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Chapter 05 The Communication Process.rtf

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									Chapter 05 - The Communication Process



                                                                          Chapter 05
                                                            The Communication Process




1. (p. 143) Early adopters are critical to the success of new products because:
A. many customers pay attention to what they say and do
B. consumers prefer early adopters over late adopters
C. they engage in alternative-dynamic analysis
D. integrated marketing communications are not designed to attract this market segment
E. cognitive dissonance may alter pre-purchase evaluation by this market segment

See opening vignette.



2. (p. 144) Marketers use a variety of alternative communications methods to reach early
adopters because:
A. government regulations alert early adopters to the communication process
B. alternative media deny access to new product marketers
C. a majority of this market segment are annoyed by the amount of advertising today
D. these consumers are less likely to think about product choices before adopting them
E. publicity is not usually available for targeting this market segment

See opening vignette.



3. (p. 137) The basic function of all of the elements of the integrated communications program is
to:
A. communicate with a firm's target audience
B. convince customers to make a purchase immediately
C. convince customers to pay a higher price for a good or service
D. educate customers about the features of a good or service
E. persuade customers to try a product category




                                               5-1
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




4. (p. 145) _____ is defined as the passing of information, the exchange of ideas or process of
establishing a commonness of thought between a sender and receiver.
A. Advertising
B. Sales promotion
C. Encoding
D. Decoding
E. Communication



5. (p. 145) Which of the following statements about effective communication is true?
A. Advertising communication is effective because marketers are able to tell consumers how
to interpret their messages within the context of the communications.
B. For effective communication, marketers must understand the meanings that consumers
attach to words and symbols and how these words and symbols are interpreted.
C. Effective integrated marketing communications always is nonpersonal in nature.
D. Effective communication is unaffected by the reception environment.
E. Whether an ad is in black and white or in full color has no impact on how effectively the
message is communicated.



6. (p. 145) Successful communication depends on
A. the nature of the message
B. the interpretation of the message by the audience
C. the environment in which a message is received
D. the receiver's perception of the source of the message
E. all of the above



7. (p. 145-146) Which of the following is NOT a controllable variable in the communications
process?
A. senders
B. source
C. message
D. channel
E. receivers




                                               5-2
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




8. (p. 145-146) Which of the following is NOT a basic element of the communications process?
A. source
B. message
C. channel
D. integration
E. receiver



9. (p. 147) Communication problems in international marketing include misinterpretation of:
A. brand names
B. ad slogans
C. signs and symbols
D. language
E. all of the above

See Global Perspective 5-1.



10. (p. 148) Putting thoughts, ideas or information together in symbolic form is called:
A. encoding
B. deciphering
C. shaping
D. flighting
E. decoding



11. (p. 148) An ad purchased by the Tennessee Department of Tourist Development encouraging
people to choose the state of Tennessee for their vacation destination was published in
Southern Living magazine. The ad shows various scenic pictures of Tennessee and includes
the slogan, "Tennessee sounds good to me." In this print ad, the source of the advertising
message is:
A. the Tennessee Department of Tourist Development
B. Southern Living magazine
C. the people in the scenic pictures
D. the slogan
E. readers of the magazine




                                                5-3
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




12. (p. 148) Commercials for Planter's nuts describe the nuts as a delicious snack food for
everyone. The commercials show animals that eat nuts as part of their usual diet trying to
convince humans to share their Planter's nuts. In these commercials, the source of the
advertising message is:
A. Mr. Peanut, the company's visual image personality
B. the television networks on which the ads run
C. the specific television shows in which the ads are seen
D. Planter's peanuts company
E. people who talk about how humorous the commercials are



13. (p. 148) When actresses from the television show Desperate Housewives appear in a
commercial endorsing Garnier Lumia hair products, the message source is:
A. the television network showing the commercial
B. the television program that the advertising provides financial support for
C. the actresses
D. consumers who view the commercial
E. Desperate Housewives



14. (p. 148) The communication process begins with the process of _____, which leads to the
development of a _____ that contains the information or meaning a source hopes to convey.
A. encoding; message
B. encrypting; transmission
C. encoding; response
D. decoding; message
E. decoding; transmission



15. (p. 148) The source or sender of an advertising communication:
A. is typically a salesperson
B. is never a nonpersonal entity
C. is typically identified as the owner of the medium in which the communication appeared
D. can be an individual or a nonpersonal entity such as a corporation
E. is never involved in the encoding process




                                              5-4
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




16. (p. 148) When marketers develop an advertising message, one of their primary goals is to
encode the message:
A. in a way that makes their message unique to each individual who is exposed to the ad
B. so that it can only be understood by members of the target audience
C. so that it will be understood and interpreted in a similar way by most consumers
D. using nonverbal communication so as to eliminate problems with connotations and jargon
E. so that it requires effort to decode it



17. (p. 148) The encoding process leads to the development of:
A. a message
B. noise
C. a channel
D. feedback
E. a receiver



