Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden.doc

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					                    Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden:
                   A Match Made Up in Propaganda?

Compiled By: Ryan Mauro

This is to serve as a semi-chronological guide to Iraq’s sponsorship of terrorism
throughout the years beginning with 1990. I personally have not taken a firm position as
to if Saddam personally supported any anti-American terrorist attack, but the information
is presented here for you to make up your mind. Some may say that Wahhabists like Bin
Laden, Shiites like the Iranians, and Sunnis like the Iraqis won’t work together do to
theological differences. This argument has obviously been disproved, as today we see
Saddam’s loyalists, Wahhabists and all sorts of terrorists today cooperating in the war
against Coalition forces.

Compare the theory to Christianity. This is like saying Catholics and Protestants don’t
work together. They may not attend the same churches, but as we see today in the
disputes in Alabama over the display of the Ten Commandments, they unite against a
common threat. Please read this article with an open mind, and perhaps it will become as
obvious to you as it is to myself, that Saddam’s regime was a state sponsor of terrorism.


Early 1990 saw the first major acceleration in Saddam’s interest in terrorist groups. Iraqi
intelligence helped set up a command headquarters, recruitment program and training
program in Amman, Jordan for various Palestinian terrorist organizations. From here,
assistance to Yasser Arafat’s Palestinian intelligence apparatus and security forces
including Force 17; the 15th of May Organization; the Organization of the Survivors of
Hammah (sect of Syrian Muslim Brotherhood); Hamas; Palestine Liberation Front;
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine; Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine and other groups was provided.[1]

Iraq also began creating front groups including the Front for the Islamic Army for the
Liberation of Palestine, and took responsibility for turning Arafat’s Palestinian Liberation
Organization forces into the Palestinian Liberation Army. Iraq directed the
transformation. The Iraqi front group, FIALP, then formed an alliance with the PLA,
Hamas, and the Islamic Unification Movement and was used to provide covert Iraqi
support.[2] Under the joint Arafat-Hussein efforts, PLO units began moving from
Algeria, Jordan, Sudan and Yemen to Iraq to be trained and transformed into PLA units
in late March.[3]

The Gulf War saw Iraq’s first try at terrorist attacks. They completely failed, but Saddam
Hussein’s links to terrorists, particularly Palestinian ones, was shown. Among the attacks
attempted, was a bomb attack against the Thomas Jefferson Library in Manila,
Philippines by two intelligence operatives. Attacks on Western interests by the Iraqis
were foiled in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia and Thailand.

In the summer of 1991, the Arafat-Hussein transformation of the PLO was still in the
process. Half-way through June, Arafat ordered the movement of 10,000 PLO militants
to Iraq to assist in the creation of a special, elite terrorist force under Iraqi command.[4]


This is the first year that contact between Saddam Hussein’s regime and Osama Bin
Laden’s organization was established. According to CIA reports, the first meeting
between a Bin Laden representative and an Iraqi representative occurred. By the end of
2002, nearly 100 direct meetings of the kind would be recorded by the CIA.[5]

One of the first meetings was between Ayman Al-Zawahiri, head of the Egyptian Islamic
Jihad which later merged with Al-Qaeda, making Zawahiri second only to Bin Laden.
This has been confirmed by a former Iraqi intelligence officer and the Patriotic Union of
Kurdistan forces.[6]


On February 26, 1993, the World Trade Center was bombed. Strangely, few cared to
notice that this was near the second anniversary of the beginning of the ground war in the
Gulf War, which began February 23. Logically, that day is a Sunday, so moving the
attack ahead up by two days to cause maximum casualties and damage, can explain the
inaccurate timing.

Laurie Mylroie, a former advisor to Clinton on Iraq, and author of “Study of Revenge”,
needs to be praised for her expert research about the attack. I encourage readers to
purchase her book. She believes Iraq got involved in radical Islamic terror plots in New
York after the regime learned of the activity from a terrorist they harbored who was uncle
to one of the Muslim ringleaders.

The ringleader of the bombers, Ramzi Yousef, arrived in America on an Iraqi passport,
and was nicknamed “Rashid the Iraqi” by the radical terrorists he joined in New York.
The moment Yousef arrived; he directed the group to target the World Trade Center and
how to do it. After the bombing, the second ringleader, an Iraqi, Abdul Rahman Yasin
(whose expertise was essential for mixing the sophisticated chemicals we discussed) fled
to, and was protected by, Saddam’s regime in Iraq. ABC News spotted him in Baghdad in
1994 and learned he was being paid by the regime.

Mylroie shows compelling evidence that Iraq provided the intelligence and false
passports for Ramzi Yousef and the terrorists, and possibly funding. The hydrogen-
cyanide gas that was planned to be spread by the explosion is remarkably similar to the
hydrogen-cyanide gas technology Iraq had perfected. After the bombing Yousef fled the
country under a false identity, Abdul Basit Karim, a Pakistani national originally born in
Kuwait. Upon investigation of the name, Mylroie learned that the real Abdul Basit Karim
has been missing since the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. During this time, Iraq seized
Kuwait’s files from the Interior Ministry, allowing Iraq to steal hundreds or possibly
thousands of identities. Karim is one such identity that has been stolen.

How do we know that Abdul Basit and Ramzi Yousef are the same person? Mylroie
shows the obvious signs that the passport of Abdul Basit was tampered and explains that
fingerprints matching Yousef’s was found in Abdul Basit’s police file. The altered
passport was used by Yousef in 1992 to receive another passport to Pakistan in Abdul
Basit’s name. The differences between the real Abdul Basit and Ramzi Yousef are also
obvious physically and personality-wise, as explained in Mylroie’s book.

Also convicted in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing was the “Blind Sheikh” Omar
Abdel al-Rahman, believed to be the spiritual mentor for Ayman Al-Zawahiri and Osama
Bin Laden. It is suspicious that such a figure would work with an alleged Iraqi
intelligence agent, although al-Rahman himself may not have known the fact. Another
conspirator, Mohammed Salameh is suspected of working alongside Iraqi intelligence—
in fact, the brother of Abu Halima, another conspirator, confirmed this. Salameh is
known to have made nearly fifty phone calls to Iraq between June 10th and the day of the
bombing attack. His uncle, Kadri Abu Bakr, is known to have worked in Baghdad since
1986 for a Palestinian terrorist unit.

After the bombing, Ramzi Yousef fled to Manila, harbored by Mohamed Jamal Khalifia,
the brother-in-law of Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden, through Khalifia, paid Yousef to
train members of Abu Sayyaf, an Al-Qaeda branch in the Philippines, about bomb
Mylroie says that many senior US government officials believe Iraq was involved in the
bombing, as well as those involved in the investigation. She quotes Jim Fox, the leader of
the FBI investigation as saying, “The majority of senior law-enforcement officers in New
York believe that Iraq was involved.” She also claims that Egyptian and Saudi
intelligence sources concurred with the view.

Later on, as evidence came out that Iraq was linked to the World Trade Center bombing,
newspapers would express denial, alarm or others, dire warning. As the Boston Globe
wrote: “If Saddam’s operatives manipulated simple-minded Islamic zealots to bomb the
World Trade Center, it is only prudent to assume his agents are capable of striking

Another highlight of 1993 was the attack on American soldiers in Somalia, and the
following retreat out of the country. This was the first time that Bin Laden’s forces would
loosely work with Iraqi intelligence, which had been recruiting militants in Sudan and
Somalia. Bin Laden’s militants in Somalia would fight alongside these recruits and even
members of Iraq’s special forces. It is unknown the level of direct contact Iraq and Bin
Laden had in coordinating the events.[9]

Of course, also in 1993, was Iraqi intelligence’s attempted assassination of former
President Bush in Kuwait. The attack to be carried out with a truck bomb and armed
assassins was foiled, but this was significant as the first proven Iraqi-sponsored attack. I
also suggest reading Laurie Mylroie’s book, “Study of Revenge”, which has evidence
that Iraq was also involved in a plot to be carried out in late 1993 to destroy the United
Nations building in New York, the federal building, and the Holland and Lincoln tunnels.


The beginning of cooperation with Al-Qaeda began in 1994. Farouq Hijazi, a high-
ranking Iraqi intelligence officer, had his first meeting with Osama Bin Laden in
Sudan.[10] It is believed they discussed cooperation in handling Islamic terrorists and
insurgents, and Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons facilities in Sudan.

