Emerging Technologies for the Control of Foodborne Pathogens and the USDA- Pathogen Modeling Program Vijay K. Juneja, DVM., MS., Ph.D. Microbial Food Safety Research Unit Eastern Regional Research Center ARS - USDA 600 East Mermaid Lane Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038 Phone: 215-233-6500 Fax: 215-233-6697 e-mail: email@example.com Agricultural Research Service National Program 108 (Food Safety) Mission Statement: The mission of Food Safety Program is to provide the means to ensure that the food supply is safe for consumers and that food and feed meet foreign and domestic regulatory requirements. To decrease the hazards of both introduced and naturally occurring toxicants in foods and feed, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites, chemical contaminants, mycotoxins produced by fungi growing on plants, and naturally occurring toxins produced by plants. Agricultural Research Service Research and Technology Transfer The USDA Agricultural Research Service Food Safety Program addresses prevention and control of food pathogens, the production, harvesting, processing, transportation, handling, and storage of food (the farm to table continuum), and the prevention of toxic chemical hazards in food through research programs that benefit producers, processors, and the public. Agricultural Research Service National Program 108 (Food Safety) Vision Statement: Safe food available to every American at home, when eating out, or in institutional settings, and the knowledge needed to keep that food safe until consumption. • The research components of this program include: Microbial Pathogens Chemical Residues Mycotoxins Toxic Plants The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the Chief Scientific Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture • 100 Locations, in All 50 States + International Sites • 2200 Ph.D. Scientists • 8000 Employees • >$1 Billion Budget • $105 Million for Food Safety, 77 Projects + CRADA ARS National Programs Animal Production Nutrition/Safety Natural Resources Crop Production Human Nutrition Water Quality & Plant, Microbial & Insect Animal Production Management Germplasm Conservation Animal Health Food Safety & Development Soil Resource Arthropod Pests of Management Plant Biological & Animals and Humans New Uses, Quality Molecular Processes & Marketability of Air Quality Animal Well-Being Plant & Animal Plant Diseases Global Change and Stress Control Products Crop Protection & Systems Rangeland, Pasture & Quarantine Forages Aquaculture Crop Production Manure & Byproduct Utilization Bioenergy & Energy Alternatives Integrated Agricultural Systems Methyl Bromide Alternatives USDA/ARS – FUNDING FOR FOOD SAFETY Agricultural Research Service: $102M Pre-harvest $60M Post-arvest $42M Eastern Regional Research Center: $18M ~18% of total food safety budget ~43% of post-harvest budget Four regional research centers, provide the major portion of ARS's capability for research and development of technology to increase the use of agricultural products and thereby enhance the economic viability and competitiveness of U.S. agriculture. NCAUR (NRRC) – Peoria, Illinois SRRC – New Orleans, LA ERRC – Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania WRRC – Albany, California Worksites: $31.5 mil Budget - University of Maryland Eastern Shore 300 Employees - Delaware State University 90 PhD Scientists/Engineers 17 Research Associates ERRC Stakeholder Although the United States maintains one of the safest food supplies in the world… Per year in the USA • 5,000 deaths (0.002%) • 325,000 hospitalizations (0.1%) • 76 million cases (27.5%) • $5 to $8.4 billion in costs Total Cases per year in USA Campylobacter 1,963,000 (14.2%) Salmonella 1,342,000 (9.7%) E. coli 0157:H7 92,500 (0.5%) Listeria monocytogenes 2,000 (-) Mead et al., 1999 Pathogens of concern (Meat and Poultry) • The most common foodborne bacterial pathogens associated with meat and poultry are: Campylobacter jejuni (poultry), Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (ground beef and pork), Listeria monocytogenes (beef, pork, poultry, and sea food), Salmonella species (beef, pork, poultry, and sea food), Staphylococcus aureus (beef, pork, and poultry), and Yersinia enterocolitica. (meat and seafood). Potential Emerging Pathogens • Hepatitis E virus • Chronic wasting disease (TSE that affects deer and elk) • Multiple antibiotic-resistant pathogens • Non jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. • Non O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (enterohemorrhagic E. coli, EHEC), and other diarrheagenic E. coli groups • Enterobacter sakazakii Food Safety – The Big Picture! - Find, Characterize, & Kill Interventions Thermal Non-Thermal (New, Developing) Varying Cooking Temperatures/Times, Physical, Chemical, Biological, HTST/UHT Pasteurization and Electromagnetic Processes Slaughter Fabricate Process Centers of Excellence in Process Validation (BSL-2 & BSL-3) People – 40 to 50: Budget - $6.5M Raw Materials Locations – PA, DE, MD, & GA Finished Products Publications - >125/year Recovery/Characterization Modeling • Biosensors (Rapid Detection Technologies) • Predictive Microbiology (PMIP) (PMP, ComBase) • Nucleic Acid (PCR, PFGE) • Center of Excellence in Microbial Modeling and • Genomics & Proteomics (Omics) Informatics (CEMMI) Food Preservation • Aseptic handling to prevent or minimize entry of microorganisms into food • Physically removing microorganisms in food • Killing microbial cells and spores present in foods • Preventing or reducing the growth of microorganisms and germination of spores present in foods Major Existing Technologies for Food Preservation • Techniques that slow or • Techniques that inactivate prevent the growth of microorganisms microorganisms – Heating – Reduction in temperature Pasteurization – Reduction in water activity Sterilization – Reduction in pH – Removal of oxygen • Techniques that restrict – Modified atmosphere packaging access of microorganisms – Addition of preservatives – Packaging – Aseptic processing New and Emerging Technologies for Food Preservation • Natural additives – Animal-derived antimicrobials – Plant-derived antimicrobials – Microbial products • Physical processes – Irradiation – High hydrostatic pressure – Electrical methods – Ultrasound What is Predictive Microbiology ? Thermal Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens • The models: – Develop HACCP Plans – Validate HACCP Plans, or – The effects of process deviations – Determine the relative severity of a problem – Finally, plan for corrective actions “PMIP” 10,000,000 Fate of Pathogens in Food Growth 1,000,000 Predictive Microbiology Information Portal 100,000 10,000 Survival Bacterial levels 1,000 100 Death 0 Modeling Viability and Transfer of Pathogens in Raw, Fermented, and Ready-to-Eat Foods Examples of Parameters that Affect The Fate of Pathogens in Foods Pathogen Modeling Program: •Used by 30% of Food Industry Intrinsic: Extrinsic: ComBase: for HACCP validation •pH •Storage temperature •42,000 Records of growth, •Aw •RH of environment •5000 Online users in 35 survival, and inactivation of •Oxidation potential •Modified Atmosphere countries annually microbes •Portuguese, Chinese, Spanish Center of Excellence in Microbial Modeling & Informatics Predictive Microbiology Information Portal Regulations Models Useful Links •Final Rule on Listeria monocytogenes in RTE Meat and Poultry Products •“Zero Tolerance” Policy Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) 7.0 The PMP is a repository of models that estimate the behavior of bacterial pathogens in specific environments. Through a user interface, information is provided about the effects of environmental factors on: - growth - inactivation (thermal and non-thermal) - toxin production CRIS 57 Predictive Models For Foodborne CRIS 57 Pathogens (Applications) -- Web-based database for food microbiology data consisting of thousands of microbial growth and survival models -- Major international initiative to coordinate collection and dissemination of food microbiology data – ERRC and Institute of Food Research THANK YOU! DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?
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