18. (p. 148) Which of the following would be an example of an advertising message?
A. a radio commercial telling you to why you should fly to Florida on Delta Airlines
B. a print ad explaining a sweepstakes in which the winner will receive a walk-on role on an
NBC soap opera
C. a print ad for DeBeers diamonds with a picture of a woman wearing a diamond necklace
and the DeBeers name
D. a television ad that tells you to watch the next episode of Grey's Anatomy
E. all of the above



19. (p. 148) Which of the following statements about an advertising message is true?
A. Advertising messages can be verbal or nonverbal.
B. Advertising messages can be primarily visual.
C. Advertising messages are generally put into a transmittable form that is appropriate for the
channel of communication being used.
D. The effectiveness of an advertising message may be determined by the impression or
image it creates rather than the information it contains.
E. All of the above statements about an advertising message are true.




                                               5-5
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




20. (p. 148) _____ is the study of the nature of meaning and how words, gestures and symbols
acquire meaning.
A. Communication derivation
B. Language arts
C. Symbolics
D. Semiotics
E. Linguistics



21. (p. 148) To help understand what the teddy bear on its Snuggle fabric softener might
symbolize to consumers, Lever Brothers could use:
A. life style research
B. cognitive response research
C. involvement research
D. semiotic analysis
E. common ground research



22. (p. 148) Advertisers can determine how people react to words like juvenile, immature and
childish that have the same basic denotation but differing connotations through the use of:
A. psychoanalysis
B. semiotic analysis
C. common ground research
D. affective theory
E. involvement research



23. (p. 148) Before the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) adopted the stylized eagle that appears on all
labels, buildings, trucks and postal boxes it used a sticklike mailman figure called Mr. Zip.
Research showed the eagle was a much more positive symbol—denoting ruggedness,
individuality, and the American "can-do" spirit. _____ would have provided the USPS with
the ability to understand the meaning consumers give to the eagle.
A. Lifestyle research
B. Cognitive response research
C. Involvement research
D. Semiotic analysis
E. Common ground research




                                               5-6
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




24. (p. 148) Some advertising and marketing people are skeptical about the value of semiotics
because they believe:
A. the meaning of an advertisement and all other forms of marketing communication lies
solely in the message
B. social scientists may read too much into advertising messages and are overly intellectual in
interpreting these messages
C. consumers interpret advertising messages in basically the same way
D. it costs too much money to conduct semiotic analysis of advertising messages
E. culture cannot be explained by anything as simplistic as semiotics



25. (p. 148) Semiotic analysis can be helpful to marketers in understanding how consumers
perceive and interpret:
A. advertising messages
B. brand names
C. non-verbal communication used by salespeople
D. package designs
E. all of the above



26. (p. 149) An ad purchased by the Tennessee Department of Tourist Development encouraging
people to choose the state of Tennessee for that vacation destination was published in
Southern Living magazine. The ad shows various scenic pictures of Tennessee and includes
the slogan, "Tennessee sounds good to me." In this example, Southern Living magazine would
be an example of a _____, a part of the communication process.
A. channel
B. receiver
C. feedback mechanism
D. source
E. message transmitter




                                              5-7
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




27. (p. 149) Which of the following would be an example of a channel in the communication
process?
A. the number of customers that redeemed a cents-off coupon
B. a billboard beside an interstate highway
C. the creative people who designed the new Wendy's ad
D. an ad's spokesperson
E. all of the above



28. (p. 150) Advertisements for Planter's nuts describe the nuts as a delicious snack food for
everyone. The commercials show animals that eat nuts as part of their usual diet trying to
convince humans to share their Planter's nuts. The channel for these ads is:
A. television
B. the computer-generated animals
C. an increase in the sales of Planter's nuts
D. the can of Planter's nuts shown in the ad
E. the people in the ads



29. (p. 150) The _____ is the method or medium by which communication travels from the
source to the receiver:
A. channel
B. receiver
C. feedback mechanism
D. source
E. message transmitter



30. (p. 149) Rosa Martinez sees an ad for DKNY jeans in the copy of Vanity Fair magazine she
is reading. The ad would be considered a _____ while Vanity Fair would be considered a
_____.
A. source; message
B. channel; message
C. message; receiver
D. message; channel
E. channel; source




                                                5-8
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




31. (p. 150) Which of the following is an example of a personal channel of communication?
A. salesperson
B. newspaper
C. radio
D. magazines
E. television



32. (p. 150) Michael told Terry and Bill, and Terry told Melissa, and Melissa told Ty, Andrew,
and Beryl that the new Mexican restaurant in town had authentically prepared Mexican
dishes. This word-of-mouth took place via a(n) _____ channel of communication.
A. individualized
B. direct-response
C. nonpersonal
D. personal
E. customized