The beginnings of the Oklahoma City plot may also be rooted in events in 1994. Edwin
Angeles, a co-founder of Abu Sayyaf on the Philippines (an Al-Qaeda branch), began his
meetings with Ramzi Yousef (whom he met in 1989), Ahmad Hassin (Yousef’s half-
brother), an American named Terry (possibly Terry Nichols?) and another unidentified
American, possibly a man that goes by the name of “John Lepney’. It was at these
meetings in 1994 that plots to bomb US government buildings in Oklahoma City, St.
Louis and San Francisco were discussed.[11]

Iraq is believed to have upgraded its terrorist force in the United States mainland
(specifically New York City) with its first professional biological weapons scientist—
complete with expertise in genetic engineering and access to local scientific labs. This is
in addition to “Waly Samar”, whom we will discuss.[12]


1995 was highlighted by the attack on the Murrah building in Oklahoma City, led by
Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, anti-government, right-wing terrorists. But should
this mean a link to Middle Eastern terrorists should be ruled out? In the minds of most
investigators, yes. But they are wrong.
The reporting of Jayna Davis (investigative reporter); Larry Johnson (former deputy
director of the State Department’s Office of Counterterrorism); and Patricia Long (former
Middle East expert for the DIA) is sure to one day prove them all wrong. As former CIA
director James Woolsey said, one day we will be indebted to Davis and her
coworkers.[13] Apparently, the evidence of a connection to the Middle East was at one
point in the mind of the police. Immediately after the attack, the FBI launched an intense
search for men of Middle Eastern origin that reportedly fled the building after the
explosion. Later, the search was cancelled.

Davis’ research shows that there a multiple people who saw Middle Easterners with
Timothy McVeigh, and the descriptions were so clear that a government sketch was
produced. 24 witnesses say they saw about eight Middle Easterners with Nichols and
McVeigh during the attack. She records that several employees at the Oklahoma City
Property-Management Company claim to have seen a brown Chevy truck being chased
by the police outside the office just days prior to the terrorist attack. The owner of the
company is Palestinian, with suspected ties to the Palestinian Authority.

Approximately six months prior to the attack, the Palestinian had hired a group of former
Iraqi soldiers from the Republican Guard to work at the rental houses. Eyewitnesses
reported that on the day of the attack, they were seen in a disturbingly good mood. On
April 17th, 1995, the day McVeigh rented the Ryder truck, all the employees were absent
from work. In Davis’ investigation, the Iraqi with the most focus is a man named Amad
Hussain Hashem al-Hussaini, one of the former Republican Guard members, whose
picture is nearly identical to the police sketch made from eyewitness reports of one of the
Middle Easterners at the attack. Al-Hussaini has attempted to sue Davis for these
allegations, but the case was dismissed.

Al-Hussaini’s left arm has a traditional Republican Guard tattoo symbolizing service
during the Gulf War, when Iraq began sponsoring anti-American terrorism. Five
witnesses report seeing several of al-Hussaini’s Iraqi workers frequently visiting a motel
in Oklahoma City in the months, days and hours before the attack. During the visits, they
were often seen with either Nichols or McVeigh. Four days before the attack, two
eyewitnesses say they saw McVeigh drinking with al-Hussaini.

On the day of the attack, just hours before the incident, two witnesses say they saw al-
Hussaini one block from the Murrah building. Around the same time in the hours up to
the attack, one of al-Hussaini’s co-workers was seen in the driver’s seat of a Chevy
pickup at an apartment complex near the Murrah building. When police officers found
the abandoned truck, it was tripped of identification numbers and body molding used for
identification purposes. The owner of the motel frequently visited and an employee both
confirm seeing Middle Easterners on the day of the attack, within feet of a large Ryder
truck in the parking lot, just hours before the explosion. They described the truck as
having an unusual odor of diesel fuel coming from the rear. Minutes after the odor came
about, McVeigh returned the room key and drove off with a man—apparently al-
Seven witnesses reported to Jayna Davis that they saw a man similar to al-Hussaini riding
with Timothy McVeigh in the Ryder truck directly in front of the Murrah building, just
minutes before the fertilizer bomb went off. Al-Hussaini then sped away in a brown
Chevrolet pickup truck; precisely matching the FBI’s description of a vehicle that wanted
Middle Easterners may be using that day.

After the attack, Al-Hussaini moved from Oklahoma City to work at Boston’s Logan
International Airport, where several 9/11 hijackers would meet to seize airliners,
including Mohammed Atta.

During the follow-up investigation, it was discovered that Timothy McVeigh had a large
collection of phone numbers of Iraqis that he hid. Jayna Davis’ follow-up investigation
reveals that 22 witnesses saw an Arab-looking man alongside Terry Nichols and Timothy
McVeigh in the minutes and seconds before the bomb detonated. There has been no
testimony by a witness that contradicts these claims—the people that saw McVeigh and
Nichols alone either had a view that would not allow the viewing of the Iraqi—or they
saw the Americans after the bomb detonated. By that time, al-Hussaini had driven off in a
different truck. Two local officials say they saw an Arab with a backpack running from
the Murrah building as fast as they could, while looking at a watch, in the seconds before
the blast.

Davis also says that a source on Capitol Hill gave her a copy of a government warning
that a terrorist attack sponsored by either Iran or Iraq was imminent against the mainland,
but the warning listed government facilities in Washington DC as the primary target.
Although the warning was incorrect in that detail, it does appear that there is classified
intelligence linking the Oklahoma City bombing to Middle Eastern terrorists.[14]

Terry Nichols also had a suspicious connection to international terrorists besides his
meetings with the Iraqis led by al-Hussaini. Davis is now claiming to have irrefutable
evidence that Nichols got the bomb-making expertise from Iraqi intelligence officers in
the Philippines, when he met Ramzi Yousef, the suspected Iraqi intelligence agent whom
led the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Both lived amongst Al-Qaeda-associated
operatives while they were in the Philippines.

Insight Magazine had a great interview with the widow of Edwin Angeles, a co-founder
of the Abu Sayyaf group and agent of the Philippines’ Defense Intelligence Group.
Elimina Abdul in the March 10, 2002 interview said that her husband finally told her all
he knew, because he knew he would soon be killed. Since talking, she claims, several
shots have been fired at her.

Beginning in 1994, her husband met with Ramzi Yousef, Ahmad Hassim, an American
whose first name is Terry—known as “The Farmer”, and another American whose name
she does not know. Everyday for one full week, they talked about bombing US
government buildings in Oklahoma City, St. Louis and San Francisco. The Americans
were also taught how to make the bombs needed for the operations. Ramzi Yousef also
contributed funding to the Americans for the attacks. Elimina Abdul confirms that
Yousef was an Iraqi agent, and she says that her husband had a private meeting with a
Filipino soldier who said that the Iraqi role could never be exposed.

According to Insight’s investigation, Edwin Angeles had a videotaped interrogation with
the Filipino police. He confirmed that an American named “John Lepney” was involved,
as was another American named Terry. The first meeting, he said occurred just prior to
the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and meetings continued later in 1994. At the
meetings was Ramzi Yousef’s half-brother, Ahmad Hassim. Angeles says that he first
met Yousef in July, 1989 as a “personal envoy” of Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden’s
brother-in-law, Muhammed Khalifia, was at the time establishing the Abu Sayyaf group
in the Philippines using front companies. However, Yousef is suspected of being paid by
Iraq to carry out the June 20, 1994 bombing of a Muslim shrine in Iran. Yousef’s father
and brother also worked with Iraqi intelligence in the Iranian dissident terrorist group, the
People’s Mujahideen Organization of Iran.[15] In another testimony, that of Abdul
Hakim Murrad, arrested for working with Yousef in the first World Trade Center
bombing, also says that Ramzi Yousef and his co-workers in the Philippines were
responsible for the attack in Oklahoma City. Yousef’s role throughout the years as an
Iraqi-sponsored terrorist may be the key to understanding the role of Saddam Hussein in

1995 brought Iraqi assistance to Al-Qaeda as well. Saddam Hussein sent Farouq Hijaz, a
former Iraqi intelligence general, and Habib Ma’muri, chief of special operations, to meet
with Bin Laden representatives at Salman Pak, Iraq’s top terrorist training camp.[16]
According to Iraqi defectors, these meetings resulted in the revival of the plot to hijack
airliners in the US to attack prominent US buildings including the World Trade Center,
which had already survived the first Iraqi attack. Al-Qaeda was also disappointed by
similar airliner plots foiled by the seizure of documents by Filipino police. Al-Qaeda
forces were eager to succeed in their plans.[17]

To fulfill these plans, Iraq began training its first foreign terrorists in hijacking techniques
using a Boeing-747 from Kuwait. The Iraqis trained the Muslims at a camp in

State-sponsored terrorism may also have had a role in the bombing attack on US forces at
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The day after UNSCOM’s report was released which revealed
Iraq’s massive, covert biological weapons program, a terrorist group claiming to be in
Saudi Arabia gave Western forces in the country until June 28th to leave. The threat was
broadcasted on Iraqi state radio after it was published. On November 13th, a powerful
bomb killed 5 Americans and 2 Indians in Riyadh. The Iraqi media hailed the attack, and
warned that the attack should serve as a message to the US and Saudi Arabia. Kuwaiti
officials immediately blamed it on Iraq[19], as did many senior Saudi intelligence
officials. One told Laurie Mylroie, “”Of course that was Iraq. That was a professional
bomb. It was not made by a bunch of Saudis sitting in a tent in the middle of the
desert.”[20] The famous high-ranking Iraqi defector, Hussein Kamil, said: “[Saddam is]
determined to beat the US and ‘topple the White House into the dust.’ That’s one of his
favorite expressions. You can judge how sly he is: He wants everybody to think it’s the
Iranians behind the attack. He is using them as a smokescreen, hoping to fool the world.
He will go on trying to seek revenge against his enemies. Top of his list are Saudi Arabia
and the US.”[21] When members of Saudi Hezbollah were found involved in the attack,
many blamed Iran. It is entirely possible Iran had a role, but that does not mean Iraq did
not either. As I’ll explain when I discuss the year 2001 issues, Imad Mughniyah, the head
of Iran’s Hezbollah, often works with Ayman Al-Zawahiri of Al-Qaeda.


