /fHo;+u ldn]/
gful/s ;dfhnfO{ sdhf]/ u/fpg s[oflzn ePsf] efg xÚG% .




                                               91
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf zltm ;+tÚngsf] cj:yf

Power Balance in Social Structure




                                                        /fHo

                                                        STATE

                                                        zltm
               Jofkf/÷ahf/                            ;+tÚngs
                 MARKET                                f] cj:yf
                                                                                      gful/s ;dfh
                                                                                      CIVIL SOCIETY

dflysf] cj:yfdf,

ahf/ w]/} zltmzfnL % . clgolGqt vÚNnf ahf/ gLlt ckgfPsf] b]zdf o:tf]
cj:yf xÚG% .

/fHo / gful/s ;dfh bÚj} sdhf]/ %g\ . /fHosf] xftdf zltm g} %}g . /fHodf
ePsf] zltm /fli^o tyf cGt//fli^o sDkgLx?sf] xftdf u};s]sf] % .

/fHon] gfu/Ls ;dfhnfO{ alnof] agfpg rfx] klg agfpg ;Sg] cj:yf %}g .

gLlt lgdf{)fdf ck|ToIf ?kdf ahf/sf] g} xft xÚG% . b]zsf gLlt lgdf{tfx?
“dÚ&L leqsf] dfvf” h:tf ePsf xÚG%g\ .

o; k|sf/sf] ;dfhdf ;Úzf;gsf] cj:yf g} xÚb}g . ;a} sÚ/fdf k};fnfO{ hf]*]/
x]l/G% .




                                               92
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf zltm ;+tÚngsf] cj:yf

Power Balance in Social Structure



                                                 /fHo
                                                 STATE


                                              zltm                             gful/s ;dfh
                                            ;+tÚngs                            CIVIL SOCIETY
           Jofkf/÷ah                         f] cj:yf
            f/ MARKET
dflysf] cj:yfdf,

gful/s ;dfh w]/} zltmzfnL % . ljs]lGb|s[t zf;g k|)ffnL :yflkt ePsf] %

b]zdf sf]lx klg Hofb} sdhf]/ %}gg\ . gful/s ;dfhn] /fHo / ahf/ bÚj}nfO{
lgoGq)f ug{ ;kmn ePsf] % .

/fHodf ;Úzf;g sfod ePsf] % . gLlt lgod jgfpg, gLlt lgod ;+zf]wg jf
kl/jt{g ug{df gful/s ;dfhsf] &únf] xft xÚG% .

12=To;}n] gful/s ;dfh zlQmzfnL x"g" eg]sf] /fHo / ahf/nfO{ sdhf]/
agfpg" xf]O{g a? gful/s ;dfh alnof] ePdf ;dfhn] /fHo ;~rfng / ahf/
Joj:yfkgdf cg"udg / ;Gt"ng ug]{ x"+bf gLlt lgdf{)f, ;+zf]wg / sfof{Gjog
;dfhsf] cg"s"n x"G% . kmn:j?k /fHo / ahf/ ;d]t alnof] x"G%, b]zdf ;"zf;g
sfod x"G% .




                                               93
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


gful/s clwsf/x? ;ÚlglZrt ug{
gful/s ;dfh cGt/utsf ;+:yfx?sf]
eúldsf

      cfwf/eút clwsf/ xgg\ ePsf] %, %}g cgÚudg ug]{ .

;dfhnfO{ s]lx xgg\ ePsf clwsf/x?sf] af/]df ;Ú;úlrt ug]{ .

      ;dfhdf ljBdfg ;jfnx? (Issues) klxrfg ug]{ .

clwsf/af^ al~rt ;dÚx÷ju{sf] klxrfg ug]{ .

al~rt ju{nfO{ ;jfnx?sf] (Issues) af/]df ;r]t u/fpg]

      ;DalGwt ju{sf] clwsf/ dfu ug]{ Ôdtf a(fpg] .

      oL ;a} sfdsf nflu ;|f]t hÚ^fpg] .

hgjsfntsf nflu cufl* a(]sf] gftfn] ;+ul&t÷Jojl:yt xÚg] .

gLltut ;jfnx?df kl/jt{gsf nflu hgjsfnt÷k}/jL cufl* a(fpg] .

g]t[Tj÷cuÚjfO{ ug]{, u/fpg] .

ahf/ / /fHonfO{ ;GtÚlnt &fp¤df Nofpg] .



gful/s ;dfhsf] ljz]iftfx?M

;fdflhs lhDd]]jf/Ljf^ kl/rflnt x"g" .

;j{;fwf/)fsf ;jfnx? ;fj{hlgs jx;df NofP/ ;/sf/sf] Wofgfsif{)f ug]{ / bjfj lbg] .

dfgjLo d'NonfO{ zlQmsf] >f]tsf] ?kdf lng] .

hghLljsfsf] cj;/nfO{ klg clwsf/s} ?kdf lng] .

