02 Intro to the Geneva Conventions - teacher

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02 Intro to the Geneva Conventions - teacher Powered By Docstoc
					The Geneva Conventions

 International Humanitarian Law
        A Universal Code
The History
• In 1862, Henri Dunant (Swiss) published his book,
  Memoir of Solferino. In this publication, Dunant
  discussed the horrors of war.
• He proposed the organisation of humanitarian aid in
  times of war, and a governmental treaty that would allow
  this organisation to be seen as neutral.
• This is why the Red Cross was formed in 1863
• Following the establishment of the Red Cross, the Swiss
  Government held an international diplomatic meeting in
  Geneva the following year.
The Geneva conventions
• This first meeting, composed of twelve states,
  formulated the Geneva Convention of 1864.
• Its focus was the “condition of the Wounded and
  Sick in Armed Forces in the Field”.
• A second convention was organised in 1906 and
  worked on protecting the “wounded, sick and
  shipwrecked military personnel at sea during
The Geneva conventions
• A third convention, in 1929, applies to prisoners
  of war.
• The fourth convention, in 1949, addressed the
  concern of protecting civilians, including in
  occupied territory.
• The singular term Geneva Convention refers to
  the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the
  aftermath of World War II, updating the terms of
  the first three treaties and adding a fourth treaty.
• Beside the four treaties, the Geneva
  conventions is also formed of three
• A protocol is the rules of etiquette
  observed by diplomats and heads of state.
• The first protocol was on International
  Conflict, the second on non-international
  conflict and the last one on additional
  distinctive emblem.
• The Geneva Conventions entered into force on
  21 October 1950.
• Ratification grew steadily through the decades:
• 1950s: 74 States ratified the Conventions
• 1960s: 48 States
• 1970s: 20 States signed on
• 1980s: another 20 States joined
• 1990s: 26 countries ratified the Conventions in
  the early, largely in the aftermath of the break-up
  of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and the
  former Yugoslavia.
 International Humanitarian Law
• The Geneva Conventions and their Additional
  Protocols are at the core of international
  humanitarian law, the body of international law
  that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and
  seeks to limit its effects.
• They specifically protect people who are not
  taking part in the hostilities (civilians, health
  workers and aid workers) and those who are no
  longer participating in the hostilities, such as
  wounded, sick and shipwrecked soldiers and
  prisoners of war.
                Video on International
                  Humanitarian Law
•   http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/f00981?opendocument (13min)
•   The Red Cross - http://www.redcross.ca/article.asp?id=425&tid=018
•   Nobel Prize –

•   Icrc - http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/f00981?opendocument (13min)

•   Symbols - http://www.icrc.org/Eng/ihl

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