GCSE Drama by wuyunyi


									GCSE Drama
Paper 1 - Unit 1:


Resources pack – for
preparation. To be
brought to every
assessed lesson
Background: Monsters vs. Victims Article
1) Objects – piece of rope; red material; goggles; wooden spoon;
scary mask; cleaver and axe. Pictures – Munch’s ‘Scream’; ‘Death
and the Maiden’ play still; ‘Psycho’ film image

2) Historical article – Jack the Ripper; and ‘Another White Chapel
Murder’ article and extract – ‘From Hell’
3) Film and book extract – ‘American Psycho’
4) BBC News article – the Jamie Bulger case
5) Poem – Alone by Edgar Allan Poe
6) Video Games/film covers, pictures, quotes and discussion
‘copycat killers’

Monsters or Victims?

"It was an urge. . . . . A strong urge, and the longer I let it go the stronger it got,
     to where I was taking risks to go out and kill people--risks that normally,
 according to my little rules of operation, I wouldn't take because they could lead
                                      to arrest."

                                                                   -- Edmund Kemper

Where does this urge come from, and why is so powerful? If we all experienced
this urge, would we be able to resist?

Is it genetic, hormonal, biological, or cultural conditioning? Do serial killers have
any control over their desires? We all experience rage and inappropriate sexual
instincts, yet we have some sort of internal cage that keeps our inner monsters
locked up. Call it morality or social programming, these internal blockades have
long since been trampled down in the psychopathic killer. Not only have they let
loose the monster within, they are virtual slaves to its beastly appetites. What
sets them apart?

Serial killers have tested out a number of excuses for their
behavior. Henry Lee Lucas blamed his upbringing; others like
Jeffrey Dahmer say that they were born with a "part" of them
missing. Ted Bundy claimed pornography made him do it.
Herbert Mullin, Santa Cruz killer of thirteen, blamed the voices
in his head that told him it was time to "sing the die song." The
ruthless Carl Panzram swore that prison turned him into a
                                                                  Henry Lee Lucas
monster, while Bobby Joe Long said a motorcycle accident          (SteveNorthup/
made him hypersexual and eventually a serial lust killer. The     TIMEPIX)
most psychopathic, like John Wayne Gacy, turn the blame around and boast that
the victims deserved to die.
They must be insane -- what normal person could slaughter another human, for
the sheer pleasure of it? Yet the most chilling fact about serial killers is that they
are rational and calculating. As the "British Jeffrey Dahmer" Dennis Nilsen put it,
"a mind can be evil without being abnormal."

What They Are

Before we look at who they are, we must first describe what they are. In his book
The Killers Among Us, Steven Egger defines serial murder:

       • A minimum of three to four victims, with a "cooling off" period in

       • The killer is usually a stranger to the victim -- the murders appear
       unconnected or random;

       • The murders reflect a need to sadistically dominate the victim;

       • The murder is rarely "for profit"; the motive is psychological, not

       • The victim may have "symbolic" value for the killer; method of killing
       may reveal this meaning;

       • Killers often choose victims who are vulnerable (prostitutes, runaways,

Statistically, the average serial killer is a white male from a lower to middle class
background, usually in his twenties or thirties. Many were physically or
emotionally abused by parents. Some were adopted. As children, fledgling serial
killers often set fires, torture animals, and wet their beds (these red-flag
behaviors are known as the "triad" of symptoms.) Brain injuries are common.
Some are very intelligent and have shown great promise as successful
professionals. They are also fascinated with the police and authority in general.
They will either have attempted to become police themselves but were rejected,
or worked as security guards, or had served in the military. Many, including John
Gacy, the Hillside Stranglers, and Ted Bundy, will disguise themselves as law
enforcement officials to gain access to their victims.

Who They Kill

Serial killers choose victims weaker than themselves. Often their victims will fit a
certain stereotype which has symbolic meaning for the killer. Bundy brutally
murdered college-age women with long brown hair. Was he killing, over and over
again, the upper-class fiancee who broke off her engagement with him? David
Berkowitz, aka "Son of Sam," was not so particular -- he hated all women: "I
blame them for everything. Everything evil that's happened in the world--
somehow goes back to them." Gacy savagely strangled young men, some of
them his own employees, calling them "worthless little queers and punks." Some
believe that Gacy's homicidal rage was projected onto the boys who represented
his own inadequacy in the eyes of his own domineering father.