33. (p. 150) Honda broadcasts a commercial during Law & Order, a TV program that is seen by
eight million viewers. The broadcasting of this ad takes place in a(n) _____ channel of
communication.
A. individualized
B. direct-response
C. nonpersonal
D. semiotic
E. verbal



34. (p. 150) Kroger supermarkets buy an insert to go into Thursday's Atlanta Journal-
Constitution. The newspaper is read by over 100,000 people. The newspaper is a(n) example
of a(n) _____ channel of communication.
A. individualized
B. direct-response
C. nonpersonal
D. semiotic
E. verbal




                                              5-9
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




35. (p. 150) Nonpersonal channels of communication include:
A. newspapers, magazines, billboards, and salespeople
B. salespeople, friends, relatives, and spokespeople
C. reference groups, sales clerks, and telemarketers
D. television, radio, newspapers, and magazines
E. television, salespeople, and radio



36. (p. 152) _____ is the process of interpreting a sender's message into thought.
A. Decoding
B. Encoding
C. Channeling
D. Responding
E. Transmitting



37. (p. 152) When Bart heard an ad state that Kraft It's Pasta Anytime microwave meals could be
prepared in three minutes, he thought he understood that he would find the meals in his
supermarket's frozen food aisle with other microwave meals. When he could not find the
Kraft meals, he purchased another brand. He did not understand the Kraft meals were not
frozen and that was why they cooked so quickly. He should have looked on the supermarket
aisle that contains pasta. Bart experienced a problem with:
A. decoding
B. encoding
C. channeling
D. responding
E. transmitting



38. (p. 152) Which of the following communication processes will be most influenced by the
experiences, perceptions, attitudes and values of the message recipient?
A. encoding
B. decoding
C. noise
D. feedback
E. transmission




                                               5-10
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




39. (p. 152) The field of experience of the receiver most heavily influences which component of
the communications process?
A. encoding
B. decoding
C. message
D. feedback
E. noise



40. (p. 152) The experiences, perceptions, attitudes and values a consumer brings to a
communication situation is referred to as his or her:
A. semiotic experiences.
B. field of experience.
C. common ground.
D. source characteristics.
E. selective perceptions.



41. (p. 152) Mentos mint candy uses an advertising campaign that shows people solving
problems by thinking outside of the box—by taking a fresh look at a common problem.
"Freshness" is the message the ad is supposed to deliver, but if Rick and Beth Minton think
the ad is simply showing people being rude and boorish then in terms of the communication
process, the Mintons have _____ the message improperly.
A. encoded
B. interpreted
C. decoded
D. transmitted
E. channeled



42. (p. 152) The fact that marketing and advertising people have backgrounds and interests that
are often quite different from consumers who comprise mass markets for many products and
services makes it difficult to establish:
A. decoding
B. feedback mechanisms
C. response hierarchies
D. common ground
E. fields of experience




                                               5-11
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




43. (p. 152) Mentos mint candy uses an advertising campaign that shows people solving
problems by thinking outside of the box—by taking a fresh look at a common problem. The
advertisers think the message the ad delivers is freshness. However, Rick and Beth Minton
think the ad is simply showing people being rude and boorish. One of the possible
explanations for these highly different perceptions of the ads is due to an absence of:
A. interpretative links
B. feedback mechanisms
C. response hierarchies
D. common ground
E. fields of experience



44. (p. 153) Which of the following statements about ageism in advertising is true?
A. Mature people are more likely to be shown in television than print ads.
B. Some people believe too many mature people 60 and over are used in advertising today.
C. Because the mean age of the population is increasing, you can expect to see more youth-
oriented advertising.
D. There have been no successful ad campaigns showing people 60 and over performing age
appropriately.
E. None of the above statements about ageism in advertising is true.

See IMC Perspective 5-2.



45. (p. 154) _____ is any unplanned distortion or interference in the communication process.
A. Semiotics
B. Selective perception
C. Noise
D. Feedback
E. Blocking




                                              5-12
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




46. (p. 154) Winston is watching a suspenseful TV program with a group of friends. During the
commercial break everyone starts discussing the show and he cannot hear the commercials
even though he really wanted to watch the new Pepsi ad. Winston's inability to receive the
Pepsi message illustrates which element of the communications process?
A. encoding
B. decoding
C. feedback
D. common ground
E. noise



47. (p. 154) Ronell missed the small ad for Smythe Catering in the newspaper today because his
attention was attracted by an ad for an estate sale that was on the same page. In terms of the
communication process, the ad for the estate sale kept Ronell from seeing the ad for the
caterer and acted as:
A. an encoding hazard
B. a decoding block
C. negative feedback
D. a receptor block
E. noise



48. (p. 154) ______ is the part of the receiver's response that is communicated back to the
sender.
A. Feedback
B. Noise
C. Reciprocity
D. Encoding
E. Reception



49. (p. 154) Which of the following provides the sender of an advertising message with a way of
monitoring the effectiveness of the message?
A. encoding mechanisms
B. decoding mechanisms
C. feedback
D. noise filters
E. the channel