Harbored in Sudan, Osama Bin Laden again met with a senior Iraqi intelligence officer.
The meeting established how they would maintain ties once Bin Laden moved to
Afghanistan.[22] This was the same year that Ramzi Yousef was captured in Pakistan,
living less than a block away from the Iraqi ambassador to the country.[23]

In June, the Arab League held an important summit, and on the table for discussion were
the UN sanctions on Iraq. Pro-American Arab countries, led by Saudi Arabia, expressed
support for the sanctions, which greatly angered Saddam Hussein. The Iraqi state press
then issued a warning to the Arab countries that if they “sin” against Iraq, they would
only be hurting themselves. Two days after the Iraqi state press issued the warning;
suspected Al-Qaeda operatives bombed the Khobar Towers installation in Saudi Arabia,
killing nearly 20 Americans. An Iraqi defector, General Wafiq Samarai, claims Saddam
asked him to join a secret organization to attack US interests during the Gulf War, and
that the Khobar Towers attack was an exact copy of some of the plans for attacks.[24] As
I said before, just because Saudi Hezbollah members was involved, this does not mean
Iraq did not have a role.

Over the summer, UN inspectors also discovered that Directorate M-21 of Iraqi
intelligence was responsible for directing a huge terrorist training and recruitment
program. The inspectors testified saying, “Document after document outlined an
international program of terror.”[25]

On September 5th, Ramzi Yousef, Abdul Hakim Murad and Wali-Khan Amin Shah were
convicted for the plot to hijack airliners and crash them into American buildings
including the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. Murad appears to have been one of
the designated pilots for the plot, as he admitted to being trained at flight schools in
America. Information from the arrest and later, the trial of terrorists involved in the 1998
embassy bombings would become vital to the 9/11 connection. It appears that several of
the 9/11 hijackers trained at the same school in Norman, Oklahoma (near Oklahoma City)
as operatives involved in Yousef’s plot. Why was the Iraqi special agent, Yousef,
cooperating with Al-Qaeda’s plot if there was no cooperation between Saddam and Bin

It also appears that Al-Qaeda learned the shoe-bombing tactic from Iraqi agents. The
information taken from the apartment used by Ramzi Yousef showed Yousef was
teaching Murad, an Al-Qaeda operative, how to sneak chemicals and explosives onto
airliners, and how to hide explosives in shoes to be detonated while the airliner was in-
flight. When the Oklahoma City bombing occurred, Murad told the prison guard that the
“Liberation Army” was responsible. According to the aforementioned Edwin Angeles,
involved in the airliner plot and with the joint Yousef-Al-Qaeda plots, this was the term
used when referring to the Palestine Liberation Army, a terrorist group directly sponsored
by Saddam Hussein (this is openly known) and used to carry out attacks and cooperate
with allied terrorists, leaving no trace directly back to Iraq.[27]

Between December 28th and 29th, the D-8 group, which included Syria, blamed Saddam
Hussein’s regime for the poor conditions on the Iraqi people and to comply with UN
resolutions. Two days later, the Islamic Change Movement (believed by many to be an
Iraqi front group) claimed credit for a terrorist attack killing 9 people in Damascus on a
bus. The Islamic Change Movement also claimed credit for the Riyadh and Khobar
Towers bombings.


This year, the first Al-Qaeda camps in Iraq opened up. Saddam Hussein’s regime
increased the flow of small arms and money to Osama Bin Laden’s terrorist
organization.[28] In springtime, Iraq’s support for Palestinian terrorists took a new turn.
Smuggling routes were established through Jordan, for Iraqi weapons including shoulder-
fired surface-to-air missiles and anti-armor RPGs to be delivered to Arafat’s Palestinian

Beginning in 1997, and continuing through the beginning of the Iraq War, between 1,200
and 1,500 Iraqi special forces would infiltrate Jordan to reach areas of Islamic radicalism
as well as Palestinian refugee camps to deliver arms and ammunition to Arafat’s militants
and Hamas in the West Bank and Jordan.[30]


According to captured Iraqi documents, in March of this year, Osama Bin Laden sent an
envoy to meet with Iraqi officials in Baghdad’s al-Mansour Hotel to create an alliance to
fight a common enemy. Iraq paid for the trip by the envoy, and the meeting was so
successful; it was extended for a week, and ended in arrangements for Bin Laden to travel
to Baghdad himself. The envoy was asked by Iraq to become a personal liaison between
Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden.[31]

This year Farouq Hijazi was promoted to ambassador to Turkey by Saddam Hussein. Not
long after his appointment, Hijazi traveled to Afghanistan and met with Osama Bin
Laden. The meeting resulted in an official invitation to Bin Laden to travel to Baghdad
for a meeting.[32] Between April 25th and May 1, 1998, two Al-Qaeda senior military
advisors, Muhammed Abu-Islam and Abdullah Qassim met with Qusay Hussein,
Saddam’s youngest son, in Baghdad.[33] Plans were made for the first group of Saudis
belonging to Al-Qaeda to be trained in Iraq, whom crossed over in mid-June using secret
infiltration routes that Iraqi intelligence had used. Upon arrival at the al-Nasariya terrorist
camp, one group of Saudis was taught how to prepare for attacks and conduct
surveillance, and the other group was integrated into a network to smuggle weapons and
explosives into Saudi Arabia from Iraq.[34]

On May 1, Iraq warned of “dire consequences” if UN inspectors did not leave, and
sanctions were not lifted. Eight days later, Bin Laden issued a declaration of war on the
USA, with the main themes citing US “aggression” in Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Iraqi
situation dominated much of his speech, calling for revenge on behalf of the Iraqi
Muslims. Throughout the rest of the year, Saddam’s and Bin Laden’s threats appeared to
be synchronized. On August 5th, Saddam finally expelled UN inspectors and demanded
sanctions be lifted. The state press warned of “consequences” yet again, and two days
later, Al-Qaeda attacked the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya.[35]

In mid-July, Ayman Al-Zawahiri was sent by Bin Laden to meet with senior Iraqi
officials in Iraq, including vice president Taha Yassin Ramadan.[36] During the July
visit, Zawahiri was taken to a suspected site used for nuclear and/or chemical weapons
production near al-Fallujah, and oversaw the training of Al-Qaeda operatives at the al-
Nasiriyah military and chemical weapons facility.

The summer brought the first evidence of planned Iraqi bio-terrorism. Iraqi women were
caught trying to smuggle vials of biological agents, specifically anthrax and botulinum
toxin, into the United States and United Kingdom by trying to hide them inside their

In December, Bin Laden was seen at Baghdad’s al-Rashid Hotel by Giovanni Di Stefano,
a famous lawyer who was working to strike a deal with Iraqi Airlines in Italy and
Yugoslavia. The meeting was also confirmed by defectors and the intelligence
communities of the region. At the meeting, Saddam offered Bin Laden safety (which Bin
Laden turned down), and a deal was made for Al-Qaeda operatives to receive special
weapons training in Iraq.[38] Hijazi was put in charge of supervising the movement of
the first 60 Al-Qaeda operatives to Iraq for training, whom would then begin a new Al-
Qaeda branch in northern Iraq known as Ansar al-Islam. The group, which serves as
Saddam’s link to Bin Laden, is paid by Saddam to persecute the rebellious Kurds and to
conduct assassinations.[39]

Outraged by US and British airstrikes on Iraq, the Iraqi trade minister issued this warning
in the state media: “When the United States is helping terrorist activities against Iraq,
then this will enhance terrorist activities against the United States. It is not a threat; it is a
consequence of their policy.” The day the airstrikes ended, Farouq Hijazi was sent by
Saddam Hussein to meet with Bin Laden at Kandahar, Afghanistan. Yemeni diplomatic
passports were delivered, as well as further assurances of support for attacks on the West.
Soon after the meeting, several Iraqi military-intelligence officers arrived in Afghanistan
via Pakistan, including members of the elite Unit 999. In Afghanistan, 4 teams of 12
veteran terrorists were chosen for the elite training Unit 999 could provide in Iraq.[40]