/fHonfO{ ;j{;fwf/)f gful/snfO{ ;]jf ;"ljwfx? k"¥ofpg lhDd]jf/L lng ;xof]u
/ bjfj b"j} lbg" .

cfkm\gf] e'ldsf ;bfjxf/ l;h{glzn k|ltkIf xf] eGg] dxz"z ug{" .




                                                94
              lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
              k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




k}/jL
klxnf] / clGtd s'/f

;+/rgf

k|s[lt lgld{t ;+/rgf a'em\g ;lsG5,

Dffgj lgld{t ;+/rgf km]g{ ;lsG5 .

xfdL

xfldnfO+ ;+:s[lt / ;+/rgfn] jgfof],

xfld klg gof ;+/rgf / ;+:s[lt agfpg ;S5f}+ .

cfzf

d kl/jt{g x'g ;S5', d]/f] ;+:yf kl;jt{g x'g ;S5,

xfd|f] ;dfh kl/jt{g x'g ;S5

of] l;Ëf] ljZj kl/jt{g x'g;S5 .

ljljwtf

ax'ntf k|fs[lts xf], pTkL8g ;fdflhs xf] .




                                                   95
                 lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




                                   s=ljBdfg cj:yf                 v=k}/jLåf/f kl/jt{g ug{
vf]lhPsf] cj:yf

k}/jLsf] kl/efiff




                                               96
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
          k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




  o;nfO{ hgjsfnt, jx; / cu|]hLdf Advocacy klg
  elgG% .\



  ts{;+ut k|:t"tLaf^ s"g} vf; ;jfndf b]vf k/]sf jfwfx¿ x^fO{ gLlt,
  k|lqmof / cEof;df kl/jt{g Nofpg" g} k}/jL xf] .




  k}/jL (Advocacy) eg]sf] ;fwf/)f                                 cy{df ljleGg ;+#
  ;+:yfx?n] gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{                                     ;dfhsf] cfjZostf
  cgÚ;f/sf gLlt lgodx? jgfpg,                                     ePsf t/ cfjZostf
  ;"xfpbf] %}g eg] ;+zf]wg ug{                                    / ePsf /fd|f gLlt
  lgodx? Jojxf/df sfof{Gjog ug{                                   tkm{ ;r]t / pGdÚv
  (Influence) u/fpgsf nflu ;fd"lxs                                ?kdf k|of]u ug]{
  Pp^f /)fgLlt xf] .


   k}/jL ug{" eg]sf] cfkm\gf] clwsf/sf] /Iff ug{" / yk clwsf/ k|fKt
   ug{ ul/g] ;fd"lxs k|of; xf] .

k}/jL (Advocacy) eg]sf] ;fwf/)f cy{df ljleGg ;+# ;+:yfx?n] gLlt
lgdf{tfx?nfO{ ;dfhsf] cfjZostf cgÚ;f/sf gLlt lgodx? jgfpg, ePsf
t/ cfjZostf ;"xfpbf] %}g eg] ;+zf]wg ug{ / ePsf /fd|f gLlt lgodx?
Jojxf/df sfof{Gjog ug{ tkm{ ;r]t / pGdÚv (Influence) u/fpgsf
nflu ;fd"lxs ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ Pp^f /)fgLlt xf] .



k}/jL lsg ul/G% <


                                       ePsf            gLlt
                                       lgodx?sf]
            lxdfno u|fld0f             k|efjsf/L97
                             k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                                       sfof{Gjog
k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




                                    98
  lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                    k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




k}/jLsf r/)fx¿ / k|s[of



                                           k}/jL$f/f kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsg] ;jfnx? dWo]
             ;jfn klxrfg
                                           ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo / ;dfwfg ePdf w]/}
                                           pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ kmfObf x"g] vfnsf ;jfn
                                           %gf}^ .
                                          %flgPsf ;jfndf ;+ljwfg, sfg'g, /fHo tyf gLltn]
                 gLltut                   jtfPsf s"/fx?, ;jfn;+u ;DjlGwt b:tfj]hx? ;+sng tyf
                 ljZn]if)f                ;jfndf ePsf gLlt lgodx? s;/L sfof{Gjog eO{
                                          /x]sf] % hfgs./L ;+sng .


                                          vf]lhPsf] kl/jt{gsf] lgwf{/)fM

                  nIo tyf                 nIoM bL#{sfndf xfl;n ug{ rfx]sf] kl/jt{g
                  p@]Zo
                                          [p@]ZoM %f]^f] cjlwdf xfl;n ug{ rfx]sf]
                  lgwf{/)f
                                          kl/jt{g h;n] nIo xfl;n ug{ ;xof]u u%{ .
 /)fgLlt tof/L