With rare exception, serial killers objectify and humiliate their victims. Bundy
deliberately kept the conversation brief -- if he got to know the victim and saw
her as a real person, it would destroy the fantasy.
Serial killers are sadists, seeking perverse pleasure in torturing the victim, even
resuscitating them at the brink of death so they can torture them some more.
("How's it feel, knowing you're going to die?" Gacy asked his victims as he
strangled them, even reciting the 23rd Psalm, urging them to be brave in the face
of death.) They need to dominate, control, and "own" the person. Yet when the
victim dies, they are abandoned again, left alone with their unfathomable rage
and self-hatred. This hellish cycle continues until they are caught or killed.

Why Are They So Difficult to Spot - Getting Away with Murder

We think we can spot lunacy, that a maniac with uncontrollable urges to kill will
be unable to contain himself. On the bus, in the street, it is the mentally ill we
avoid, sidestepping the disheveled, unshaven man who rants on over some
private outrage. Yet if you intend to avoid the path of a serial killer, your best
strategy is to sidestep the charming, the impeccably dressed, polite individual.
They blend in, camouflaged in contemporary anonymity. They lurk in churches,
malls, and prowl the freeways and streets. "Dress him in a suit and he looks like
ten other men," said one attorney in describing Dahmer. Like all evolved
predators, they know how to stalk their victims by gaining their trust. Serial
killers don't wear their hearts on their sleeves. Instead, they hide behind a
carefully constructed facade of normalcy.

Mask of Sanity

Because of their psychopathic nature, serial killers do not know how to feel
sympathy for others, or even how to have a relationship. Instead, they learn to
simulate it by observing others. It is all a manipulative act, designed to entice
people into their trap. Serial killers are actors with a natural penchant for
performance. Henry Lee Lucas described being a serial killer as "being like a
movie-star . . . you're just playing the part." The macabre Gacy loved to dress up
as a clown, while the Zodiac suited up in a bizarre executioner's costume that
looked like something out of "Alice in Wonderland." In court, Bundy told the judge
"I'm disguised as an attorney today." Bundy had previously "disguised" himself as
a compassionate rape crisis center counselor.

The most coveted role of roaming psychopaths is a position of authority. Gacy
was an active, outgoing figure in business and society, became a member of the
Jaycees. Many joined the military, including Berkowitz who was intensely patriotic
for a time. Playing police officer, however, is the most predictable. Carrying
badges and driving coplike vehicles not only feeds their need to feel important, it
allows them access to victims who would otherwise trust their instincts and not
talk to strangers.

Yet, when they are caught, the serial killer will suddenly assume a "mask of
insanity" -- pretending to be a multiple personality, schizophrenic, or prone to
black-outs -- anything to evade responsibility. Even when they pretend to truly
reveal themselves, they are still locked into playing a role. What nameless dread
lies behind the psychopath's mask?

"What's one less person on the face of the earth anyway?" Ted Bundy's chilling
rationalization demonstrates the how serial killers truly think. "Bundy could never
understand why people couldn't accept the fact that he killed because he wanted
to kill," said one FBI investigator.

What Makes a Serial Killer Tick?
Just as these killers rip open their victims to "see how they run" (as Ed Kemper
put it), forensic psychiatrists and FBI agents have tried to get inside the killer’s
mind. Traditional explanations include childhood abuse, genetics, chemical
imbalances, brain injuries, exposure to traumatic events, and perceived societal
injustices. The frightening implication is that a huge population has been exposed
to one or more of these traumas. Is there some sort of lethal concoction that sets
serial killers apart from the rest of the population?

We believe that we have control over our impulses -- no matter how angry we
get, there is something that stops us from taking our aggressions out on others.
Do serial killers lack a moral safety latch? Or are they being controlled by
something unfathomable? "I wished I could stop but I could not. I had no other
thrill or happiness," said Dennis Nilsen, who wondered if he was truly evil. Serial
killers are undeniably sick, and their numbers seem to be growing. Are we in the
midst of a serial killer "epidemic," as Joel Norris describes it? If this is a disease,
what is the cure?

