Julius Caesar by ewghwehws

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									            Julius Caesar

   Julius Caesar     Head of Caesar
    was born on
    the third day
    before the Ides
    of Quintilis
    (approximately
    our July 13) in
    100 B.C.
         Caesar’s Family

   Caesar was       Statue of Venus
    from an old
    patrician
    family-it even
    claimed decent
    from Venus-
    but in recent
    years it had
    fallen out of
    favor.
          Caesar’s Youth

   Very little is known of Caesar’s
    youth- Caesar received education
    from a Greek tutor in Greek,
    rhetoric, philosophy, and law.
          Caesar’s Youth

   Ancient education stressed the
    physical as well as the mental and
    the biographer Suetonius tells us
    that Caesar “handled weapons with
    great skill, was an excellent rider
    and had amazing endurance….Nor
    was his progress held up by rivers:
    he either swam across them or
    crossed them on inflated skins.”
        Caesar’s Appearance

    Suetonius writes of
     Caesar:
    “Caesar is said to
     have been tall, fair,
     well-built, with a
     rather broad face
     and keen, dark-
     brown eyes. His
     health was sound
   Caesar’s Appearance

apart from sudden
comas and a
tendency to
nightmares which
troubled him
towards the end of
his life; but he
twice had epileptic
fits
  Caesar’s Appearance

while on
campaign. He
was something
of a ‘dandy’,
always keeping
his head
carefully
trimmed and
shaved.
  Caesar’s Appearance

His baldness
 was a dis-
figurement his
enemies harped
 upon, much to
 his
 exasperation,
  Caesar’s Appearance

he used to
comb the thin
strands of hair
forward, and of
all the honors
voted him by
the Senate and
People,
  Caesar’s Appearance

none of them
pleased him
more as
wearing the
laurel wreath
on all
occasions-he
took full
advangtae.
        The Late Republic

   To understand Caesar’s career, one
    must understand the events of the
    late Republic in Rome.
   The Late republic was a time in
    Rome’s history marked by popular
    uprisings, civil conflicts, and
    foreign wars as well.
        The Late Republic

   Rome’s constitution during this
    time was unwritten, and the
    Romans continued to break
    standard practices to meet new
    challenges.
   The Romans set dangerous
    precedents which Caesar would
    later take advantage of.
        The Late Republic

   People tended to fall into two
    groups during this time:
    - “optimates” = “the best men”,
       conservative, supported the
       status quo and the senate
    - “populares”- “men of change”
       supported change, tried to
       work around the senate
        The Late Republic

   The leader on     Head of Marius
    the side of the
    Populares was
    Marius- he had
    won a great
    reputation
    fighting
    Mithridates (a
    king in Asia
    Minor).
        The Late Republic

   Later, although
    forbidden,
    Marius was
    elected consul
    six years in a
    row to protect
    Rome from
    invasions by
    two Germanic
    tribes, the
    Cimbri and
    Teutoni.
        The Late Republic

   Another crucial   A Roman Soldier
    change also
    happened to
    the army under
    Marius.
        The Late Republic

   Formerly, there
    was a property
    requirement to
    be in the
    Roman army.
         The Late Republic

   Marius removed
    this, and opened
    the chance of
    military service to
    the poor.
        The Late Republic

   Since many were unemployed and
    there was a shortage of land for
    farming, many poor were willing to
    fight.
   The Senate, however, refused to
    pay to support a standing army.
         The Late Republic

   Marius and other generals would thus
    bring in soldiers with promises of high
    pay and land when they retired.
   A crucial change occurred which
    Caesar would later exploit: soldiers
    became loyal to individual
    commanders rather than the state.
    Individuals Romans would seek to
    build armies loyal to themselves.
         The Late Republic

   Sulla, the leader    Head of Sulla
    on the side of
    the optimates
    also built up an
    army fighting
    Mithridates in the
    East.
         The Late Republic

   As Sulla returned to Rome, he was
    ordered to disband his army- it was
    considered an act of war to march on
    Roman soil with troops- Sulla refused
    and marched on Rome.
        The Late Republic

   In a bloody battle at the Colline
    gate the optimates under Sulla
    defeated the ruling populares
    under Marius.
   Sulla became dictator for an
    indefinite amount of time- another
    dangerous precedent because it
    was an office only to be held for
    six monts.
        The Late Republic