Support for other terrorists in 1998 also increased. Baghdad began giving safe harbor to
the terrorist mastermind, Abu Nidal, whom often was solicited for support by groups
including Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the PFLP, and various state sponsors. An Iraqi
defector (a top official in Mukhabarat) has described Iraq’s support for these groups and
others, whose testimony is here described by Vanity Fair’s David Rose: “The first was
the Iranian opposition force...which during the 1980s maintained at least 20,000 fighters
inside Iraq, where it helped suppress the 1991 Shi’a uprising. The second was the Popular
Front for the Liberation of Palestine, which carried out a long string of murders and
hijackings...However, by the early 90s, the Popular Front’s place in the terrorist pantheon
was usurped by...Hamas, perfectors of suicide bombing...The defector’s testimony
reveals the true depth of the Iraq-Hamas connection.”[41]

Michael Ledeen, commenting on the defector’s testimony in his book, War Against the
Terror Masters, writes: “The defector painted a detailed picture of the close working
relationship. Hamas had its own office in Baghdad, and its own subdepartment within the
structure of Mukhabarat. Hamas killers were trained in Iraq, both at the infamous Salman
Pak terrorist camp and another in the northeast. And of course there were weapons,
‘guns, ammunition both heavy and light, detonators and explosives. It was Iraq which
trained Hamas in how to make bombs.’ There are good reasons to believe that Saddam
continues to seek ways to take revenge on us, and we know for a certainty that his people
are working feverishly to develop several weapons of mass destruction.”[42]


This year began Iraq’s more direct support for Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad
terrorist groups that target Israeli civilians. It is also around this time Saddam Hussein
began sending $25,000 checks to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers.

Of course, links to Al-Qaeda did not die out either. An Iraqi defector, now an official in
the Iraqi National Congress, declared, “There is a long history of contacts between the
Mukhabarat (Iraqi secret service) and Osama Bin Laden.”[43] Iraqi opposition forces also
warned that they had information that Saddam was hoping to use Bin Laden to carry out
terrorist attacks on Western interests, specifically in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.[44]The
beginning of warnings about an Iraqi-Bin Laden plot began surfacing. A senior Arab
intelligence officer who knew Saddam Hussein personally, told Newsweek, “Very soon
you will be witnessing large-scale terrorist activity by the Iraqis”, and said it would be
conducted under “false flags”.[45]
By early January, the aforementioned four teams of a dozen terrorists were training in the
outskirts of Baghdad. By the end of the month, hundreds of “Arab Afghans” (the
nickname for Arabs that joined the forces in Afghanistan) were training at the al-Nasariya
camp, and according to opposition sources, talking about attacking the United States and
our allies.[46] Between January 25th and 27th, Abu Ayab al-Masri, senior Al-Qaeda
member, met with Farouq Hijazi in Dubai and Turkey, where he was given Yemeni
passports. In Ankara, al-Masri met Hijazi and a member of Unit 999, to discuss plans to
train four more terrorist teams and coordinating their transportation through Istanbul.[47]

In December, Abu Jaffer al-Jaziri was accused by the US of a role in the Al-Qaeda plot to
bomb the Los Angeles International Airport. Al-Jaziri is believed to have been one of Bin
Laden’s long-time Iraqi representatives. He was killed in Afghanistan in January, 2002.


On February 2, the ringleader of the 9/11 hijackers, Mohammed Atta met with Ahmad
Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, an Iraqi intelligence officer posing as a diplomat at the Iraqi
embassy in Prague, Czech Republic. The next day, Atta went to Florida to begin flight
school.[48] Although this meeting was denied by US intelligence, and then the Czechs, a
near majority of Czech intelligence workers believe the meeting now did occur, and
according to rumors, the Czechs or the Americans have a photo of the two meeting.

In February 2000, according to an Iraqi defector whom claims to have shipped arms for
Iraq to Al-Qaeda, senior Iraqi officials began planning at least nine operations against the
United States in the Middle East and Gulf. The defector says he was told of a plot he was
to take part in involving a trade ship packed with explosives to be used by suicide
bombers to attack a US ship in the Gulf. The plan was revealed to the defector
approximately one month after an Al-Qaeda attempt to attack the USS Sullivans, an
American destroyer, in Yemen. In October 2000, Al-Qaeda successfully attacked and
badly damaged the USS Cole in Yemen. Could this all be connected, as the defector’s
testimony appears to indicate?[49]

The defector, Mohamed Mansour Shahab, says there was evidence of an Al-Qaeda role in
the Iraqi plots. After he was captured by Kurdish forces in March of 2000, he testified
that in early 2000 he was called by an Afghan whom he had known do to his previous
arms smuggling operations. The Afghan, named Othman, told him to attend a meeting in
Iraq. In February, Shahab was taken to Ouija, near Tikrit. There he met Ali Hassan al-
Majid, also known as “Chemical Ali”, and former defense minister Luai Khairallah
whom was close to Uday Hussein. They told him the nine operations were to begin a year
or so later, around early 2001, after he delivered refrigerator motors to the Taliban. Each
motor contained a liquid, but Shahab says he does not know what it was. After delivering
the motors, Shahab was arrested by the Kurds.[50]
Meanwhile, Qusay Hussein began creating the Al-Nida terrorist force that Iraq would use
for joint operations with international terrorists. Iraqi intelligence would choose the best
qualified for training others in, and participating in, operations involving guerilla warfare,
sabotage, surveillance, and other terrorist activities. In mid-March, Hamoud Abaid al-
Anezi, a senior Al-Qaeda commander, arrived in Australia where he made contact with a
group of four Iraqi nationals, “defectors” that had lived there since 1991. Together, they
recruited Muslims for jihad around the world, until the authorities caught them in the act.
Later on, this same Iraqi network would be suspected of a role in an Al-Qaeda plot to
attack on the day of the Syndey Olympic Games.[51]

In spring 2000, Iraqi intelligence officers also met with two 9/11 hijackers, Zeid Samir
Jarrah and Marawan al-Shehhi in the United Arab Emirates. As of now, we are unsure if
this is the same meeting that will be referred to when we talk about 2001, or if there were
two meetings. It is possible there is debate about the timing of the meeting. But
nevertheless, such a meeting is believed to have occurred.[52]

On October 14, 2000, two days after the USS Cole bombing, radical Saudis hijacked a
Boeing-777 from Saudi Arabia, and after releasing the hostages, received safe haven in
Baghdad.[53] This year also brought new defector testimony that non-Iraqis were being
trained at Salman Pak, which has a Boeing-707, as well as a biological weapons research

In late December, Iraq began allowing over-flights by Iranian aircraft carrying weapons,
personnel and other essentials to Palestinian terrorists, Hezbollah, and Syria.[55]


In January, Arab sources revealed that a high-ranking Al-Qaeda lieutenant, Abu Khabab
al-Masri, had created cells to specialize in weapons of mass destruction. Suicide bombers
were being taught about conducting attacks with agents including mustard gas, sarin gas
and anthrax—in Iraq.[56] Meanwhile, on January 22, Saddam Hussein and his sons using
the state media called for an Arab alliance to launch a global war of jihad on the United
States, Israel and our allies.[57]

According to defector testimony, as of early 2001, Saddam Hussein was actively
preparing terrorist attacks against US ships in the Persian Gulf. Mohamed Mansour
Shahab, an Iranian smuggler whom says he was paid by Iraq to smuggle arms to Al-
Qaeda through Iranian territory, was recruited for terrorist operations by Saddam’s inner
circle. The first task they wanted him to take part in, was a plot where a trade ship sailing
under Iranian flag, with a half-ton of explosives, would be used by suicide bombers to
destroy an American ship in the Gulf. The attack apparently was foiled or cancelled, but
the defector warns that he was told by the senior Iraqi officials that $16 million was to be
used in nine planned operations against the United States, including attacks in
In April, Mohammed Atta again met with the Iraqi intelligence officer, Al-Ani in the
Czech Republic. Immediately after, the Czechs expelled Al-Ani for activity outside his
work as a diplomat, but the Czechs refused to specify what activity this was.[59] The
Czechs also believe Mohammed Atta met with Farouq Hijazi around the same time,
Iraq’s ambassador to Turkey and a former general in Iraqi intelligence. At the time, Atta
was living with Marwav Jussuf al-Shehhi, another 9/11 hijacker. It is believed Hijazi is
Saddam’s representative to Bin Laden, and has been alleged to have helped develop the
1995 plot to crash airliners into prominent American buildings including the World Trade

According to some sources, it was at these meetings that Mohammed Atta was given at
least one forged passport among other documents, and according to some German
investigators, at least one vial of anthrax.[61] Atta would later be seen at a pharmacy
trying to get medication for his hands, which had anthrax-like symptoms. Although we
will not get too far into the subject here, there is a great amount of evidence that at least
some of the 9/11 hijackers were involved in the anthrax attacks. Anyway, less than two
weeks after the meeting, Mohammed Atta received $100,000 from an untraceable person
using a bank in the United Arab Emirates.[62]

In May, an Iraqi physician and kidney specialist, Dr. Mohammed Khagal visited
Afghanistan for three days. Rumors immediately came out that he treated Bin Laden’s
kidney problems. At the same time, Pakistan’s ISI intelligence service was accused of
helping deliver the necessary equipment. No confirmation of Khagal’s assistance to Bin
Laden can be given.