                                          p@]ZoM sf] jf^, slxn] ;Dd jf slxn] b]lv, s]
                                          kl/jt{g / slt dfqfdf

                   nlIft                  k}/jL$f/f k|efj kfg{ vf]h]sf ju{x?M
                   ju{                    cj/f]wstf{, nfeflGjt, k|efj kfg{ vf]lhPsf] /
                   klxrf                  k}/jLstf{ klxrfg .
                   g
                   ZflQm                   hfgsf/L,  ;'rgf, ;fGble{s n]v /rgf, cg";Gwfg
                                            tyf tYof° ;+sng
                   lgdf{)
                                           Jojxf/ / cfr/)f kl/jt{g
                   f                       dfgj, cfly{s >f]t ;s+ng

 r/)f                                                           k|s[of




                                                        99
                      lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
          k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




;Gb]z                    ;Gb]zM egfO{/jQmJo®k|df)f®pbfx/)f® c?jf^
lgdf{)F      /           vf]lhPsf] kl/jlt{t lqmofsnfk
dfWod
%gf}^                    dfWodM nlIft ju{;Dd ;Gb]z k""¥ofpg]
                         dfWodsf] %gf}^ .

;~hfn   tyf              %gf}^ ul/Psf] ;jfndf vf]lhPsf] kl/jt{gsf]
u&jGwg                   kIfdf /x]sf JolQm jf ;+:yf;+u ;xsfo{ ug{ ;DjGw
lgdf{)f                  lj:tf/ tyf lgdf{)f



k}/jL                    ;do, :yfg, vr{, sfd, cg"udg lhDd]jf/L,
of]hgf                   cfO{kg{ ;Sg] hf]lvdx?, pknJwLx? Dfkg
tof/L                    ;'rssf] lgwf{/)f u/L qmdj$ (f+rfdf k}/jL
                         of]hgf tof/ ug]{ .

k}/jL                     tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf, ldtL / ;dodf k}/jL of]hgfdf
of]hgf                    n]lvP jdf]lhdsf lqmofsnfkx? sfof{Gjog ug]{]
sfof{Gjog                 .

                              s;/L sfof{Gjog eO{ /x]sf] % .
                              k|ult s:tf] % gof+ s"/f s] eof] .
cg"udg                        s] k|lqmof of]hgf jdf]lhd %, / vf]lhPsf]
tyf                            pknJwL xfl;n ePsf] % <
d'Nof°g

k}/jL                     cfjZos ;+zf]wg u/L k}/jL of]hgfdf ;dfof]hg
of]hgfdf                  ug]{ / /)fgLltdf kl/jt{g u/L k'gM k}/jL ug]{ .
;dfof]hg                  Tof] ;jfn ;dfwfg eP csf]{ ;jfnsf] nflu k}/jLsf]
                          olx k|s[of cjnDjg ug]{ .




                                             100
            lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


k}/jL ;jfn / nlIft ju{



k}/jL ;jfnsf] kl/efiffM ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo h;n] cfd ?kdf rrf{
kfPsf] x"G% / ;dfhsf cfd ;d"bfonfO{ k|efj kf/]sf] x"G%, Tof] ;jfn xf] .
k}/jL$f/f kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsg] gLltut rf;f]sf] ljifo, h;n] cfd ?kdf rrf{
kFPsf] x"G% / ;dfwfg ePdf ;fj{hlgs lxt x"G% .

gLltut ljZn]if)fM xfdLn] %gf}^ u/]sf] ;jfnsf] ;Gbe{df To;;+u
;DjlGwt gLlt lgod s] % h:t} jg P]g, lgod, ljwfg / sfo{of]hgfsf]
s"g s"g bkmfdf s] k|fjwfg\ % s] s] Joj:yf ePsf] % x]g]{ ljZn]if)f ug]{ .

nlIft ju{M

s=    cj/f]wstf{ -Opponents_M clwsf/ a(L pkof]u ul//x]sf] jf sdhf]/
ju{sf] clwsf/ xgg ul//x]sf] JolQm jf ;d"bfo . of] ju{ k}/jLsf] lj?$df
plqg ;S% jf k}/jL sfo{df ljklIfsf] e'ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;S% . pbfx/)fsf]
nflu bf]xf/]f ^f+rf k|)ffnL lgoAq)f ug]{ ;jfnsf] k}/jL sfo{df jg
&]s]bf/x?n] cj/f]w jf lj/f]wL e'ldsf v]n]df &]s]bf/x? of] ;jfndf
cj/f]wstf{sf] ?kdf /xG%g\ .

v=    nfeflGjt ;d"bfoM k}/jL ;kmn ePdf clwsf/ pkof]u ug{ kfpg]
JolQm jf ;d"bfo . sfo{ ;ldtLdf dlxnf / blntsf] ;xeflutf sd u/fOPsf]
;jfndf k}/jL ug]{ xf] eg] ;fd"bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d'xsf dlxnf / blnt
pkef]Qmfx? nfeflGjt ju{df kb{%g\ . To;} u/L ;fd"bflos jgn] jg k}bfj/
ljqmL ljt/)f u/L pkef]Qmf ;d'xn] p&fPsf] /sdsf] 40 k|ltzt jg k}bfj/
z"Ns jfkt g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;+lrt sf]ifdf hDdf ug"{ kg]{ eGg] ;jfndf
k}/jL ug]{ xf] eg] g]kfnsf ;j} ;fd"bflos jgsf pkef]Qmfx? nfefljGt
;d'x cGtu{t kb{%g\ .