Munch’s Scream
Example of still from Death and the Maiden

Film Still from ‘Psycho’
Extract from American Psycho by Bret Eastern Ellis

….I stand in front of a chrome and acrylic Washmobile
bathroom sink – with soap dish, cup holder, and railings that
serve as towel bars, which I bought at Hastings Tile to use
while the marble sinks I ordered from Finland are being sanded
– and stare at my reflection with my ice pack still on. I pour
some Plax antiplaque formula into a stainless steel tumbler and
swish it around my mouth for 30 seconds. Then I squeeze
Rembrandt onto a faux-tortoiseshell toothbrush and start
brushing my teeth (too hungover to floss properly – but maybe
I flossed before bed last night?) and rinse with Listerine. Then
I inspect my hands and use a nail brush. I take the ice-pack
mask off and use a deep-pore cleanser lotion, then an herb-
mint facial masque which I leave on for ten minutes while I
check my toenails. Then I use the Probright tooth polisher and
next the Interplak tooth polisher (this in addition to the
toothbrush) which has a speed of 4200 rpm and reverses
direction forty-six times per second; the larger tufts clean
between teeth and massage the gums while the short ones
scrub the tooth surfaces. I wash the facial massage off with a
spearmint face scrub. The shower has a universal all-
directional shower head that adjusts within a thirty –inch
vertical range. It’s made from Australian gold-black brass and
covered with a white enamel finish. In the shower I use first a
water-activated gel cleanser, then a honey-almond body scrub,
and on the face an exfoliating gel scrub. Vidal Sassoon shampoo
is especially good at getting rid of the coating of dried
perspiration, salts, oils, airborne pollutants and dirt that can
weigh down hair and flatten it to the scalp which can make you
look older. The conditioner is also good – silicone technology
permits conditioning benefits without weighing down the hair
which can also make you look older………………
              Another Whitechapel Murder
            Report as Printed in the London Times

  During the early hours of yesterday morning another murder of a
most revolting and fiendish character took place in Spitalfields. This
is the seventh which has occurred in this immediate neighbourhood,
and the character of the mutilations leaves very little doubt that the
  murderer in this instance is the same person who has committed
    the previous ones, with which the public are fully acquainted.

 The scene of this last crime is at No 26 Dorset Street, Spitalfields,
which is about 200 yards distant from 35 Hanbury Street, where the
  unfortunate woman, Mary Ann Nicholls, was so foully murdered.

   As an instance of the poverty of the neighbourhood, it may be
  mentioned that nearly the whole of the houses in this street are
 common lodging-houses, and the one opposite where the murder
  was enacted has accommodation for some 300 men, and is fully
                       occupied every night.

   The woman has supported herself as best as she could, and the
police have ascertained that she has been walking the streets. None
 of those living at the court or at 26 Dorset Street, saw anything of
the unfortunate creature after about 8 o'clock on Thursday evening,
but she was seen in Commercial-street, shortly before the closing of
 the public house, and then had the appearance of being the worse
 for drink. About 1 o'clock yesterday morning a person living in the
    court opposite to the room occupied by the woman heard her
  singing the song "Sweet Violets," but this person is unable to say
 whether any one else was with her at that time. Nothing more was
         seen or heard of her until her dead body was found.

   At a quarter to 11 yesterday morning, as the woman was 35s
[thirty five shillings] in arrears with her rent, Mr M'Carthy said to a
   man employed by him in his shop, John Bowyer, "Go to No 13
(meaning the room occupied by Kelly) and try and get some rent."
  Bowyer did as he was directed, and on knocking at the door was
unable to obtain an answer. He then turned the handle of the door,
 and found it was locked. On looking through the keyhole he found
   the key was missing. The left-hand side of the room faced the
   court, and in it were two large windows. Bowyer, knowing that
when the man Kelly and the dead woman had their quarrel a pane
 of glass in one of the windows was broken, went round the side in

 He put his hand through the aperture and pulled aside the muslin
 curtain which covered it. On his looking into the room a shocking
    sight presented itself. He could see the woman lying on the bed
   entirely naked, covered with blood and apparently dead. Without
   waiting to make a closer examination he ran to his employer and
told him he believed the woman Kelly had been murdered. M'Carthy
       at once went and looked through the broken window, and,
satisfying himself that something was wrong, despatched Bowyer to
   the Commercial Street Police station, at the same time enjoining
     him not to tell any of the neighbours what he had discovered.
  Inspector Back H Division, who was in charge of the station at the
 time, accompanied Bowyer back, and on finding that a murder had
      been committed at once sent for assistance. Dr Phillips, the
  divisional surgeon of police, and Superintendent Arnold were also
   sent for. During this time the door had not been touched. On the
   arrival of the Superintendent Arnold he caused a telegram to be
       sent direct to Sir Charles Warren, informing him what had

    Mr Arnold, having satisfied himself that the woman was dead,
 ordered one of the windows to be entirely removed. A horrible and
  sickening sight then presented itself. The poor woman lay on her
back on the bed, entirely naked. Her throat was cut from ear to ear,
  right down to the spinal column. The ears and nose had been cut
clean off. The breasts had also been cleanly cut off and placed on a
 table which was by the side of the bed. The stomach and abdomen
had been ripped open, while the face was slashed about, so that the
    features of the poor creature were beyond all recognition. The
    kidneys and heart had also been removed from the body, and
placed on the table by the side of the breasts. The liver had likewise
 been removed, and laid on the right thigh The lower portion of the
  body and the uterus had been cut out, and these appeared to be
missing. The thighs had been cut. A more horrible or sickening sight
could not be imagined. The clothes of the woman were lying by the
side of the bed, as though they had been taken off and laid down in
                         the ordinary manner.

