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Engineering Design


									                     Engineering Design

                                   Brian Nettleton

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the
author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). June, 2006.
What is Engineering?
             There are many definitions for the term
                 engineering. Here are a few:
 Engineering is the discipline dealing with the art or
science of applying scientific knowledge to practical
Engineering is the application of science to the needs of
Engineering is analysis or design work requiring extensive
preparation and experience in the use of mathematics,
chemistry, physics, and the engineering sciences.
If you have regular access to computers it would be a good
opportunity to have students work in teams to find and
present a definition.,GGLR:2006-
    The Engineering Method

  The engineering method is the use of heuristics to
cause the best change in a poorly understood situation
    within the available resources. –Billy V. Koen

  What in the world does that
A design problem comes with certain criteria and
constraints. A heuristic can be thought of as tools that
engineers use to help keep the design solution within
the criteria and constraints. Engineering heuristics

 •Rules of thumb and orders of magnitude.
 •Factors of safety.
 •Heuristics that determine the engineer’s attitude
 toward his or her work.
 •Heuristics that engineers use to keep risk within
 acceptable bounds.
 •Rules of thumb that are important in resource
      Conceptual Design
   Conceptual design is generating a concept,
   identifying problems, establishing function
structures, and searching for possible solutions.

   The purpose of conceptual design is to find
     the best solution possible by using any
                means possible.
              Analytical Design
Analytical design takes a concept and puts it through
testing and redesign to find the best possible solution.
Analytical design takes into consideration cost, life
expectancy, durability, and marketability in the initial design

Analytical design usually begins after the conceptual
design phase.
The Engineering Design Process

 Engineering design is a process. The process is
 comprised of essential steps that engineers follow to
 help solve design problems.
The Engineering Design Process

 Identify the problem
The Engineering Design Process

 Define or refine the
     List all of the criteria and constraints.
The Engineering Design Process

  Gather information

      Research on the internet, in books,
            or interview people.
The Engineering Design Process

    Develop alternate
  Brainstorm in groups to find as many different
  solutions as possible.
  The first solution is rarely the best.
The Engineering Design Process

Select and refine the
    best solution
    Choose the solution that best fits the
         criteria and constraints.
The Engineering Design Process

  Express the design

      Make a sketch or drawing of your
              design solution.
The Engineering Design Process

     Build a model or
     prototype of the
   The model or prototype can be made in a
         variety of ways and out of a
             variety of materials.
The Engineering Design Process

  Evaluate, revise and
   refine the solution
     A design problem is never truly solved
               without this step.
The Engineering Design Process

     Communicate the
  People need to be convinced that the solution is
              the best possible one.
Testing and Evaluating Designs

 Testing and evaluating is one of the most important
            parts of the design process.

During the testing phase engineers collect data and
analyze it.
 Engineers look at the data for patterns or
discrepancies to see if the design needs revisions or
if it is working properly.
       Standards and Benchmarks

Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of
G. Requirements for a design are made up of criteria and constraints.
Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.

F. Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in different
  sequences and repeated as needed.
G. Brainstorming is a group problem-solving design process in which each
  person in the group presents his or her ideas in an open forum.
H. Modeling, testing, evaluating, and modifying are used to transform ideas into
  practical solutions.

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