                                               5-13
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




50. (p. 154) An ad for The Peabody Hotel in Memphis, Tennessee, has an 800-number people
can call if they are interested in reserving rooms at the hotel or knowing more about the hotel.
One way to determine the effectiveness of this ad is to count the number of phone calls it
receives in response to its ad. This response count is an example of:
A. feedback
B. encoding
C. noise filtering
D. noise blocking
E. decoding



51. (p. 154) Tyra Hubbard sells beauty care products to retailers and is making a sales
presentation to the buyer at a major department store. Which of the following would be
considered a form of feedback Hubbard might receive from the buyer?
A. the questions the buyer asks
B. nonverbal responses the buyer makes such as frowns or gestures
C. the buyer's comments on Hubbard's company and products
D. the size of the order the buyer is willing to make
E. all of the above



52. (p. 154) The element of the communications process that closes the loop in the
communications flow and allows the sender to monitor how a message is being received and
interpreted is:
A. encoding
B. decoding
C. feedback
D. reception
E. response



53. (p. 154) Instantaneous feedback on how effective a marketing communication method is will
most likely appear in:
A. personal selling situations
B. radio advertising
C. television advertising
D. direct mail advertising
E. mass communication channels




                                              5-14
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




54. (p. 154) For most marketers, the ultimate form of feedback is:
A. use of reply cards
B. the communication effects
C. store visits
D. sales
E. consumer inquiries



55. (p. 154) Counts of customer visits to a store, consumer inquiries, coupon redemption and
recall of advertising are all possible forms of:
A. internal communication
B. feedback
C. noise
D. message channels
E. decoding mechanisms



56. (p. 155) Individual and group audiences, niche markets, market segments and mass markets
are all examples of:
A. different stages of the response process
B. hierarchies of effects
C. levels of audience aggregation
D. communication elements
E. nonpersonal channels of target audiences

See Figure 5-2



57. (p. 155) Which of the following products is most likely to be promoted through personal
selling?
A. Butterfinger candy bars
B. cat litter
C. light bulbs
D. real estate
E. silk flowers




                                               5-15
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




58. (p. 155) When developing a communications plan, the process should begin with:
A. determining who will be the source of the communications
B. the identification and analysis of receivers in the target audience
C. deciding what feedback level is acceptable
D. determining what media to use
E. ascertaining the type of feedback that will be accepted



59. (p. 155) The best way to reach a narrowly defined group of customers or market niche is
through:
A. television advertising and billboards
B. personal selling and targeted direct mail
C. targeted direct mail and radio advertising
D. any form of broadcast media
E. transit advertising, billboards, and ads with pithy headlines



60. (p. 155) Television advertising is used most often to communicate with what type of target
audiences?
A. niche markets
B. industrial buying centers
C. mass audiences
D. resellers
E. purchasing agents



61. (p. 156) The AIDA model is often used to represent what ideally happens during:
A. personal selling
B. the decoding of direct marketing advertising pieces
C. mass marketing
D. sales promotions
E. the introduction of innovative new consumer products




                                              5-16
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




62. (p. 156) Inez and Troy were just strolling through the mall when they saw a mattress with
adjustable levels of firmness in a store window. Once they became aware such a product
existed, they were eager to talk to a salesperson and learn more about the mattresses. After
talking to the salesperson for thirty minutes, Inez and Troy realized they wanted to own one.
They used their credit card to order a mattress and to pay for its delivery to their home. In
terms of the models of response process, Inez and Troy have just gone through the stages in
the _____ model.
A. AIDA
B. hierarchy of effects
C. innovation-adoption
D. adoption response
E. diffusion rate



63. (p. 156) The hierarchical model representing the stages a salesperson must take a customer
through in the personal selling process is the _____ model.
A. AIDA
B. hierarchy of results
C. diffusion rate
D. innovation-adoption
E. information processing



64. (p. 156) The _____ model is a response model that was developed for setting and measuring
advertising objectives. A basic premise of this model is that advertising effects occur over a
period of time.
A. AIDA
B. hierarchy of effects
C. innovation-adoption
D. adoption response
E. diffusion rate




                                              5-17
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




65. (p. 156) The _____ model, the best known of the response hierarchies, shows the process by
which advertising works. The premise of this model is that advertising effects occur over a
period of time.
A. diffusion rate
B. objective-task
C. innovation-adoption
D. hierarchy of effects
E. adoption objective



66. (p. 155) Which of the following response hierarchy models depicts consumers as going
through the stages of awareness àinterest à evaluation à trial àadoption?
A. the AIDA model
B. the hierarchy of effects model
C. the innovation adoption model
D. the information processing model
E. the integrated information response model

See also Figure 5-3.



67. (p. 155) Which of the following response hierarchy models depicts consumers as going
through the stages of attention àcomprehension à yielding àretention àbehavior?
A. the AIDA model
B. the hierarchy of effects model
C. the innovation adoption model
D. the information processing model
E. the integrated information response model

See also Figure 5-3.