 It was reported that bloodhounds would be laid on to endeavour to
trace the murderer, but for some reason this project was not carried
   out, and, of course, after the streets had became thronged with
   people that would have had no practical result. The street being
    principally composed of common lodging houses, persons are
 walking along it during all hours of the night, so that little notice is
 taken of any ordinarily attired men, the murderer, therefore, had a
               good chance of getting away unobserved.

With regard to Kelly's movements just before the murder, a report
 says that she was seen as usual in the neighbourhood about 10
  o'clock on Thursday evening in company with a man of whom,
 however, no description can be obtained. She was last seen, as far
as can be ascertained, in Commercial-street about half-past 11. She
   was then alone, and was probably making her way home. It is
 supposed that she met the murderer in Commercial Street, and he
 probably induced her to take him home without indulging in more

  The same reports, describing the removal of the mutilated body,
 says at 10 minutes to 4 o'clock a one-horse carrier's cart, with the
 ordinary tarpaulin cover was driven into Dorset Street, and halted
   opposite Millers-court. From the cart was taken a long shell or
  coffin, dirty and scratched with constant use. This was taken into
     the death chamber, and there the remains were temporarily
coffined. The news that the body was about to be removed caused a
 great rush of people from the courts running out of Dorset Street,
and there was a determined effort to break the police cordon at the
                        Commercial Street end.

The crowd, which pressed round the van, was of the humblest class,
     but the demeanour of the poor people was all that could be
 described. Ragged caps were doffed and slatternly-looking women
  shed tears as the shell, covered with a ragged-looking cloth, was
    placed in the van. The remains were taken to the Shoreditch
  Mortuary, where they will remain until they have been viewed by
                          the coroner's jury.

Jack the Ripper

Perennial Thriller

Jack the Ripper! Few names in history are as instantly recognizable.
Fewer still evoke such vivid images: noisome courts and alleys,
hansom cabs and gaslights, swirling fog, prostitutes decked out in
the tawdriest of finery, the shrill cry of newsboys - and silent, cruel
death personified in the cape-shrouded figure of a faceless prowler
of the night, armed with a long knife and carrying a black Gladstone

       Philip Sugden, The Complete History of Jack the Ripper

                                                                Johnny Depp in the
By today's standards of crime, Jack the Ripper would movie From Hell, the
                                                       newest Jack the
barely make the headlines, murdering a mere five       Ripper story (CORBIS)
prostitutes in a huge slum swarming with criminals:
just one more violent creep satisfying his perverted needs on the
dregs of society. No one would be incensed as were the respectable
families of the pretty college students that were Ted Bundy's victims
or the children tortured and mutilated by John Wayne Gacy. We
have become a society numbed by horrible crimes inflicted upon
many victims.

Why then, over a hundred years later, are there allegedly more
books written on Jack than all of the American presidents
combined? Why are there stories, songs, operas, movies and a
never-ending stream of books on this one Victorian criminal? Why is
this symbol of terror as popular a subject today as he was in
Victorian London?

Because Jack the Ripper represents the classic whodunit. Not only is
the case an enduring unsolved mystery that professional and
amateur sleuths have tried to solve for over a hundred years, but
the story has a terrifying, almost supernatural quality to it. He
comes from out of the fog, kills violently and quickly and disappears
without a trace. Then for no apparent reason, he satisfies his blood
lust with ever-increasing ferocity, culminating in the near
destruction of his final victim, and then vanishes from the scene
forever. The perfect ingredients for the perennial thriller.

Every parent's nightmare Jamie Bulger
BBC Article
Thursday, 26 October, 2000, 03:15 GMT 04:15 UK

The haunting image of James being led away
By BBC News Online's Mike Mckay

It started in the most hum-drum and ordinary circumstances. A Friday - 12
February, 1993 - in The Strand shopping centre in Bootle, Merseyside. A young
mother trailing through the centre, a toddler at her side or occasionally lagging a
little behind her.