u= k|efj kfg{ vf]lhPsf] JolQm jf ;+:yfM ;jfn ;dfwfg ul/g] &fp sxf+
xf], sxf+ k}/jL ubf{ ;jfn ;dfwfg x"G%, cyjf clwsf/ s"g &fpjf^ xgg\
ePsf] xf] Tof] &Fp+ / JolQm k|efj kfg{ vflhPsf] ;+:yf jf JolQm xf] .
pbfx/)fsf] nflu sfo{ ;ldtLdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf sd u/fOg" ;jfn xf]
eg] dlxnfx? lsg sd ;xeflutf ePsf] xf] ;ldtLn] rfxG% t/ dlxnfsf]
#/sf k"?if / >Ldfgx?n] g} k&fpb}gg\ jf dlxnfx? rfxG%g\ t/ sfo{
;ldtLsf k"?if / #/sf >Ldfgn\ k&fpb}gg\ eg] klxnf] sf/)fdf #/sf k"?if jf
>Ldfg rflx k|efj kfg{ vf]lhPsf] ;+:yf jf JolQm xf] eg] bf]>f] sf/)fdf
sfo{;ldtLsf / #/sf k"?ifx? b"j} k|efj kfg{ vf]lhPsf] ;+:yf jf JolQmdf
kb{%g\ .




                                              101
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


#= k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] -Influential) jf ;xof]uLM JolQm jf ;+:yf h:n] kl/jt{g
stf{nfO{ k|efj kf/]/ kl/jt{g Nofpg ;xof]u ug{ ;S% . dlxnf
;xeflutfsf] ;jfnsf] klxnf] sf/)fdf sfo{;ldtLsf k"?ifx?, ;fdflhs dlxnf
sfo{stf{, jg jg sd{rf/L, :yflgo cfdf÷dlxnf ;d'x, Snj, lzIfsx?, uf=lj=;=
kbflwsf/Ln] k|efj kfg{ ;S%g\ .

ª= k}/jLstf{ -Advocators_M kl/jt{gsf] kIfdf s[oflzn /xg] JolQm jf
;+:yf, ;fdflhs sfo{stf{, gful/s ;dfh, cflb of] ju{df kg{ ;Sb%g\, h:t}
dlxnfx?, cfdf ;d'x cflb .

k|df)f, hfgsf/L / ;'rgfM xfdLn] %gf}^ u/]sf] ;jfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;fGble{s
n]v, /rgf, k|df)f, hfgsf/L ;j"tx?sf] vf]htnf; ug"{ kb{% . h:t}M
glhs}sf] ;fd"bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d'xsf] sfo{;ldtLdf 50 k|ltzt
dlxnf / blntnfO{ ;dfg"kflts ?kdf k|ltlglwTj u/fPsf] % eg] dlxnf
;xeflutf sd ePsf] ;jfnsf] nflu of] k|df)f, pbfx/)f cyjf ghL/sf] ?kdf
k]z ug{ ;lsG% . ljwfgdf 50 k|ltzt dlxnf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] eGg]
Joj:yf % t/ Jojxf/df Tof] ePsf] %}g eg] ljwfgsf] bkmfnfO{ k|df)f /
b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf k]z ug{ ;lsG% .

u&jGwg / ;~hfn lgdf{)fM

u&jGwg jf PSo]j$tf -Coalition_

;femf nIo lnP/ Ps cfk;df ;dGjofTds tl/sfn] sfd ug]{ ;+:yfx?sf]
;d'xnfO{ u&jGwg jf Coalition elgG% . k}/jL sfo{df Coalition sf] nIo
eGgfn] gLltut k|efj -sfof{Gjog, gLlt lgod ;+zf]wg / gLlt lgod
lgdf{)F_ kfg{" xf] .

Coalition cfsf/, ;+/rgf, nIo / cGo ljleGg cfwf/x?df km/s km/s x"G%,
oLgLx? &'nf jf ;fgf, cf}krf/Ls jf cgf}krf/Ls, Ps?kstf jf ljljwtfsf
x"G%g\ . oLgLx?n] ;~rf/df nlIft eO{ cledtsf] kl/rfng u/L gLlt
lgod lgdf{tfx?nfO{ k|ToIf k|efj kfb{% .

s"g} cj:yfdf, Pp^f ;+:yf leq dfq} klg cfkmg} ;b:ox? tyf >f]t ;fwgx?
jLr klg u&jGwg ePsf] x"g ;S% .

Coalition lsg !!!

;+:yfx? jLr Ps cfk;df cg"ej, >f]t / ljZjf;sf] clej[l$ ug{

vt/fsf] Go"lgs/)f ub}{ k}/jL ug]{ ;+:yfx?sf] cfTdjn j(fpb} lglZrttf
k|bfg ug{ .