   Sulla would eventually retire and
    give control back to the senate, but
    before he did he instituted a brief
    “reign of terror.”
   He started “proscription”- putting
    enemies names on a list and
    executing them without a trial-
    Sulla even nailed up their heads
    and hands in public.
    Caesar’s Political Career

   Caesar’s political career began at
    this turbulent time: as Marius’
    nephew, he was one of the target’s
    of Sulla’s purges.
   Caesar was condemned because at
    age 18 he boldly refused Sulla’s
    order to divorce his wife Cornelia,
    the daughter of one of Sulla’s
    opponents.
    Caesar’s Political Career

   Caesar hid out in different homes
    of Rome’s countryside, but
    eventually caught malarial fever
    and was captured.
   Caesar used one of his most
    frequently used weapons to
    escape-bribery-and eventually
    through his family’s pleas was
    taken off Sulla’s list.
      The Start of Caesar’s
             Career
   Caesar began his career as a
    soldier, an officer in the province
    of Asia.
   Caesar won fame for himself,
    saving the life of a fellow citizen
    and earning the corona civica (“the
    civic crown”.)
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar then returned to Rome, and
    went on to study oratory at Rhodes
    under Apollonius Molon (Cicero’s
    teacher) and gained a reputation as
    an orator second only to Cicero.
   On his way to Rhodes, another
    famous episode regarding Caesar
    occurred.
          Caesar’s Career

   Suetionius says Caesar’s ship was
    attacked and boarded by pirates.
   Caesar was taken hostage and was
    held for a ransom.
   Caesar told them while a hostage
    he would capture and crucify them.
   Suetonius says that after he was
    freed Caesar raised a fleet and did.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar’s 1st position was as
    military tribune- he likely fought
    against the slave revolt led by
    Spartacus (72-70 B.C).
   Caesar was next elected quaestor
    (judicial/financial official) in Spain.
         Caesar’s Career

   Before he left, Cornelia died- he
    delivered a very touching funeral
    oration which won the favor and
    sympathy of the people.
   Caesar then married Pompeia, the
    granddaughter of Sulla, who was
    very wealthy.
         Caesar’s Career

   Caesar then became aedile (in
    charge of public works and
    games).
   Caesar put on the most lavish
    games Rome had ever seen- he
    won popularity, but also racked up
    huge debts and the senate even
    placed limits on games.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar than won election to the
    prominent position of pontifex
    maximus (chief priest).
   Again, he won it through bribery.
   On the day of the election he
    supposedly told his mother “he
    would be home as chief priest or
    not be home at all” because he’d
    be fleeing his creditors.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar was then appointed governor
    in Spain- he had taken care of his
    debts by aligning himself with Marcus
    Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome.
   While in Spain, Caesar was said to
    have stood in front of a statue of
    Alexander the Great and lamented
    how little he had done- Alexander had
    already conquered the whole world.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar used his     Curiassed Statue
    governorship to         of Statue
    build his
    reputation so
    that he could run
    for consul and
    gain plunder to
    pay his debts.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar gained an
    army with the
    province- he
    subdued a riot in
    what is now
    Portugal and was
    even voted a
    triumph.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar, however, decided to turn
    down his triumph so that he could run
    for consul (Caesar’s nemesis, the
    younger Cato, filibustered in the
    senate so he could not have it).
   Caesar, again relying heavily on
    bribery, managed to get elected but
    his rival Bibulus was co-consul.
         Caesar’s Career

   Knowing he still did not have
    enough support, Caesar formed
    what was called the First
    Triumvirate- an unofficial
    agreement of three men where
    each would help the other.
          Caesar’s Career

   The triumvirate    Pompey
    consisted of
    Caesar, Pompey,
    and Crassus.                Crassus
    Caesar would
    pass policies
    favorable to
    them in turn for
    support.
         Caesar’s Career

   Pompey in return Pompey
    was the foremost
    military general
    and Crassus was           Crassus
    the wealthiest
    man in Rome.
          Caesar’s Career

   Caesar managed to get these
    policies passed through threats,
    bullying, and bribery.
   One time Caesar even had his
    henchmen dump a bucket of dung
    over Bibulus’ head when he tried to
    veto a law, beat up his guards, and
    had his opponents dragged out,.
          Caesar’s Career

   People in Rome even began to
    remark that it was the consulship
    of “Julius” and “Caesar”.
   Caesar’s actions were clearly
    illegal, but as long as held office
    he could not be prosecuted.
         Caesar’s Career

