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Engineering Design By Brian Nettleton This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). June, 2006. What is Engineering? There are many definitions for the term engineering. Here are a few: Engineering is the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. Engineering is analysis or design work requiring extensive preparation and experience in the use of mathematics, chemistry, physics, and the engineering sciences. If you have regular access to computers it would be a good opportunity to have students work in teams to find and present a definition. http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&rls=GGLR,GGLR:2006- 15,GGLR:en&q=define%3Aengineering The Engineering Method The engineering method is the use of heuristics to cause the best change in a poorly understood situation within the available resources. –Billy V. Koen What in the world does that mean????? A design problem comes with certain criteria and constraints. A heuristic can be thought of as tools that engineers use to help keep the design solution within the criteria and constraints. Engineering heuristics include: •Rules of thumb and orders of magnitude. •Factors of safety. •Heuristics that determine the engineer’s attitude toward his or her work. •Heuristics that engineers use to keep risk within acceptable bounds. •Rules of thumb that are important in resource allocation. Conceptual Design Conceptual design is generating a concept, identifying problems, establishing function structures, and searching for possible solutions. The purpose of conceptual design is to find the best solution possible by using any means possible. http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/3a5/3a54/3a54.htm Analytical Design Analytical design takes a concept and puts it through testing and redesign to find the best possible solution. Analytical design takes into consideration cost, life expectancy, durability, and marketability in the initial design stages. Analytical design usually begins after the conceptual design phase. The Engineering Design Process Engineering design is a process. The process is comprised of essential steps that engineers follow to help solve design problems. The Engineering Design Process Identify the problem The Engineering Design Process Define or refine the problem List all of the criteria and constraints. The Engineering Design Process Gather information Research on the internet, in books, or interview people. The Engineering Design Process Develop alternate solutions Brainstorm in groups to find as many different solutions as possible. The first solution is rarely the best. The Engineering Design Process Select and refine the best solution Choose the solution that best fits the criteria and constraints. The Engineering Design Process Express the design solution Make a sketch or drawing of your design solution. The Engineering Design Process Build a model or prototype of the solution The model or prototype can be made in a variety of ways and out of a variety of materials. The Engineering Design Process Evaluate, revise and refine the solution A design problem is never truly solved without this step. The Engineering Design Process Communicate the solution People need to be convinced that the solution is the best possible one. Testing and Evaluating Designs Testing and evaluating is one of the most important parts of the design process. During the testing phase engineers collect data and analyze it. Engineers look at the data for patterns or discrepancies to see if the design needs revisions or if it is working properly. Standards and Benchmarks Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. G. Requirements for a design are made up of criteria and constraints. Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. F. Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in different sequences and repeated as needed. G. Brainstorming is a group problem-solving design process in which each person in the group presents his or her ideas in an open forum. H. Modeling, testing, evaluating, and modifying are used to transform ideas into practical solutions.
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