                                             5-18
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




68. (p. 155) Which of the following response hierarchy models includes a cognitive stage?
A. the AIDA model
B. the hierarchy of effects model
C. the innovation-adoption model
D. the information processing model
E. all of the above

See Figure 5-3.



69. (p. 157) Which of the following hierarchical response models views the receiver of a
persuasive communication as a problem solver?
A. the AIDA model
B. the hierarchy of effects models
C. the innovation-adoption model
D. the information processing model
E. the 5-Ws model



70. (p. 155) In 2004, Delta Airlines was the first major airline to charge passengers for brand
name snacks and meals. The _____ model would have been most relevant to communicating
this change.
A. hierarchy of effects
B. AIDA
C. innovation-adoption
D. cognitive response
E. information processing

See also Figure 5-3.




                                              5-19
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




71. (p. 155) Only the _____ model has a retention stage, which is important for consumers who
are considering purchase decisions and who are not ready to make a purchase.
A. hierarchy of effects model
B. AIDA model
C. innovation-adoption model
D. cognitive response model
E. information processing model

See also Figure 5-3.



72. (p. 157) Nike conducts a marketing research study and finds the majority of consumers recall
the company's "Just do it" ad slogan. Nike can safely assume:
A. consumers are aware of Nike's advertising
B. consumers have favorable attitudes toward Nike
C. consumers understand the advertising message Nike is trying to communicate
D. consumers will probably buy Nike athletic shoes
E. all of the above



73. (p. 157) Which of the following statements describes how the traditional hierarchy of effects
model can be used as a measure for advertising effectiveness?
A. Consumers must pass through each stage before making a purchase.
B. Awareness and recall are the most important measures of ad effectiveness.
C. The stages of the hierarchy offer useful intermediate measures of advertising effectiveness.
D. The hierarchy is not useful because sales are the only appropriate goal of advertising.
E. Time is not a situational factor when using this model to measure ad effectiveness.



74. (p. 157) Attention, awareness, and knowledge are all examples of the _____ stage of the
response process and appear in all of the models describing the consumer response process.
A. cognitive
B. affective
C. behavioral
D. subliminal
E. conative




                                              5-20
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




75. (p. 157) Trial, purchase, adoption, and rejection are all examples of the _____ stage of the
response process and appear in all of the models describing the consumer response process.
A. cognitive
B. affective
C. behavioral
D. motivational
E. learning



76. (p. 158) Interest, liking, preference, evaluation and yielding are all examples of the _____
stage of the response process and appear in all of the models describing the consumer
response process.
A. cognitive
B. affective
C. behavioral
D. conative
E. learning



77. (p. 159) According to the _____, the consumer is an active participant in the communication
process and gathers information through active learning.
A. standard learning hierarchy
B. low-involvement hierarchy
C. dissonance/attribution model
D. peripheral processing model
E. maximum likelihood model



78. (p. 159) According to the standard learning model, the consumer passes through which of the
following response sequences during the decision making process?
A. learn feel  do
B. learn  do  feel
C. feel  learn  do
D. do  feel  learn
E. do  learn  feel




                                                5-21
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




79. (p. 159) For which of the following products would an advertiser be more likely to use the
standard learning model to explain the consumer decision-making process?
A. bar of soap
B. pickup truck
C. garden rake
D. bag of cement
E. computer disks



80. (p. 159) The _____ model explains the decision-making process when a consumer buys a
high-involvement product for which there is a high amount of differentiation among brands.
A. standard learning
B. dissonance/attribution
C. low-involvement
D. cognitive response
E. 5-Ws



81. (p. 159) The _____ model involves selective learning, whereby the consumer seeks
information that supports the purchase choices made and avoids information that would raise
doubts about the decision.
A. standard learning
B. dissonance/attribution
C. low-involvement
D. cognitive response
E. 5-Ws



82. (p. 159) Graduate schools that offer MBAs are typically rated annually by business
publications. Oftentimes when an MBA program rates high on a list, the information is
publicized. If the purpose of the communication is to make sure current students know they
have made the right choice and are attending a prestigious institution, then the _____ model
would be correct.
A. standard learning
B. dissonance/attribution
C. low-involvement
D. cognitive response
E. 5-Ws




                                              5-22
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




83. (p. 160) According to the dissonance/attribution model, the consumer passes through which
of the following response sequences during the decision making process?
A. learn feel  do
B. learn  do  feel
C. feel  learn  do
D. do  feel  learn
E. do  learn  feel



84. (p. 160) According to the _____ model, the major impact of the mass media occurs after the
purchase is made.
A. low-involvement
B. standard learning
C. dissonance/attribution
D. cognitive response
E. elaboration likelihood



85. (p. 161) According to the _____ hierarchy, advertisers of products like light bulbs, ketchup,
computer paper, nail clippers, and other items bought without a lot of thought need to use a
heavy repetition strategy.
A. three-orders response
B. standard learning
C. dissonance-attribution
D. low-involvement
E. high involvement