;]jf k|bfg ug]{ lgsfonfO{ Wofgfsif{)f u/fpg .


                                                102
               lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ ;fj{hlgs lxtsf] kIFdf gLlt lgod lgdf{)Fsf]
nflu Wofgfsif{)f u/fpg .

k}/jL ult tyf jn j(fpg .

;+:yfx? jLr Ps cfk;df k}/jL ;Lk tyf Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{




                                              103
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
              k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




;jfnsf] 5gf}6, k|d"v stf{x?sf] klxrfg tyf gLltut jftfj/0fsf] ljZn]if0f

!= ;jfn 5gf}6sf cfwf/x?

;d:of ;wfgsf nflu a9L eGbf a9L ;DefJotf /x]sf]

clwstd\ hgtfdf k|efj kfg{ ;Sg]

;kmn x'g ;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]sf]

;+o'Qm ?kdf sfo{ ug{ ;lsg] ;Defjgf

Go"gtd\ hf]lvd /x]sf]

cfkm\gf] ;+:yfn] k|efjsf/L ?kdf hgjsfnt ug{ ;Sg] ;Defjgf

@= k|d"v stf{x?sf] klxrfg

k}/jL /0fgLlt lgdf{0fsf nflu gLltlgdf{tf / pgLx?sf] O{R5f / cfzosf] ljzn]if0f ug'{
dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . tn lbO{Psf k|Zgn] To:tf ljifosf] klxrfgdf ;xof]u ub{5 .

xfdLn] klxrfg u/]sf gLltut ;jfnx?df k|ToIf lg0f{o s;n] ub{5 <

gLlt lgdf{tfsf lg0f{ox?nfO{ s;n] k|efljt ub{5 <

gLlt lgdf{tf tyf gLlt lgdf{0fdf k|efj kfg]{ dfG5]sf] o:tf ;jfndf rf;f] 5 ls 5}g <

k|d"v gLlt s;n] agfp+5 / o:tf gLlt agfpg s;n] lgoGq0f ub{5 <

#= gLlt ut jftfj/0fsf] ljZn]if0f

gLltsf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ Pp6f hl6n sfo{ xf] . o; ;Gbe{df o:tf] ljZn]if0fdf ljleGg tTj ;dfj]z
ePsf x'G5g\ . k}/jL ;d"x o:tf] jftfj/0fsf] ljzn]if0f ug{ ;Sg] x'g'kb{5 . tn lbPsf k|Zg o;
af/]df ;xof]uL x'g ;St5g\ M

s] klxrfg ePsf gLltut s'/fx?df hg;xefuLtf x'G5 < ;xefuL u/fpg] s] s:tf dfWodx?
ljBdfg 5g\ <

d"Vo lg0f{ox? sxf+ ul/G5 / o:tf lg0f{ox? s;n] lgoGq0f ub{5 <

klxrfg ul/Psf ;jfndf Jofks 5nkmn ePsf] 5 ls 5}g < klxrfg u/]sf ;jfn hg;/f]sf/sf x'g\ <
o;df hgtfn] rf;f] lnG5g\ < ;dfrf/sf dfWodx?n] o:tf ljifodf k|sfzg jf k|zf;/0f u5{g ls
ub{}gg\ <

kl/rfg ul/Psf gLltut ;jfn ;/sf/sf] k|fylkdstfdf kb{5g\ < ;/sf/sf] ljBdfg gLlt lgod kl/jt{g
ug]{ of]hgf 5 < ljut s]xL jif{{leq o; ;DjGwL s:tf lgod :jLs[lt eP jf c:jLs[t eP <



                                                  104
                 lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
              k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


/fhg}lts tKsfdf s] kl/jt{g x'g ;St5 < r'gfj cfPsf] 5 ls < cfufdL r'gfjn] klxrfg ul/Psf
;jfnnfO{ k|efljt kfb{5 ls <

$= gLlt kl/jt{gsf nflu ljsNksf] klxrfg

gLlt kl/jt{gsf ljsNkx? s] s] x'g ;Sb5g\ ;f] lgSof}{n ug'{kb{5 .

gLlt ut ljZn]if0fdf ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ s]xL dxTjk"0f{ s'/fx?