   To protect
    himself, Caesar
    saw to it that
    he be
    appointed
    governor of
    Gaul as soon as
    his consulship
    ended.
         Caesar’s Career

   Caesar now had control of two
    legions in the two provinces
    closest to Rome: Caesar now could
    build a group of soldiers loyal to
    himself and could build his
    reputation.
          Caesar In Gaul

   Caesar also instantly found a
    reason to fight: a tribe called the
    Helvetii, who lived in what is now
    modern Switzerland, announced
    they would abandon this land and
    march into Western Gaul and settle
    there.
           Caesar in Gaul

   The Romans still remembered the
    invasions of Germanic tribes
    earlier, and so the Senate allowed
    Caesar to recruit additional troops.
   This was the start of a nine year
    campaign fighting the Gauls (the
    normal period for a governorship
    was one year).
           Caesar in Gaul

   Caesar now         The Dying Gaul
    commanded
    Cisalpine Gaul
    (“Nearer Gaul”),
    Transalpine
    Gaul (Gaul
    Across the
    Alps), and
    Illyricum.
          Caesar in Gaul

   Although Caesar was away in Gaul,
    Caesar still wielded in influence
    through bribery, threats from his
    gangs of men, by controlling who
    was consul (for example, Mark
    Anthony) or who was tribune (for
    example, Publius Clodius).
           Caesar in Gaul

   While in Gaul, Caesar’s intent was
    to eventually return to Rome:
    - he wants to win a triumph so he
      will have the favor of the people
    - he write Commentarii De Bello*
      Gallico* to try to sway public
      opinion in his favor
        Caesar in Gaul

- he also writes   Manuscript of the
 Commentarii          Gallic Wars
 De Bello*
 Gallico* to try
 to sway public
 opinion in his
 favor
          Caesar in Gaul

   Caesar, however, faced a problem:
    - if he was not holding office, he
       would no longer be immune
       from prosecution and would be
      tried for his crimes as consul
          Caesar in Gaul

   Caesar wished to run for consul so
    he would have the protection of
    holding office.
   However, there was a law that said
    you had to be present in Rome to
    run for consul.
          Caesar in Gaul

   Caesar attemtps to get the senate
    to pass a law to allow him to run
    for consul in absentia*.
   The senate never totally agrees to
    this- Pompey changes his mind
    several times.
           Caesar in Gaul

   Caesar’s imperium in Gaul ran out
    in 49 B.C.
   Caesar faced two choices:
    1.) Enter Rome as a private citizen,
        but he was sure to be tried.
    2.) Enter Roman territory (ager
        Romanus) with his troops and
        be considered an outlaw.
           The Civil War

   The point where the Ager Romanus
    began was the Rubicon River.
    Caesar chose to cross the Rubicon,
    and supposedly said “Alea iacta
    est! (“the die has been cast!).
           The Civil War

   Pompey, the leader of the Senate’s
    forces had taken his troops to
    Greece.
   Pompey outnumbered Caesar by
    about 48,000 to 20,000- but
    Pompey cannot directly control his
    troops, he must take orders from
    the senate.
           The Civil War

   Caesar, on the other hand, was
    known for the swiftness with which
    he moved his troops and with
    which he made decisions.
           The Civil War

   He defeated      Map of Greece
    Pompey at
    Pharsalus, and
    Pompey fled to
    Egypt.
            The Civil War

   Others were captured- but Caesar
    displayed another characteristic for
    which he became known, his
    clementia.
   He pardoned these men, among
    whom was Brutus, later one of his
    murderers.
           The Civil War

   When Caesar
    arrived in
    Egypt, he was
    brought
    Pompey’s
    head- Caesar,
    although his
    enemy was
    eliminated was
    said to have
    wept.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   When Caesar came to Egypt, the
    situation was unstable: Ptolemy XIII
    (who was only 13) and Cleopatra
    (who was only 21) both were
    granted the kingdom.
   For all purposes it was ruled by
    courtiers.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   Cleopatra had been exiled to Syria,
    but wanted to try to regain the
    kingdom.
   Caesar decided he would settle this
    conflict- Cleopatra decided she
    must meet Caesar.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   According to       Head of Cleopatra
    Plutarch, one
    night a Greek
    arrived to visit
    Caesar who was
    carrying a large
    bag- inside was
    Cleopatra.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   Plutarch tells us that Caesar was
    charmed by this and from this time
    on was won over by the queen.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   Caesar then aided Cleoptra,
    jeopardizing the safety of his men
    in very dangerous battles.
   Caesar finally won, and even spent
    several months sailing down the
    Nile with Cleopatra, even though
    the remnants of Pompey’s army
    were not yet defeated nor was
    Rome stabililzed.
      Caesar and Cleopatra