86. (p. 161) For which of the following products would an advertiser be more likely to use the
low-involvement hierarchy to explain the consumer decision-making process?
A. bar of soap
B. digital camera
C. refrigerator-freezer combination
D. yard landscaping
E. wedding dress




                                               5-23
Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




87. (p. 161) According to the low-involvement hierarchy, the consumer passes through which
response sequence during the purchase decision making process?
A. learn  feel  do
B. learn  do  feel
C. do  feel  learn
D. feel  learn  do
E. do  learn  feel



88. (p. 161) Which response hierarchy views the consumer as engaging in passive learning and
random information catching?
A. standard learning
B. low-involvement
C. dissonance/attribution
D. habit formation
E. informative processing



89. (p. 161) The repeated use of the "Got milk" slogan by America's Dairy and Milk Processors
in their ads can most readily be justified by the _____ hierarchy.
A. standard learning
B. low-involvement
C. dissonance/attribution
D. habit formation
E. informative processing



90. (p. 161) Marketers trying to sell _____ will find the use of a catchy jingle or ad slogan to be
most effective.
A. products characterized by a low-involvement response hierarchy
B. products characterized by high-involvement response hierarchy
C. consumer durables that require detailed information
D. services where differentiation is important
E. products to the business-to-business market




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91. (p. 163) Marketers of _____ often must communicate with passive, uninterested consumers
who may focus more on non-message elements such as music, slogans, and jingles than on
message content.
A. employment services
B. ketchup, mustard, margarine, and soy sauce
C. personal computers
D. x-ray machines, road building equipment, and walk-in refrigeration units
E. business-to-business services such as advertising agencies



92. (p. 163) Advertisers of products characterized by low levels of involvement might consider
using _____ in designing their advertising strategy.
A. heavy repetition of simple product claims
B. catchy slogans
C. attention-attracting gimmicks
D. visual image personalities
E. all of the above



93. (p. 163) Geico's gecko, the Green Giant, and the AFLAC duck are examples of:
A. visual image personalities
B. affective characters
C. selectively remembered personalities
D. high-involvement advertising appeals
E. cognitively processed characters



94. (p. 163) Visual image personalities:
A. are typically used with complex products that require high-involvement
B. appear in ads for low-involvement products
C. require central route processing to be effective
D. typically shorten the cognitive stage of the consumer decision-making process
E. are used when consumers must go through all stages of AIDA before making a purchase




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95. (p. 153) The various models of the ways consumers respond to advertising and other forms
of marketing communication show that:
A. consumers are generally highly involved in the response process and engage in active
information processing
B. consumers never make purchase decisions based on a general awareness resulting from
repetitive exposure to advertising
C. the notion of a highly involved consumer who engages in active information processing
and acts on the basis of higher-order beliefs and well-formed attitudes is appropriate for all
purchase situations
D. at no time can consumers develop brand preferences primarily on the basis of their direct
experiences with a product
E. none of the above is true



96. (p. 163) Although there is no single precise definition of consumer involvement, most
conceptualizations of it focus on:
A. consumer wants
B. consumer motives
C. personal goals
D. personal relevance
E. communications integration



97. (p. 164) Which of the following is an example of an antecedent variable that would influence
a consumer's level of involvement in a purchase?
A. personal needs
B. consumer's interest in the product
C. the occasion for which the product is being purchased
D. the degree of difference between various brands of the product
E. all of the above




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98. (p. 164) Which of the following is NOT a strategy associated with the FCB planning grid?
A. dissonance strategy
B. self-satisfaction strategy
C. habit formation strategy
D. affective strategy
E. informative strategy

See also Figure 5-6.



99. (p. 164) The Foote, Cone & Belding grid is based on the dimensions of _____ and high-
versus low-involvement.
A. dissonance versus attribution
B. rational versus irrational thought
C. thinking versus feeling processing
D. affect versus dissonance
E. selective versus passive learning

See also Figure 5-6.



100. (p. 164) According to the FCB model, the _____ strategy is for highly involving products
where rational thinking and economic considerations prevail.
A. habitual
B. informative
C. affective
D. satisfaction
E. dissonance reduction

See also Figure 5-6.




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Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




101. (p. 164) According to the FCB planning model, for which of the following products would
an affective strategy be most appropriate?
A. storm windows
B. bag of cat litter
C. can of Planter's peanuts
D. a hall table
E. cosmetics

See also Figure 5-6.



102. (p. 164) According to the FCB planning model, a package goods company might want to
send out free samples to generate trial and follow this with discount coupons to encourage
repeat purchase when using a(n) _____ strategy.
A. informative
B. affective
C. habit formation
D. self-satisfaction
E. counter arguing

See also Figure 5-6.