On July 21, six weeks before 9/11, an Iraqi columnist wrote in the state newspaper that
Bin Laden had plans to destroy the Pentagon after he destroyed the White House. The
same columnist said that Bin Laden would “hit the arm that is already hurting” (a hint at
a second attack on the World Trade Center?), which would make Frank Sinatra not have
good memories when he sang some of his songs. Of course, we know that Sintra wrote,
“New York, New York”. Nae-em Abd Mulhalhal continued to say, “The wings of a dove
and bullet are but the same in the heart of a believer.” The editor-in-chief of the
newspaper is a secretary for Uday Hussein’s Syndicate of Journalism.[63] On September
1, Saddam Hussein and other officials praised Mulhalhal for his work in Al-Nasariya.

Here is the text of the column in Al-Nasariya in its July 21, 2001 issue:

"In this man's heart (Osama bin Laden) you'll find an insistence,
a strange determination that he will reach one day the tunnels of the White House
and will bomb it with everything that is in it.....with the seriousness of the Bedouin
of the desert about the way he will try to bomb the Pentagon after he destroys the White
...the revolutionary bin Laden is insisting very convincingly that he will strike America
on the arm that is already hurting.
That the man....will curse the memory of Frank Sinatra every time he hears his

In July, al-Mamouri, a general in the Iraqi secret service, was last seen. According to
Italy’s security services, he used the Iraqi embassy in Rome to communicate with the
Saddam regime, to report on his mission—supervising the links with Islamic militants in
Pakistan and Afghanistan. He is also suspected of meeting with Mohammed Atta.[65]

Approximately six months before 9/11, according to a “very senior CIA” official, two
other 9/11 hijackers—Marwan al-Shehhi and Ziad Jarrah—met with a Mukhabarat (Iraqi
intelligence) officer in the United Arab Emirates. The meeting was also confirmed by
Iraqi defectors in the Iraqi National Congress.[66] By mid-August, Israel warned the
United States that it had intelligence of an imminent, large-scale terrorist plot against the
US mainland. The threat was so imminent, that two Mossad officials were sent to
Washington DC to personally deliver the warning that Osama Bin Laden’s organization
was using a team of up to 200 operatives to carry out the operation. The warning also
stated that there was “strong grounds” that Saddam Hussein was involved.[67]

Between August 19-21, Saddam Hussein opened his fifth forum of guerilla and terrorist
groups in Baghdad. The meetings at the “festival” consisted of at least 100 prominent
terrorist “officials” from groups including Islamic Jihad, Ansar al-Islam, Hamas,
Egyptian Gamaa al-Islamiya and Al-Qaeda.[68] Saddam Hussein, Vice President Taha
Ramadan, and Vice President Izzet Douri and senior intelligence officials all attended the
conference. At least a hundred terrorists that attended the meeting were chosen for
advanced training courses under Iraqi intelligence, and after the meeting ended, senior
Iraqi intelligence officers were sent to meet with members of al-Qaeda under Saddam’s

In the first week of September, an Iraqi named Ahmad Shakir, a worker for the Iraqi
embassy in Malaysia, met with Khalid al-Nidhar, a 9/11 hijacker who participated in the
attack on the Pentagon. Nidhar was reportedly in Malaysia to have a final meeting with
senior Al-Qaeda operatives before his mission.[70] In the days leading up to 9/11, there is
evidence that Iraqi intelligence officers were in contact with Bin Laden.[71]

In the first and second week of September, a group of Al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan
traveled to Iraq to link up with Ansar al-Islam forces to make a new safe harbor for the
forces that would later flee Afghanistan. In the second and third weeks of September,
these new forces attacked the anti-Saddam Kurdish forces in northern Iraq, killing over
20.[72] For the first two weeks before September 11th, Saddam Hussein hid in one of his
safety bunkers in Tikrit. His two wives, Sajida and Samira were hidden in another
bunker. The Iraqi armed forces went on high alert.[73]

The world changed on September 11, 2001. It was so horrifying that the rush to war on
the Taliban in Afghanistan may have been the cause to overlook a strange coincidence.
September 11, 2001, was the fifth anniversary of the conviction of Ramzi Yousef, leader
of the first World Trade Center attack, and suspected Iraqi intelligence agent. Evidence of
Iraqi involvement is substantial. Mohammed Atta and many of the other 9/11 hijackers
also used Logan International Airport in Boston to get onto the airliners they would
hijack—the same airport an Iraqi, the earlier mentioned al-Hussaini (former Republican
Guard soldier), would get a job after finishing his role in the Oklahoma City
bombing.[74] In the aftermath, Iraq and Afghanistan were the only countries to not offer
any aid to the Americans, and to not send their condolences. No condemnation of Bin
Laden or the hijackers occurred.

The immediate details as to the orchestrators of 9/11 were the most alarming. According
to Jane’s Foreign Report, Israeli military intelligence believed that the attack was
conducted by terrorists supported by Iraq. Among the evidence released was that senior
Iraqi intelligence officers were having suspicious meetings with Al-Qaeda operatives.
The Iraqis were also traveling to Afghanistan to meet with Bin Laden and Ayman Al-
Zawahiri, as well as Imad Mughniyah, the head of Hezbollah, in Lebanon. The report
quoted Israel’s Arutz 7 as saying: “We’ve only got scraps of information, not the full
picture—but it was good enough for us to send a warning six weeks ago to our allies that
an unprecedented massive terror attack was expected...We believe that the operational
brains behind the New York attack were Mughniyah and Zawahiri, who were probably
financed and got some logistical support from the Iraqi Intelligence Service.”[75]

On September 20th, Mohammed Nouri, an Iraqi intelligence colonel was sent to meet
with a high-ranking terrorist associated with Al-Qaeda in Bangkok, Thailand. The
terrorist helped run operations by radical Islamists in Southeast Asia. His organization
was allied to Osama Bin Laden and worked alongside Al-Qaeda. On September 24th,
Abdul Khader Majid, an Iraqi intelligence brigadier, and several other senior intelligence
officers attended a meeting with representatives of Al-Qaeda in Bangladesh.[76]

2001 Part Two: Anthrax Attacks

Speaking about the beginning of US retaliation for 9/11, Uday Hussein wrote the
following in the Iraqi state media: "At this stage it is possible to turn to biological attack,
where a small can, not bigger than the size of the hand, can be used to release viruses that
affect everything.... The viruses easily spread by air, and people are affected without
feeling it."[77]

In October, the anthrax attack occurred. While there is substantial evidence linking some
of the Al-Qaeda hijackers to the anthrax outbreaks, there is no conclusive proof. But if
we look at the anthrax strain, which was enhanced with bentonite and silicia, Iraq is
suspected. Of the few countries suspected of having anthrax weapons, Iraq is the only
believed to use bentonite. Silicia and bentonite are used to separate the tiny particles, so
as to be inhaled more easily. Former UN biological weapons inspector, Timothy Trevan
says that the presence of bentonite in anthrax is a trademark of Iraq’s anthrax.[78]
Significantly, a former UN inspector and expert in biological warfare, Richard Spertzel,
also have said that he believes Iraq sponsored the attack. He testified: “It has to be
someone with an existing biological program. These are Russia, Syria, Iran, and Libya.
Top of my list, though, is Iraq. There are known associations with intelligence personnel
and al-Qaeda. Also they have the capability, and the know-how.”[79] Additionally, only
three countries are known to have produced anthrax in the way that they were used in the
attacks (where the spores are extremely small and made in such a way to minimize
potential for not being inhaled). These countries are Iraq, Russia, and the United States.

On July 17, 2002, David Tell wrote in The Weekly Standard that a Pakistani named Syed
Athar Abbas had pleaded guilty to check-kiting. In the second week of June, managed to
steal $100,000 from a bank in California and a bank in New Jersey. He conducted the
scam by opening three bank accounts for a bogus online company, based in Fort Lee.
When the FBI when to the location, they found out that it was at one point, the home of
Nawaq and Salem Alhamzi, two of the 9/11 hijackers who attacked the Pentagon. In late
August, Syed Athar Abbas left the home and never came back.