;d:of ;dfwfgdf lbuf] c;/ kfg]{ 7"nf] tyf k|efjzfnL gLltut ;jfn s'g rfxL xf] <

oL ;jfnx?sf ;DjGwdf s]xL kl/jt{g ul/Pg eg] s] x'G5 <

s'g gLlt kl/jt{g ;lhn} x'g ;St5 / s'g rf+xL ;do nfUg] / vlr{nf] x'G5 <

s'grf+xL gLlt kl/jt{gdf dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k|fKt x'g ;St5 cyjf 7"nf] lj/f]wsf] ;fdgf
ug'{knf{ <

s'g} ;d:of ;dfwfg c?eGbf hf]lvdk"0f{ 5g\ < olb 5g\ eg] To:tf ;d:of s;/L sd ug{ ;lsG5
<

gLlt lgdf{tfsf] Wofgfsif{0f ug]{ sfo{df s;n] g]t[Tj lng'kb{5 <

jt{dfg ;dodf s'g gLltut ;dfwfgx?df tkfO{sf] ;+:yf cyjf ;xof]uL ;+:yf To:tf nIo k|fKt ug{
;Sg] alnof] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 <

cGo yk s'/f

xfdLn] u/]sf] k}/jLsf] sf/0f xfd|f nlIft ;d'bfonfo{ vt/f jf lx+;fsf] sf/0f x'g ;St5 < k}/jLsf
nflu sfd u/]sf] sf/0f ;zlQms/0f ug{ vf]lhPsf] ;d'bfonfO{ g/fd|f] x'g ;Sb5 <

of] ;do gLlt pk/ 5nkmn ug]{ l7s j]nf xf] jf xf]O{g < tkfO{n] ;+rfng u/]sf] k}/jLsf] sf/0f
/fHonfO{ cGo 7"nf] ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug]{ s'/fdf c;/ t kb}{g <

k}/jLdf xfd|f] ;+nUgtfn] ;d:ofnfO{ emg hl6n t agfp+b}g <

;d:of ;wfgsf] cGo pkfo s] 5g\ < h'g sd vr{df ljleGg /0fgLltsf sfo{qmd agfP/ k}/jL
eGbf w]/} Jofjxfl/s / gLltk/s agfpg ;lsG5 < k}/jL g} ;j} s'/f xf]O{g ;a} ;d:of
;dfwgdfsf] Psdfq ljsNk k}/jL x'g ;Sb}}g .

s'g} ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] nflu tTsfn s'g} sfd ug'{kb{5 . o:tf] ;Gbe{df k}/jL Tolt Jofjxfl/s
x'b}g lsg eg] hgjsfnt /0fgLltsf dfWodaf6 ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{ nfdf] ;do nfUb5 .

;xof]uL ;d'x / ;~hfn lgdf{0f
;xof]uL ;d'x eg]sf] s] xf] <



                                                 105
                lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


;xof]uL ;d'x eg]sf] ;dfg nIosf nflu ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;xsfo{ ug]{
;+:yfx?sf] Ps ;d"x xf] . ;xof]uL ;d'xsf] u7g s'g} vf; cleofgsf jf
dfldnfsf nflu ul/G5 .
;~hfn eg]sf] s] xf] <
;~hfn eg]sf] ;+:yfx?sf] 5ftf ;+u7g xf] h'g ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox?sf] ;fd'lxs lxt
/ p2]Zosf nflu u7g ul/G5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu ;fd'bflos jg pkfef]Qmf
;d'xx?sf] 5ftf ;+u7g ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf dxf;+3 g]kfn xf] .
dxTjM
vf;u/L gLltut kl/jt{g / hg;zlQms/0f tyf k}/jL kxn ug{sf nflu Pp6f
nf]stflGqs ;dfhdf ljljw k|sf/sf ;+:yf kfO{g' Pp6f dxTk"0f{ kIf xf] . o:tf
;+:yfx? ljrsf] ;xof]u ;d'x jf ;~hfn dxTj lsg 5 eGg] s'/f lgDg cfwf/df
rrf{ ug{ ;lsG5 .
;xsfo{ ubf{ sd vlr{nf]
;dfg nIo k|flKtsf nflu >f]t;fwgsf] k|of]u ;+o'Qm ?kdf ug{ ;lsG5 .
bf]xf]/f]kgsf] ;+efjgfnfO{ 36fpg ;lsG5 .
dg ldNg] ;+:yfx?sf] ;xsfo{n] zlQm / Ifdtf 5 eGg] s'/f b]vfp+5 .


dgg ug'{kg]{ s'/fx?
Pp6f ;xof]uL ;d'xsf] u7g ug]{ sfd ljz]if ?kn] x]bf{ ;fdfGo nfUg ;Sb5
t/ hj lj:t[t ulx/fO{df uO{G5 tj of] hl6n sfo{ jf ljifo xf] eGg] nfUb5 .
;xof]uL ;d'xsf] u7g ubf{ dgg ug'{kg]{ s'/fx? lgDgfg';f/ x'g ;Sb5g\ .
;+:yfut txdf kf/blz{tf, ;fdflhs Gofo / ;xefuLtfsf] :j;ldIff ug'{kb{5 .
cGo ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] o; ljifodf ljZjf; ub{5g\ sL ub}{gg\ eg]/ ;+:yfut
ljZjf;lgotfsf] ;ldIff ug'{kb{5 .
JolQmx? ljZjf;of]Uo 5g\ sL 5}gg\ eg]/ JolQmut ljZjf;lgotfsf] ;ldIff
ug'{kb{5 .