   Caesar even later invited Cleoptra
    to Rome and had a son with her,
    whom he acknowledged and
    named after himself- such
    relations with a foreign queen
    would have been alarming to
    Romans.
    The End of the Civil War

   Caesar finally left- at Zela he
    encountered Pharnaces –the battle
    ended so quickly Caesar
    supposedly said his famous words,
    “Veni, Vidi, Vici!”
   Caesar eventually defeats the
    remnants of Pompey’s forces at
    Thapsus, Utica, and Munda.
          Caesar in Rome

   Caesar returned to Rome and
    celebrated four triumphs (over Gaul,
    Egypt, Pontos, and Africa- Pompey
    was omitted).
         Caesar in Rome

   Caesar also launched a huge
    building program: he builit is own
    forum (Forum Julium), a basilica
    (Basilica Julia), a senate house
    (Curia Julia), the Temple to Venus
    Genetrix (the “Conquerer”), began
    construction on what became the
    Theatre of Marcellus and had plans
    for a great library.
          Caesar in Rome

   Caesar undertook political reforms
    as well: he had plans to codify all
    Roman law, settled his veterans on
    land, reformed law courts, limited
    the terms of provincial governors,
    instituted other social reforms and
    introduced the Julian calendar
    (Rome was formerly on a lunar
    calendar, a month had to be added
    every two years).
         Caesar in Rome

   Caesar also had huge honors
    heaped upon him by the senate.
    Among some of them were:
    a statue of Caesar was placed in
    the temple of Quirinius (the deified
    Romulus) with the inscription, “to
    the undefeated God, a statue of
    Cleopatra stood in the temple of
    Venus,
          Caesar in Rome

    and was granted the title of pater
    patriae (which was only given once
    before.
   There was, however, one title he
    never received, rex.
   Despite his political reforms,
    Caesar never made clear his intent
    for the republic.
           Caesar in Rome

   Caesar became        Head of Anthony
    consul in 44
    B.C. with Mark
    Anthony.
   In February of
    that month, he
    became
    dictator for life.
          Caesar in Rome

   Rumors abounded that Caesar
    would become king- but each time
    the title was offered to Caesar he
    wisely refused- the most famous
    instance was when Anthony
    offered him the diadem at the
    festival of the Lupercalia.
          Caesar in Rome

   Finally, a group   Denarius of Brutus
    of senators
    fearing
    Caesar’s plan
    plotted his
    assassination-
    foremost was
    Brutus, whom
    Ceasar had
    pardoned.
          Caesar’s Death

   The sources contain eerie stories
    of foreshadowing Caesar’s death:
    -on the night before Caesar at the
     house of Lepidus and the
     conversation turned to the
     question of the most pleasant
     death: Caesar said one that was
     sudden and unexpected
        Caesar’s Death

- a man named Artemidoros of
  Knidos, who knew, was said to
  approach Caesar with a scroll and
  said “Caesar, you must read it,
  alone and quickly!” – But in his
  usual manner, Caesar never read
  what was handed to him.
          Caesar’s Death

   The augur Spurinna was also said
    to have predicted disaster fo78
    Caesar on the ides of March.
   Spurinna was standing by the door
    and, Caesar, with an air of
    superiority said the Ides had come
    and nothing had happened.
   Spurinna supposedly said, “They
    have come, but they’re not over.”
          Caesar’s Death

   One senator      Caesar’s Death
    approached
    Caesar about
    business, then
    pulled on
    Caesar’s toga.
          Caesar’s Death

   All twenty-
    three
    conspirators
    each agreed to
    stab Caesar
    once.
       Caesar’s Death

 Caesar fought back at first, but
  then pulled his toga over his
  head.
 Caesar’s death was later
  romanticized- he likely never
  uttered the famous words, “Et
  Tu, Brute!”
          Caesar’s Death

   No one will ever no what Caesar
    intended to do.
   Cicero commented of his murder that
    it was “done with the courage of men,
    but the foolishness of boys.”
          Caesar’s Death

   They said they     Denarius Honoring the
                         Ides, picturing
    did it for           scabbards and the
    freedom, but had     cap of freedom
    no new plan of
    government.
   Civil War would
    remain until the
    victory of
    Augustus.

								
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