On December 27, Rocco Parascandola (a writer for Newsday) discovered that Abbas
used a false identity and using the $100,000 he stole, bought a “fine-food particulate
mixer” used to mix chemicals. The machine was moved out of the home right before he
fled to Pakistan. quotes Parascandola as writing: “The $100,000
particulate mixer Parascandola describes, incidentally, is the exact same technology
commonly employed by major food and pharmaceutical manufacturers to process fluid-
form organic and inorganic compounds into powder: first to dry those compounds; next
to grind the resulting mixture into tiny specks of dust, as small as a single micron in
diameter; then to coat those dust specks with a chemical additive, if necessary, to
maximize their motility or 'floatiness'; and finally to aerate the stuff for end-use
packaging. In other words, this is how you'd put Aunt Jemima pancake mix in its box. Or
place concentrations of individual anthrax spores into letters addressed to Senators Tom
Daschle and Patrick Leahy.”[80] Why would the US cover-up potential links from Iraq to
the anthrax? It is possible it is because the Ames strain of anthrax, which was used in the
attacks, was obtained by Iraq—from the United States in the 1980s.

There is immense evidence that “Waly Samar” (not his real identity), an Iraqi associate
with experience in biotechnology whom worked alongside Ramzi Yousef in the 1993
World Trade Center bombing, has a role in the anthrax attacks. The contacts Samar made
with Yousef were paid by Abdul Rahman Yasin, the other Iraqi involved in the 1993 plot
with Ramzi Yousef who was given safety by Baghdad. Samar has been teaching in New
York City (but lives in New Jersey) since receiving his Ph.D. in biology from Hunter
College. His graduate and current research was in Bacillus subtilis, a stimulant used in
making anthrax as a potent biological weapon.

Kathy Mugyen, the anthrax victim who had no exposure to the bio-weapon, worked less
than 1,000 feet from Hunter College and the school laboratories “Waly Samar” had
access to, which according to the report I am citing, can be used to produce anthrax. In
2000, Waly Samar tried to get a job at the University of Minnesota, one of the top
colleges for “agricultural aviation”, or crop dusting. This is the same college that Zacarias
Moussaoui, the 20th hijacker, tried to take courses on crop dusting. Mohammed Atta, the
9/11 leader, is also known to have tried to buy a crop duster. Even before Waly Samar
became interested in crop dusting, Laurie Mylroie attempted to get the FBI to arrest him.
To read more about “Waly Samar”, his connection to Iraq, Ramzi Yousef and the anthrax
attacks, I highly suggest going to the following website:

Replying to allegations that the anthrax was stolen from a US facility, and was not used
by an Islamic terrorist, Saddam Hussein said the following on October 29th on Baghdad
Radio: "...American officials think that the source of anthrax is probably the U.S. itself. Is
this conclusion or information just a tactic to divert the attention of those who were
terrorized to hear that bin Laden is the source of anthrax, and to hear insinuations to other
accusations, that many Americans think that they should not persist in harming the people
he cares for, because that would push him to a stronger reaction in this way or by other

An Iraqi defector from Saddam’s intelligence service began talking to the press about
9/11. He urgently warned that he knew about a terrorist training camp in the Baghdad
suburbs used to train radical Muslims from around the region in assassination, guerilla
warfare, and hijacking.[82] An investigation by Frontline confirmed that Iraqi
intelligence had trained at least forty Islamic terrorists between 1995 and 2000 in how to
hijacking airliners using a Boeing-747 that was originally Kuwaiti property.[83]

As the US-backed Northern Alliance forced the Taliban and Al-Qaeda out of Afghanistan
in October, and the majority of the forces fled to Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Georgia and
other countries, suspicion was brought up by Bin Laden’s disappearance. According to
Bin Laden’s former personal chef, says that Bin Laden was offered temporary haven by
several countries and organizations, including Saddam’s regime in Iraq. Bin Laden
respectively decided to go elsewhere.[84] According to Pakistani sources, Saddam
Hussein dispatched a senior diplomat named Taha Husseyn to Kandahar to meet with the
Taliban’s Mavlana Jalal ud-Din Haqqani to deliver a message from Saddam. The Iraqi
regime was offering sanctuary for Osama Bin Laden and Mullah Omar (the head of the
Taliban) and financial and military assistance.[85] Not surprisingly, as the Taliban and
Al-Qaeda fled Afghanistan in October, Salah Suleiman, an Iraqi intelligence officer was
captured by Pakistan on the border. Reports indicate that over the summer, at least three
high-ranking Iraqi intelligence officials traveled to Pakistan to meet with Al-Qaeda

On December 3, 2001, a poem was recited by Sheikh Ali Bin Shallal, head of the al-
Sharji tribes, at a meeting with the tribal chiefs of Basra and Maysan—and Saddam
Hussein. It is highly likely this will startle you, here is the text:

“We love you as much as a bird loves its nest when it rains.
Your gold is pure, the gold of others is copper whose engravings are false.
But fatigue and injustice are over. They remain engraved letters.
You triumphed over injustice; you will not be blamed should you beat them.

You are fastened with a bullet-belt for the one fooled by his troops.
You are the guard, you are the guard, Saddam, and we are the watchful eyes.

Just order us to proceed and repel the attacks,
just order us to proceed and repel the attacks [line chanted repeatedly by the audience].

From inside America, how five planes flew.
Such a mishap never happened in the past!
And nothing similar will happen.
Six thousand infidels died.
Bin Ladin did not do it; the luck of the president [Saddam] did it.”[87]


The beginning of 2002 also brought testimony by Iraqi defectors as to Saddam’s role in
9/11. Abu Zeinab al-Qurairy, a former Iraqi brigadier-general in Mukhabarat, and close
aide to Uday Hussein, told the West that Uday was the leader of a specialized terrorist
force. The top-secret force consisting of 1,200 Iraqi killers, which he named “The
Strikers”, have disappeared and their location is unknown. The defector said that 30 of
the best were given false identities and dispatched abroad. The organization’s specialties
were in assassination, guerilla warfare, sabotage, and hijackings.[88] Al-Qurairy also said
that he had no doubt that Iraq had a role in 9/11.

The early part of the year also brought new developments to Iraqi sponsorship of
Palestinian terror. Yasser Arafat and Saddam Hussein had finished their plans to unleash
a new wave of terrorism upon Israel for the years ahead. With heavy assistance from Iraqi
and Iranian intelligence units and Al-Qaeda forces relocated to Lebanon, Palestinian
refugee camps, and Palestinian territory, the deadliest terrorism yet would occur. Using
the mentioned sophisticated resources to back them up, Arafat (in conjunction with
Hussein and elements of the Iranian and Syrian governments) would direct coordination
between the worst of the worst terrorists. His personal Fatah forces, Tanzim, Palestinian
security forces, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine,
Hezbollah, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda forces
would have a semi-coordinated effort to intensify the war on Israel, and once the Iraq
War began, against Allied interests in the region.[89]

In April, the Ansar forces in Iraq attempted to kill the prime minister in eastern
Kurdistan. The assassination plot failed, at the cost of five of the minister’s bodyguards.
This year, Ansar’s capabilities had already been enhanced. Testing of chemical weapons
had begun, particularly on farm animals. Between 35 and 100 Al-Qaeda operatives from
Afghanistan which had joined their brethren in Iraq took part in the activity, boosting the
power of Ansar’s forces numbering between 600 and 700.[90] Meanwhile, Arafat’s
Palestinian suicide bombers and Iraqi intelligence attempted to fulfill another one of their
plans. During a trip to the Middle East, they attempted to assassinate Colin Powell,
Secretary of State and numerous other high-ranking officials using suicide bombers and
assassins. Luckily, they failed.[91]

Around June-July 2002, it is believed that Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi, the leading Al-Qaeda
figure in carrying out attacks with chemical and biological weapons, arrived in Baghdad
and established an operational base worked by nearly two dozen operatives. From the
summer until the Iraq War began, this base was used to coordinate the movement of
money, operatives and supply in and out of Iraq in support of Al-Qaeda operations. Not
long after, Saudi authorities captured two Al-Qaeda operatives trying to infiltrate Saudi
Arabia from Iraq, one of which had trained in the use of cyanide. From this operational
base, the attempted WMD attacks in 2003 on Russia, France, Germany, the United
Kingdom, Italy and Spain were prepared.