                                              106
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


;femf cfwf/ kQf nufpg] clek|fon] ;a} lhDd]jf/ ;b:ox?sf] b'/b[li6 /
nIosf] ;ldIff ug'{kb{5 .
;femf nIosf nflu Go"gtd\ k|ltj4tf / ;xdlt lgdf{0f ug'{kb{5 .

;xof]uL ;d'x / ;~hfn jLrsf] leGgtf
ljifo          ;xof]uL ;d'x                            ;~hfn
p2]Zo          cNksflng p2]Zosf nflu lb3{sflng p2]Zosf nflu
               a]g]sf                ag]sf
;d]l6Psf]      a[xb\ If]q                              lglZrt ef}uf]lns If]q
If]q
k|s[lt         c:yfoL                                  :yfoL
j}wflgstf      ;fdfGo ;dembf/L                         lnlvt b:tfj]h, j}wflgs Joj:yf
sfo{ If]q      Pp6f vf; If]q                           ljljw sfo{
;dfgtf         ;jfndf ;dfgtf                           k"0f{ ;dfgtf
pkl:ylt        cfjfhsf] pkl:ylt                        ef}lts pkl:ylt

k}/jLdf ;~rf/
;~rf/ hgjsfnt eg]sf] ;fj{hlgs jx;sf nflu ;~rf/dfWodsf] k|of]u xf] .
;~rf/dfWodn] lg0f{o tyf gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ s'g} Ps ;d'x jf kIfsf] nflu
sfd ug{ bjfj l;h{gf ug{ ;St5 . s'g} klg ;jfnnfO{ ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ?kdf
Jofks agfpg] / ;jfn pk/ ;Dk"0f{ kIfsf] tTsfn Wofgfsif{0f u/fO{ hg
;dy{g h'6fpg / ;zQm jftfj/0f ;[hgf ug]{ sfddf ;~rf/ dfWodsf] 7'nf]
e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 .
;~rf/ dfWod4f/ k}/jL lsg <
hgcleofgsf] ;[hgf ug'{
bjfj ;[hgf ug{ / hg ;dy{g k|fKt ug{
lj/f]lw kIfdfly k|efjsf/L bjfj lbg

                                               107
              lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


Ps ;jfnnfO{ ;zQm cleofg agfpg] ;fwg
;xof]uL ;d'xx?nfO{ kl/rfng ug]{ ;fwg
;fwf/0f tyf sd nufgLdf clwstd\ hgtfnfO{ k|efjsf/L tl/sfn] ;Gb]z lbg'
zlQmdf /x]sfx?sf]] zlQm ;Gt'ng u/fpg ;xuf]u ug'{
;~rf/ dfWodsf] k|sf/
;Dk"0f{ ;~rf/ dfWodx?nfO{ k}/jLsf] cfiffdf b'O{ efudf ljefhg ug{
;lsG5 .
-s_ ;Lldt ;~rf/ dfWodx?
-v_ Jofks ;~rf/ dfWodx?
;Lldt ;~rf/ dfWodx? :yfgLo txdf dfq l;ldt x'G5g\ To;sf/0f o:tf ;~rf/
dfWodx?;+u xfsfxfsL ;DjGw x'G5 eg] Jofks ;~rf/ dfWodx?n] 7"nf]
hdftnfO{ ;d]6]sf] x'G5 h;sf] sf/0f ;"rgf ;Dk|]z0f ug]{ JolQmx?l;t
cfdg] ;fdg] ;DjGw x'b}g . To;sf/0f ;fgf jf l;ldt ;~rf/ dfWodx? :yfgLo
txdf cfdg] ;fdg] cGt/lqmof ug]{ s'/fdf a9L k|efjsf/L / k|efjzfnL
x'G5g\ eg] 7'nf jf Jofks ;~rf/ dfWodx? j[zt txdf k|efjzfnL / kxFr
ePsf x'G5g\ .
k}/jLdf ;~rf/ dfWodx?nfO{ k|of]u ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx?
;~rf/ dfWodx?nfO{ k|of]u ug'{eGbf klxnf cg'udg ug'{kb{5 .
pgLx?sf cb[Zo gLlt jf s'g kIfsf x'g\ eGg] s'/f kQf nufpg' kb{5 .
cGoyf pgLx?n] xfd|f] ljifodf lj/f]lw ;"rgf dfWodx?nfO{ unt /0fgLlts
;"rgf k|jfx ug{ ;Sb5g\ h;n] ubf{ xfdLn] ug{ rfx]sf] k}/jLdf gsf/fTds
c;/ kb{5 .
;j{k|yd ;"rgf dfWodx?;+u ;DjGw :yfkgf ug'{kb{5 . cfkm'nfO{ cfjZos
x'g] ljlQs} ;~rf/ dfWodx? vf]Hb} hfg'kg]{ cj:yf x'g' x'b}g . pgLx?;+u
lb3{sflng ;DjGw :yfkgf ug'{kb{5 tfsL tkfO{nfO{ pgLx?sf nflu :yfoL
/ e/kbf]{ ;"rgfsf] >f]tdf] ?kdf lng]5g\ . cToGt} ljZjfl;nf] / 3lgi6 ;DjGw
:yfkgf ug'{kb{5 . pgLx?nfO{ z'?df cfkm\gf ;jfn;+u c;DjlGwt ;"rgf