The mother enters a shop. A moment or two later the restless toddler wanders
out alone. Usually, a distracted parent is quickly in pursuit - and so, on that
Friday afternoon, was Denise Bulger, who came hastily out of the shop, expecting
to find two-year-old James nearby.

But this was not the usual moment of anxiety speedily
dispelled. A panicky search around the neighbouring shops
came to nothing. James was missing.

In the few moments the little boy had been at large in the
enclosed shopping centre, two older boys had come upon
him - Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, both aged 10.

For reasons which have never been explained to this day,
the two friends took James and led him from The Strand
and away, eventually, to his death.

                                                              James was only two when he
CCTV footage
                                                              was killed

Late the next day, Saturday, his body was found by the railway line at Walton, a
couple of miles from the shopping centre. He had been beaten, struck with a
battery and bricks and left for dead. The hunt began for the killer.

Initially, the predictable fear was that the little boy had been abducted by a
murderous paedophile.

But then the Merseyside police examined the CCTV footage taken from the
shopping centre's security cameras.

To their horror, the pictures, although fuzzy, revealed that it was not a predatory
adult who had taken James - but two young boys who appeared to have
happened upon him accidentally.

It was every parent's nightmare and more. Could these
two youngsters have been James's killers - or had they
surrendered him to a paedophile and then decided to stay
quiet through fear of the consequences?

The inquiry was led by Det Supt Albert Kirby, one of the
Merseyside force's most experienced officers. At length,
he called a news conference. Two boys had been arrested
at their homes within a few hundred yards of the murder

The week of the search had been haunted by those fuzzy
video images. They left an indelible impression which    The toddler's body was found
                                                         on a railway track
provoked a rash of furious questions - about the true
innocence of children and how the adult world measured up to its responsibilities.
Witnesses' anguish

Such questions came agonisingly to the surface at the boys' criminal trial at
Preston in November 1993.

A series of witnesses spoke of seeing two boys escorting a toddler along the route
from Bootle to Walton. Their anguish was nearly unbearable.

One or two broke down in tears as they tortured themselves with the thought
that they might have intervened, particularly one who became suspicious about
the way Venables and Thompson were treating the little boy who they insisted
was their "brother".

In the drama which unfolded before an adult criminal court, few challenged the
decision to place the two defendants before such a court rather than a juvenile

It meant that, although during the trial they were known only as Boy A and Boy
B, they were exposed to the full weight of criminal trial - a packed press bench,
public benches crowded with the Bulger family and their friends and neighbours.

Angry crowds

The mood on Merseyside had been witnessed long before the trial was set for

At their first appearance on remand in Bootle magistrates' court, the huge crowd
outside roared its anger and contempt as the van carrying the two boys was
driven away. Several attempted to attack the vehicle.

Few criminal trials have proceeded amid such blazing
emotions and recrimination. At the end the judge, Mr
Justice Morland, ruled that the two boys could be
identified by name - thus linking them forever to one of
the most horrific murders of modern times.

The judge also set a tariff of eight years detention for the
two boys before they could be considered for release on

Lord Taylor later recommended 10 years, but the then
Home Secretary Michael Howard set the minimum as 15
years.                                                         Anger outside the court as
                                                               Venables and Thompson are
                                                               driven away
This was after representations from the boys' lawyers and
opposing petition raised by the Bulger family. By the late 1990s, the boys'
lawyers were taking their case to the European Commission of Human Rights.

In March last year it set the seal on a shift of position by the British Government,
later re-inforced by the Court of Human Rights - a minimum punishment period
should not be set by the home secretary.
          “Alone”   by Edgar Allan Poe (1875)

From childhood’s hour I have not been
As others were — I have not seen
As others saw — I could not bring
My passions from a common spring —
From the same source I have not taken
My sorrow — I could not awaken
My heart to joy at the same tone —
And all I lov’d — I lov’d alone —
Then — in my childhood — in the dawn
Of a most stormy life — was drawn
From ev’ry depth of good and ill
The mystery which binds me still —
From the torrent, or the fountain —
From the red cliff of the mountain —
From the sun that ’round me roll’d
In its autumn tint of gold —
From the lightning in the sky
As it pass’d me flying by —
From the thunder, and the storm —
And the cloud that took the form
(When the rest of Heaven was blue)
Of a demon in my view —
                                           ’I don’t have to worry about
                                           getting caught, I can just blame my
                                           violent behaviour on the video
                                           games I have been playing and the
                                           focus goes onto the companies!’

‘Thailand bans Grand Theft Auto after young teenager kills in imitation
of video game’
Is Copycat Behaviour Driving
     people to Murder?

Eight murders have been
blamed on this 1995 ‘evil’

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