On September 27, 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said that intelligence
indicated Al-Qaeda had a presence in Baghdad, resulting from a decade-long series of
senior contacts which increased in 1998. The contact involved discussion of cooperation,
and non-aggression agreements, and according to one Al-Qaeda detainee, Iraqi training
of certain operatives in bio-chemical warfare.[92] Coincidentally, this same day it was
reported that two Iraqi nationals with a Russian national (a non-Chechen) were captured
in a raid in Afghanistan.[93] National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice followed up
Rumsfeld’s accusations, confirming that high-ranking detainees confirmed a history of
meetings between senior Iraqi and Al-Qaeda figures, and confirmed assistance from Iraq
to Al-Qaeda in chemical weapons development.[94]

According to a CIA report, in late October, the Al-Qaeda-linked forces of Ansar al-Islam
received their first confirmed shipment of chemical weapons. According to two
government officials with access to the classified report, the transaction included the
deadly VX weapon, and that the operatives on the receiving end either had already, or
planned to, smuggle it into Turkey.[95] As the heat turned on Saddam Hussein in
November, he took desperate measures in an attempt to destroy the dissident alliance
rising up in the West. Press reports say that he ordered his intelligence network to
assassinate key dissident leaders in Great Britain (an activity he had long been doing),
and tried to team up with Libya to activate terrorist cells to attack British and American
sites in the Middle East.[96]

By August, a Whitehall dossier on Iraq’s programs for weapons of mass destruction was
written. In it, according to reporter Michael Evans, there was evidence Saddam Hussein
may be planning to arm Palestinian terrorists with biological weapons.[97] The British
also released a dossier on Iraq which claimed that at least two key Al-Qaeda lieutenants
underwent training in Iraq. The dossier also confirmed that Iraq was paying Al-Qaeda to
use its Ansar forces based in northern Iraq to attack the Kurdish forces.[98]
In the August-September timeframe we discussed, Parisoula Lampos, Saddam’s former
mistress finally revealed to the press what she knew. As Saddam’s favorite mistress, she
saw him on a daily basis. Among the information she provided, was that Uday Hussein,
Saddam’s oldest son, told her that Saddam had met with Osama Bin Laden in the mid-
1990s and gave him money.[99] As all this information came out we have talked about,
Richard Pearle, an advisor to Rumsfeld, claimed that Mohammed Atta met with Saddam
Hussein at least once, and that proof had been obtained of the meeting.[100]

On September 16th, Iraq’s The Economist, owned by Uday Hussein, compared the
United States to Nazi Germany, and criticized America as a state sponsor of terrorism.
The newspaper then called for sabotage (terrorist) attacks on US interests around the
world, and for Arabs and Muslims to unite against the West. The paper finished with
calling for attacks on the US; boycotts; closing airports and seaports to US shipping;
targeting “everything American” including embassies and companies; using suicide
bombers against US military and naval bases; and the mining of waterways to stop US

The later part of 2002 also would bring confirmation of Iraqi assistance to other terrorists.
In a CBS investigation, a direct link between Palestinian militants under Yasser Arafat,
Iran, and Iraq was drawn. Iraq took part in financing and directing some attacks on Israeli
civilians, which was proven by captured documents in Arafat’s compound in early 2002.
A 3-man Palestinian terrorist cell was captured by Israel in 2002, and the operatives
claimed to have been trained by Iraqi officials in the use of shoulder-fired anti-aircraft
missiles to bring down airplanes.[102]

In the last month of the year, the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, the
Shiite council in Iraq in opposition to Saddam Hussein, accused the Iraqi regime of
ordering elements of the Fedayeen Saddam militia under Uday to begin joint training
with Ansar al-Islam (Al-Qaeda branch in northern Iraq) for attacks on US interests.[103]

By the end of 2002, at least 6,000 people from terrorist groups all around the world were
currently involved in Iraq’s training programs. Camps like Salman Pak, al-Safar and al-
Habaniya were often used to train suicide bombers. Training in everything from
communications, surveillance, document forgery, infiltration, and spying to explosives
creation, work with small arms, to work with poisons and toxins was offered.[104]
Shipments outside the country to terrorists did not stop either. In December, according to
Israeli intelligence, Iraq sent rockets with 100-150 kilometer range to Syria to be
delivered to the Hezbollah forces.[105]


On February 5th, Colin Powell presented the case for war with Iraq at the United Nations.
Powell mentioned that Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi was in Baghdad, after receiving medical
treatment after losing a leg in Afghanistan, and Saddam’s regime was refusing to arrest
him or provide information. Powell also mentioned that a former Iraqi intelligence chief
testified that Saddam’s agents went to Afghanistan in the mid-1990s to provide training
in document forgery to Al-Qaeda. From the late 1990s to 2001, the Iraqi embassy in
Pakistan served as Saddam’s liaison to the terrorist organization.[106]

In February, 2003, Israel captured a junior officer in Palestinian intelligence in charge of
suicide attacks on Israel, named Mohamed Farouq Abu Roub. During interrogation, he
admitted that his activities resulted from Iraqi instructions and funding (in thousands of
dollars) to poison Israeli water pipelines, and possibly the Lake of Galilee or the Jordan
River. When Abu Roub was captured after helping suicide bombers infiltrate the targeted
area, he said his present mission was sending out operatives to target school buses, which
he was trained to do by Iraq.[107]

The same month, the Western European countries stopped mega-terrorist attacks with
chemical and biological weapons by Al-Qaeda operatives and terrorists associated with
Al-Qaeda branches (particularly ones based in Algeria). While some doubted the Israeli
intelligence claim that the effort was done in conjunction with Iraqi intelligence (to
frighten Europe into not helping the US in the coming war against Saddam Hussein), it
was confirmed that the operatives were trained in their skills by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a
senior Al-Qaeda figure harbored by Iraq.[108] The USA accuses Zarqawi of being Iraq’s
link to Al-Qaeda forces in northern Iraq.

Iraq also began preparing its war against the Coalition invaders. Uday Hussein was
dispatched to Lebanon to recruit Palestinian suicide squads, while hundreds of
Palestinians began arriving in Iraq under Yasser Arafat’s authority. Iraq also began
training and recruiting “holy warriors”—extremist Muslims—that were traveling from
around the world to fight alongside Saddam’s forces.[109]

The Philippines also accused Iraq of assisting the Al-Qaeda-linked Abu Sayyaf terrorists
there in terrorist operations. A Filipino intelligence report released on February 11 said
that an Iraqi diplomat in Manila named Hushann Husain received a phone call from an
Abu Sayyaf operative shortly after his bombing attack.[110] A local commander of Abu
Sayyaf forces on Basilan, Hamisraji Sali, has confirmed allegations of Iraqi support,
saying that they receive $20,000 a year from Iraqi sponsors. The funding is used for
transportation of bomb supplies and personnel. To cover their tracks, the Iraqis sent the
money through Vietnam and Cambodia to Malaysia and finally to the
Philippines.[111]As war came closer and closer, in early March, the CIA was already
warning that an Al-Qaeda cell of 24 led by between four and eight mid-level operatives
in Baghdad was planning attacks against Coalition forces. There were other cells in
Mosul and Erbil, in addition to the 100-200 Al-Qaeda forces formerly based in
Afghanistan that joined with Ansar al-Islam in Kurdistan.[112]

On March 12th, former CIA director James Woolsey testified in court in a lawsuit that
was filed on behalf of the 9/11 victims, that he was certain that Iraq had a role in 9/11,
particularly in the training of hijackers. Five witnesses reported that Al-Qaeda operatives
were being trained at Iraq camps, specifically Salman Pak. At the trial, Spanish evidence
was also presented that the 9/11 co-conspirator, Yusaf Galem, was at a party (under this
same Al-Qaeda identity) thrown by the Iraqi ambassador to Spain. Why was such a
person invited?[113]

In Jordan, a plot to blow up a hotel frequently used by Westerners was stopped. In
Yemen, plots to blow up the British and American embassies were foiled. An attack in
Pakistan was also foiled. Attacks in a total of at least 10 countries by the Iraqis were
planned.[114] According to some reports, Iraqi intelligence plotted to attack Western
interests in the United Kingdom, Yemen, Jordan, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates,
Syria, Turkey, Thailand, India and Pakistan.[115] A later plot to poison the drinking
water of US air bases in eastern Jordan was stopped.[116]

Iraq also planned to use terrorism as retaliation for the invasion led by the United States
and the United Kingdom. Of course, the targets were not limited to just those two
countries. Spain expelled 6 Iraqi diplomats when they were found with 14 handguns, 5
shotguns, 1 rifle, 1 carbine and 800 rounds of ammunition.[117] The United States
arrested the son of a former diplomat, saying he was cooperating with Iraqi spies to
assassinate Iraqi defectors in New York.[118] Also in New York, at the United Nations,
two Iraqi diplomats were caught videotaping bridges and tunnels.[119]

Near Baghdad, Coalition forces captured Abu Abbas, leader of the terrorist group known
as the Palestine Liberation Front, and mastermind of the 1986 hijacking of the Achille
Lauro cruise ship, where he murdered a disabled American in a wheelchair and threw the
body overboard.[120] Iraq had been supporting Abu Abbas and his terrorists since 1991.

In April, documents captured from the headquarters of Iraqi intelligence was found
detailing discussions between Iraq and an African terrorist leader, Sheikh Jamil Makulu,
whom was allied to Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda since the early 1990s. The African group
known as the Allied Democratic Forces said in the discussion their goal was to smuggle
arms worldwide to “holy warriors” fighting US, British and Israeli influences in Africa,
Asia, the Middle East and the Far East. The Iraqi affairs agent in Nairobi, Fallah Hassen
al-Rubdie, led the discussions with the terrorist group based in Uganda.