                                              108
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
             k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


lbg'k5{ / /fd|f] sfd ug'{eof] elg k|z+;f ug'{kb{5 . of] k|lqmofn]
pgLx?;+u ;DjGw :yfkgf x'G5 . ha Ps k6s ;DjGw :yfkgf x'G5 tj
pgLx?n] s'/f ;'Gg yfNb5g\ / xfd|f ljrf/n] jf sfo{qmdn] pgLx?sf]
;~rf/dfWoddf :yfg kfpg yfNb5 .
cfkm'n] p7fpg vf]hsf] ;Gb]z :ki6 x'g] u/L ;dfrf/ pknJw u/fpg'kb{5 /
;dfrf/ ;~rf/dfWodx?af6 ;d]t k|zf;/0f ug{ nfos x'g'kb{5 .
;~rf/ dfWodn] slt If]q cfu6]sf] 5 / p;sf] Ifdtf slt /x]sf] 5 eGg] s'/fsf]
klxrfg u/]sf] x'g'kb{5 .
tkfO{n] k|sfzg jf k|zf;/0f ug{ vf]h]sf] s'/f s'g k]hdf jf s'g ;dodf xf]
eGg] s'/f ;d]t lgSof}{n ug'{kb{5 .


hf]lvd
cg'ko'Qm jf j]l7s If]qM ;a} ;~rf/ dfWodn] xfdLn] rfx]sf] If]q ;dfj]z
u/]sf] x'b}g / xfd|f nflu dfq sfd u5{g\ eGg] s'/f /xb}g . hflghflg jf
cGhfgdf obfsbf pgLx?n] cg'ko'Qm If]qsf] l;h{gf ug{ ;Sb5g\ .
lj/f]lwx? kl/rfngsf] ;DefjgfM ;~rf/ dfWodsf] k|of]u ubf{ /0fgLlts ;"rgf
lj/f]lwx?sf]df k'Ug ;Sb5 .
kqsf/x?4f/f g/fd|f v]nx?M;j} kqsfx? bIf x'b}gg\ / s]xL kqsf/x?df
OdfGbfl/tfsf] sdL x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ cleofgdf gsf/fTds c;/ kg{ ;Sb5 .
slxn]sfxL ;~rf/ dfWodsf dflg;x?n] grflxg] kmfO{bf lng ;Sg] ;+efjgf
/xG5 .
k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?

Mobilisation of mass media,                            Raising questions in parliament

Use of judiciary                                       Struggling to gain access to
                                                       information
Lobbying to target individuals
                                                       Coalitions with like-minded groups
Networking
                                                       Door-to-door awareness campaigns

                                                109
               lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
            k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


Mass mobilisation for
demonstrations

Civil disobedience

Budget Analysis

Media Survey

Social force analysis

Capacity building

Commitment and declarations




                                                110
               lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
               k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L




k}/jLsf cf}hf/x?s]f k|s[lt

d'7e]8 x'g]vfnsf ;fwgx?M k|bz{g, /\ofnL, wgf{, 3]/fpm, h'n';, cfd x8tfn, ef]s x8tfn,
cfd/0f cg;g, tfnfaGbL,

;xof]ufTds ;fwfgx?M ;+o'Qm sfo{, k/fdz{, hfgsf/L, ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg, e|d0f, tflnd,
uf]li7, cflb

lglh vfnsf ;fwgx?M d}qLu0f, a}7sx?, k|ltlglw d08n, ;fd'lxs sfo{, ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg

;fj{hlgs k|s[ltsf ;fwgx?M klqsf k|sf;g, ;~rf/ dfWodsf] k|of]u, uf]li7, sfo{zfnf, sfo{kq
k|:t'tLs/0f, zflGtk"0f{ k|bz{g,




                                                   111
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                 k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


k}/jL of]hgf km/Dof6

k}/jLsf] ;jfnM

nIoM

p2]Zox?M
!=
@=
#=




                                                    112
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           k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


s] ug]{   slxn] cfzfltt                 ;xsfo{tf ;Defljt             sfof{Gjog cg'udg /
<         ug]{ pknlJw                            hf]lvd                        d"Nof+sgsf]
                                                                     lhDd]jf/L
                                                                               lhDd]jf/L




                                              113
             lxdfno u|fld0f k|fs[lts >f]t Joj:yfkg dlxnf ;d'x -lxdjlGt g]kfn_
                k}/jL Ifdtf ljsf; k|lzIfs k|lzIf0f tflnd, % b]lv ( h]i7, @)^&, ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L


Annex-5
Some Pictures




                                                   114
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posted:8/25/2012
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