103. (p. 165) _____ are thoughts that occur to a consumer when reading, viewing, and/or hearing
a communication.
A. Cognitive responses
B. Affective responses
C. Selective impressions
D. Elaborations
E. Conative impressions




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104. (p. 165) Kenya was asked to look at a television ad for a movie that was going to be
released in December. She was then asked her reactions to the ad—Did it make her want to
see the movie? Did the title seem appropriate? Did she feel that she understood the subject of
the movie? As a result of using _____, it was determined that the communication created the
appropriate reactions.
A. cognitive responses
B. affective responses
C. selective impressions
D. elaborations
E. conative impressions



105. (p. 166) When Johann saw the television ad advising him to mark on his calendar when the
latest of Survivor series would start, he was appalled that the network would provide such trite
and derivative programming. Johann's response to the ad for the reality program would be an
example of:
A. counter arguing
B. support arguing
C. source bolstering
D. negative dissonance
E. source blockage



106. (p. 166) Tia saw a television commercial that said a specific brand of pain reliever was
much more effective than the brand she had used and trusted for the last twenty years. As a
result of this commercial, Tia is likely to engage in:
A. counter arguing
B. support arguing
C. source bolstering
D. negative dissonance
E. source blockage




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Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




107. (p. 166) The ad for Jergens lotion indicated it has both beta hydroxy to defoliate dry skin
and alpha hydroxy to moisturize skin. Someone who knew something about these additives
work might respond to the ad by thinking, "Those fancy-sounding ingredients won't help my
skin. It's too dry for some over-the-counter lotion to soften it." The individual's response to
the ad's copy would be an example of a:
A. negative ad execution thought
B. source derogation
C. support argument
D. counterargument
E. positive execution thought



108. (p. 166) The ad for Jergens lotion indicated it has both beta hydroxy to defoliate dry skin
and alpha hydroxy to moisturize skin. Someone who knew something about these additives
work might respond to the ad by thinking, "If it has both those ingredients, it must be really
good for my skin. I'm going to buy a bottle." The individual's response to the ad's copy would
be an example of a:
A. negative ad execution thought
B. source derogation
C. support argument
D. counterargument
E. positive execution thought



109. (p. 166) When Harrison saw the television ad advising him to mark on his calendar when
the latest of Survivor series would start, he actually did make a mental note of the starting day
because he had enjoyed the previous Survivor shows so much. Harrison's response to the
communication was an example of a:
A. negative ad execution thought
B. source derogation
C. support argument
D. counterargument
E. positive execution thought




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110. (p. 166) Kasey hears a radio commercial for a weight loss program involving hypnosis that
claims an individual can lose weight through its program. Kasey thinks to himself, "Yep, it
sure does work. I wouldn't have been able to lose thirty pounds without it." This thought
would be an example of a:
A. source derogation
B. source bolster
C. counterargument
D. support argument
E. ad executive thought



111. (p. 166) Mentos mint candy uses an advertising campaign that shows people solving
problems by thinking outside of the box—by taking a fresh look at a common problem.
"Freshness" is the message the ad is supposed to deliver. When Rick and Beth Minton saw the
ad, Rick said to Beth, "That ad is simply showing people being rewarded for being rude and
boorish. How could any company think that sort of ad would appeal to decent people?" Rick's
comment about the ad source represents a:
A. negative ad execution thought
B. source derogation
C. support argument
D. counter argument
E. positive execution thought



112. (p. 166) Negative thoughts about a spokesperson in an ad are called:
A. source derogations
B. counterarguments
C. source bolsters
D. source blockages
E. message blockages




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113. (p. 166) Florence is watching television and sees a commercial in which Sarah Jessica
Parker is endorsing a hair care product. Florence thinks to herself, "That girl is was that
scandalous show, Sex in the City. I wouldn't buy anything she promotes." This is an example
of a:
A. counterargument
B. support argument
C. source bolster
D. source derogation
E. message blockage



114. (p. 166) Sometimes when celebrities are convicted in drug-related cases, part of the
sentencing is to perform community service by speaking to students about the evils of drug
usage. Some people have questioned the value of this form of community service because it
could glamorize the use of drugs. The ill feelings some people have towards celebrities in
these types of programs can create:
A. source derogation
B. counterargument
C. source bolster
D. source blockage
E. message blockage



115. (p. 166) Most advertisers attempt to hire spokespeople their target audience likes so as to
generate _____ for the message.
A. source derogation
B. counterargument
C. source bolster
D. source blockage
E. message synergy



116. (p. 166) A company that wanted to make use a source bolster could:
A. create a rational message
B. hire a popular celebrity to serve as a spokesperson
C. use non-traditional channels
D. eliminate noise from the communication process
E. encode without consideration for the target audience's field of reference




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Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




117. (p. 166) Of the categories of cognitive responses discussed in the text, which is most likely
to predict a viewer's attitude toward the ad?
A. product/message thoughts
B. source-oriented thoughts
C. ad execution-related thoughts
D. brand attitudes
E. purchase intention thoughts