The documents also had a copy of a letter sent from a senior Allied Democratic Forces’
member to the boss of Iraqi intelligence describing his efforts to set up an “international
mujahideen team”. The letter, sent in April of 2001, was written by the ADF’s diplomacy
chief, Bekkah Abdul Nassir, whom offered to recruit Muslims to be sent for training at a
Baghdad terrorist camp, which he described as “the headquarters for international holy
warrior network”.[121] Around the same time, Coalition forces also captured an Al-
Qaeda terrorist in western Baghdad under the authority of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.[122]

On April 18th, Coalition forces attacked and destroyed a terrorist training camp near
Baghdad used by the Palestine Liberation Front (and probably others too), with 20
buildings, complete with guidebooks about carrying out terrorist attacks, the use of gas
masks and other equipment for chemical attacks, and even in how to resist interrogation.
As of right now, there is no way to know if Al-Qaeda used the camp or not.[123] The
Salman Pak terrorist camp was also destroyed around the same time, which according to
three defectors, was used to train terrorists from around the world. Captain Sabah
Khodad, a former intelligence officer who worked there from 1994 to 1995, has
questioned the camp’s role in 9/11. He told the London Observer that after the attack
happened, he immediately thought: “This has been done by graduates of Salman
Pak.”[124] It is interesting to note that participants at the Salman Pak site, whose
existence has been confirmed by UN inspectors, are taught how to hijack aircraft and
trains with all kinds of blades, knives, and even bare hands. Salman Pak was also
considered a suspected biological weapons research and training site by the USA, as it is
believed the camp also conducts research on anthrax, botulinum toxin, aflatoxin, gas
gangrene, clostridium and ricin. Ricin and anthrax have been involved in terrorist plots in
the past by Al-Qaeda.

For more on Salman Pak, training of hijackers and Iraq’s possible connections to 9/11,
readers are encouraged to read the following interviews with Iraqi defectors:

A PBS interview with a former Iraqi lieutenant-general whom remains anonymous,
available at:

A PBS interview with Sabah Khodada, a former Iraqi Army captain whom worked at
Salman Pak. Available at:

A PBS interview with Khidhir Hamza, former head of Iraq’s nuclear program. Available

On April 26th, reporters found documents in the Iraqi intelligence headquarters proving a
direct link between the Saddam regime and Al-Qaeda. It reveals that an Al-Qaeda
“delegation” met with Iraqi officials in Baghdad in March 1998, to establish an alliance
based on the mutual hatred of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The document says the
meeting went so well that it was extended by a week and ended with plans for Bin Laden
to visit Baghdad. A three-page file was also found, with all references to Bin Laden
blotted out with white-out, which was removed to see the contents. A file marked “top
secret and urgent”, dated February 19th, referred to a trip from Sudan of an unidentified
close aide to Bin Laden. The document was signed by “MDA”, the code-name for the
director of Iraqi intelligence. The file suggested that Iraq pay for the costs of the trip in
exchange for a favor by the aide. The favor was to have the aide personally pass
messages to Bin Laden from the Iraqi officials.[125]

On May 7th, a federal judge awarded $104 million in damages to the families of 9/11, to
be taken from Iraqi government assets. Judge Harold Baer says the case proved, “albeit
barely”, that Iraq provided material support that contributed to 9/11. The case proved that
Iraq did indeed have links to Osama Bin Laden, Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.[126]

[1] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 23.

[2] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 26.

[3] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 34.

[4] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 73.

[5], December 11, 2002.

[6] Washington Post, March 18, 2002.

[7] Far Eastern Economic Review, September 27, 2001.

[8] Boston Globe, January 18, 1995.

[9] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[10] Radio Free Europe, October 19, 2001.

[11] Insight Magazine, April 22, 2002.

[12] Yediot Aharont, Israel, October 10, 1994.

[13] Philadelphia Daily News, October 3, 2000.

[14] US News, October 29, 2001.

[15] Insight Magazine, April 22, 2002.

[16] Radio Free Europe, October 19, 2001.
[17] Radio Free Europe, October 19, 2001.

[18] Frontline, PBS, November 14, 2001.

[19] New York Times, November 16, 1995.

[20] “Study of Revenge” by Laurie Mylroie. Page 215.

[21] Jerusalem Post, November 23, 1995.

[22] UPI, February 5, 2003.

[23] UPI, February 5, 2003.

[24] Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002.

[25] “Endgame: Solving the Iraq Problem—Once and for All” by Scott Ritter. Page 121.

[26] The New American, July 1, 2002.

[27] The New American, July 1, 2002.

[28] Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002.

[29] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 167.

[30] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 488-489.

[31] Sunday Telegraph, April 26, 2003.

[32] Daily Telegraph, October 28, 2001.

[33] Times of London, October 10, 2001; “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on
America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages 323-324.

[34] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[35] Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002.

[36] Times of London, October 10, 2001.

[37] Ma’ariv, February 22, 1998.

[38] Independent (London) October 14, 2001
[39] Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, September 19, 2001.

[40] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[41] “The War Against the Terror Masters” by Michael Ledeen. Pages 181-182..

[42] “The War Against the Terror Masters” by Michael Ledeen. Page 182..

[43] Iraq News, February 10, 1999.

[44] Agence France Presse, February 17, 1999.

[45] Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002.

[46] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[47] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[48] ABC News, October 29, 2001.

[49] Christian Science Monitor, April 3, 2002.

[50] Christian Science Monitor, April 3, 2002.

[51] “Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages

[52] Times of London, October 10, 2001.

[53] Times of London, October 10, 2001.

[54] New York Times, October 22, 2001.

[55] “The High Cost of Peace”, by Yossef Bodansky, page 411.

[56] Sunday Telegraph, September 30, 2001.

[57] Al-Watan al-Arabi, January 22, 2001.

[58] Christian Science Monitor, April 3, 2002.

[59] Daily Telegraph (London), October 27, 2001.
[60] Die Welt, September 19, 2001; Radio Free Europe, October 19, 2001.

[61] AFP (Berlin) October 25, 2001

[62] “The War Against the Terror Masters” by Michael Ledeen. Page 179.

[63] Times of London, October 27, 2001.

[64] Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2003.

[65] Times of London, October 27, 2001.

[66], December 11, 2002.

[67] Middle East Newsline, September 16, 2001.

[68] Daily Telegraph, October 28, 2001.

[69] Sunday Telegraph, October 28, 2001.

[70] CBS News, October 1, 2002.

[71] Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002, Washington Times, September 21, 2001.

[72] Los Angeles Times, December 9, 2002.

[73] According to high-ranking defectors, as reported in Con Couglin’s “Saddam: King
of Terror”

[74] Philadelphia Daily News, October 3, 2000.

[75] Arutz 7, September 20, 2001.

[76] Sunday Telegraph, October 28, 2001.

[77] Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2003.

[78] ABC News, October 29, 2001.

[79] Sunday Telegraph, October 27, 2001.

[80], August 17, 2002. Phil Brennan.

[81] Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2003.

[82] Sunday Telegraph, October 28, 2001.
[83] Frontline, PBS, November 14, 2001.

[84] BBC, December 31, 2001.

[85] The National Review citing Ummat, an Urdu-language paper in Karachi, Pakistan.
Stephen F. Hayes.

[86] Sunday Telegraph, September 23, 2001.

[87] December 3, 2001, cited on Iraqi television. As reported on

[88] Vanity Fair, January 9, 2002.

[89] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Page 521.

[90] Los Angeles Times, December 9, 2002.

[91] “High Cost of Peace” by Yossef Bodansky. Pages 536-538.

[92], September 27, 2002.

[93], September 27, 2002.

[94] Fox News, September 27, 2002.

[95] Washington Post, December 12, 2002.

[96] London Telegraph, November 3, 2002.

[97] World News, August 3, 2002.

[98] Reuters, September 14, 2002.

[99] ABC News, September 8, 2002.

[100] Agence France Presse, September 8, 2002.

[101], September 16, 2002.

[102] Ha’aretz, September 30, 2002.

[103] Reuters, December 1, 2002.

[104] Daily Telegraph, October 28, 2001.
[105] Ha’aretz, December 27, 2002.

[106] UPI, February 5, 2003 reporting on Powell’s UN presentation.

[107] New York Post, February 2, 2003.

[108] CNN, February 7, 2003.

[109] World Tribune, March 31, 2003.

[110] Yahoo! News, February 11, 2003.

[111] Washington Times, March 4, 2003.

[112] New York Times, March 8, 2003.

[113], March 16, 2003.

[114] Washington Post, March 28, 2003.

[115], March 28, 2003.

[116] Washington Times, April 2, 2003.

[117] New York Times, April 14, 2003.

[118] New York Post, April 15, 2003.

[119] MSNBC, March 6, 2003.

[120], April 15, 2003.

[121] London Telegraph, April 17, 2003.

[122] CNN, April 30, 2003.

[123] World Tribune, April 18, 2003.

[124], April 6, 2003.

[125] Sunday Telegraph, April 26, 2003.

[126] Associated Press, May 7, 2003.

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