118. (p. 166) Which category of cognitive responses includes a message recipient's reactions to
factors such as the creativity of an ad, the quality of the visual effects, colors, voice tones, and
the like?
A. counterarguments
B. support arguments
C. source derogations
D. ad execution-related thoughts
E. attitude toward the brand



119. (p. 167) ____ is a term used to describe a message receiver's feelings of favorability or
unfavorability toward an advertisement.
A. Brand attitude
B. Purchase intent
C. Attitude toward the ad
D. Counterargument
E. Source derogation



120. (p. 167) The _____ is a model that addresses the differences in the ways consumers respond
to persuasive messages.
A. elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
B. 5-W's model of communication
C. AIDA model
D. information processing model
E. cognitive response model




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121. (p. 168) Studies show sex and nudity increase viewers' attention but:
A. do not assist marketers in overcoming consumer resistance
B. damage dramatic positioning of niche market products
C. push channel marketing promotion better than pulling systematic results
D. should not be used for innovative and award-winning advertorials
E. may distract from consumers attending to the ad message

See IMC Perspective 5-3.



122. (p. 168) The "vampire effect" described in "Do Men and Women Process Sexy Ads
Differently" refers to the conclusion that:
A. sexual imagery can be used to sell both sex-related and everyday consumer products
B. buzz marketing works when combined with sexual imagery
C. bloody images are effective stimuli for marketing of a wide variety of products
D. strong sexual imagery sucks up the attention that would have been spent on the ad
E. marketers need to carefully choose celebrity spokespeople to avoid being associated with
vampire imagery

See IMC Perspective 5-3.



123. (p. 169) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) was developed to explain the process by
which persuasive communications influence:
A. dissonance formation
B. attributions
C. beliefs
D. attitudes
E. group norms

See also Figure 5-8.




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Chapter 05 - The Communication Process




124. (p. 169) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) indicates that the willingness to process
an ad is a function of two elements. They are the _____ to process the message.
A. encoding and decoding abilities
B. motivation and ability
C. knowledge and technical skills
D. attitude and linguistics skills
E. verbal and nonverbal skills



125. (p. 169) Ned is planning on buying a new computer. He carefully studied the contents of an
ad describing the superiority of Dell computers and scrutinized how the advertising message
argued in favor of Dell's superiority. According to the ELM, Ned is engaging in what type of
message processing?
A. support arguing
B. central processing
C. peripheral processing
D. source bolstering
E. comparative analysis



126. (p. 169) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) states that there are two basic routes to
persuasion, the central route and the peripheral route. Under the central route to persuasion, a
message recipient is viewed as:
A. lacking the motivation to process a message
B. having a low level of involvement and relying on imagery processing
C. a very active and involved participant in the communications process
D. having low ability to attend to and comprehend a message
E. unlikely to engage in detailed cognitive processing



127. (p. 169) According to the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), a receiver lacks the ability
or motivation to process information under the _____ route to persuasion.
A. central
B. peripheral
C. cognitive
D. high-involvement
E. affective




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128. (p. 169) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) states that there are two basic routes to
persuasion, the central route and the peripheral route. With the peripheral route to
persuasion,:
A. the message will be more likely received if a celebrity endorser is used
B. the message should contain a lot of information
C. the receiver is viewed as very actively involved in the communication process
D. the quality of the message claims are more important than the spokesperson, headline,
pictures, or music bed
E. the sender is dealing with a high-involvement buying situation



129. (p. 167) Trevor is watching a late night TV show when a low-budget commercial for a local
restaurant comes on the air. He is turned off by the poor quality of the commercial and
immediately tunes out the message without processing any of the information. Trevor is
engaging in what type of message processing?
A. support arguing
B. central processing
C. peripheral processing
D. source bolstering
E. source blocking



130. (p. 169) According to the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), an advertiser who wants to
reach a receiver through a peripheral route to persuasion could use:
A. old 1960s music that is recognized by all baby boomers
B. football stars as spokespeople
C. images of the Vietnam War
D. psychedelic colors
E. any of the above




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131. (p. 171) Research on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) has shown that:
A. celebrities are effective peripheral cues in a high-involvement situation
B. celebrities are effective peripheral cues in a low-involvement situation
C. the quality of message arguments is likely to be very important in a low-involvement
situation
D. the quality of the message claims is always less likely to be persuasive than the status of
the celebrity endorser
E. peripheral cues are more important than detailed messages in high-involvement situations



132. (p. 171) Gillette believes commercials for deodorants are processed primarily through a
peripheral processing route. This might explain why the company would use which of the
following advertising strategies?
A. very detailed ads with a great deal of information about the causes of body odor
B. detailed ads with strong message arguments about Gillette brands
C. ads that use celebrity endorsers such as basketball star Lebron James
D. ads that pay more attention to information in the copy than executional elements such as
visual imagery
E. ads that are free of any distractions like pictures or jingles




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