Minor Prophets.rtf by shensengvf

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									                                       Minor Prophets
                              Bible College Course Syllabus
                                   Written by Dale A. Brueggemann, M.A., Ph.D.

I. Course Description and Objectives

A. Description
“Minor Prophets” introduces students to the Old Testament prophetic office. Then it surveys
the message of each of the twelve books, giving attention to Old Testament backgrounds, to
their contemporary message, and to New Testament fulfillment.

B. Objectives
    To explain the function of Old Testament prophet.
    To survey the content and message of the Old Testament Minor Prophets.
    To treat the Christian implications of the Minor Prophets’ messages.

II. Course Requirements and Grading

A.   Requirements
1.   Attend class and participate in discussion.
2.   Complete and submit your Workbook.
3.   Read all of the Minor Prophets and submit your reading report.
4.   Submit three expository sermon outlines.
     a) The professor will assign your passages.
     b) These must be expository, not just a topic sermon tagged onto the passage.
     c) Although they are not research papers, I will expect the sermons to show evidence of
         good research and reflection:
         (1) Each sermon should include a bibliography of what was read during the
              preparation of the sermon outline.
         (2) Each sermon should show some biblical theological awareness.
     d) Although they are academic papers, I will expect these to be sermons.
         (1) They should not be written with academic theological jargon; write them as if
              you were to preach them to the congregations you regularly address with the
              Word.
         (2) They should convince, rebuke, encourage, and train in righteousness (2 Tim.
              3:16; 4:2).
5.   Take your final exam.

B. Grading
Assignment     Due Date                        Value
Workbook       Set by instructor                 30%
Reading        Set by instructor                 10%
Sermons        Set by instructor                 30%
Exam           Set by instructor                 30%
                                    Total       100%

III. Course Outline

A. The Prophetic Office
1. Hebrew Terms for Prophets


                                            Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 1
2.   Prophetic Office in the Pentateuch
     a) Deut 18:9–22
     b) Deut 13:1–5
     c) Num 12:1–16
     d) Exod 4:14–17; 6:28–7:5
3.   The Prophetic Self-Understanding
     a) Call Narratives
     b) Oracular Formulae
     c) Other Passages
4.   Approaches to the Prophets
     a) Religious Giant
     b) Social Reformers
     c) Temple Functionaries, or Anti-Temple Voices
     d) Court Functionaries
     e) Historians
     f) Messengers
     g) Intercessors
5.   Prophets in the New Testament

B. Hosea
1. Introduction
2. Hosea’s Family as Symbol of Spiritual Adultery in Israel (Hos 1–3)
   a) The Prophet’s Family as a Symbol of God’s Judgment (1:2–9)
   b) Israel’s Restoration in Jezreel’s Great Day (1:10–2:1 [2:1–3 Heb])
   c) Divorce Proceedings with a Surprise Ending (2:2–15 [2:4–17 Heb])
   d) The Day of the New Covenant (2:16–23 [2:18–25 Heb])
   e) Israel Loved and therefore Chastened (3:1–5)
3. Hosea’s Message about Spiritual Adultery in Israel (Hos 4–14)
   a) Yahweh’s Lawsuit against Israel (4:1–19)
   b) An Unclean People Summoned to Judgment (5:1–7)
   c) Wrath, Return, Restoration (5:8–7:1ag)
   d) Ephraim Mixed Up among the Nations (7:1ad–16)
   e) Sow the Wind and Reap the Whirlwind (8:1–14)
   f) From Festive Days to Punishment Days (9:1–9)
   g) Ephraim Rejected, Exiled, Unloved (9:10–17)
   h) The End of Cult, King, and Capital (10:1–8)
   i) War against the Wicked Ones (10:9–15)
   j) Israel in and out of Egypt (11:1–11)
   k) Israel a Deceiver (11:12 [12:1 Heb]–13:1)
   l) “I Will Destroy You, Israel” (13:2–16 [14:1 Heb])
   m) A Promise for the Remnant That Will Return (14:1–8 [vv. 2–9 Heb])
   n) Challenge to the Wise Reader (14:9 [10 Heb])
4. Conclusion
   a) Blessings and Curses in Hosea

C. Joel
1. Introduction
   a) Setting
        (1) Jerusalem Clear


                                 Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 2
       (2) Dating Not Clear
    b) Form: Joel as a Lament Liturgy
    c) Joel: Chronological Framework
       (1) Past (Joel 1:1–14)
       (2) Present (Joel 2:12–14, 18–27)
           (a) Joel 2:12–14
           (b) Joel 2:18–27
           (c) Day of the LORD (1:15–2:11)
           (d) Day of the LORD (2:28–3:21)

D. Amos
1. Introduction
2. Commentary
   a) Superscription (1:1)
   b) Introduction to the Oracle (1:2)
   c) Judgments on the Nations (1:3–2:16)
   d) Oracles against Israel 3:1–5:17)
   e) Announcements of Exile (5:18–6:14)
   f) Visions of Divine Retribution (7:1–9:10)
   g) Restored Israel’s Blessed Future (9:11–15)
3. Conclusion
   a) Amos and Social Justice
   b) Amos and Foreign Nations (1:3–2:16)
   c) Amos and hwhy
   d) Amos and History
   e) Amos and the Covenant

E. Obadiah
1. Introduction
   a) Date
   b) Edom in Biblical History
   c) Connection with Jeremiah 49
2. Commentary
   a) Heading (v. 1)
   b) Edom’s Coming Defeat (2–9)
   c) Edom’s Crimes Against Judah (10–14)
   d) Edom on the Day of the LORD: Restoration of Israel’s Sovereignty (15–20)
3. Theology
   a) OT Setting of Obadiah
   b) NT Fulfillment of Obadiah

F. Jonah
1. Introduction
   a) Jonah and His Time
   b) Canonicity
   c) Form
   d) The “sign of Jonah” in Jesus’ use of the book
2. Commentary
   a) Jonah at Sea (Jonah 1–2)


                                  Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 3
        (1) Jonah rebels against Revelation (1:1–3).
        (2) Jonah ends up at sea in a storm (1:4–16).
        (3) Jonah finds rescue by Yahweh’s grace (2:1–11).
     b) Jonah at Nineveh (Jonah 3–4)
        (1) God gives Jonah a second chance (3:1–3a).
        (2) Jonah preaches and the Ninevites repent (3:3b–10)
        (3) God teaches Jonah about anger and compassion (4:1–11).
3.   Message: “Don’t be like Jonah.”

G. Micah
1. Introduction
   a) Dating, Authorship, Composition
   b) Micah’s Theology
   c) Structure and Analysis
                                     1:1–2:11 long doom section
                                     2:12–13 short hope section
                                      3:1–12 long doom section
                                      4:1–5 short hope section
                             4:6–8 (remnant) hope with distress allusions
4:9–10 long distress and doom       4:11–13 short distress section     5:1–6 short distress section plus
section plus short hope section         plus long hope section               longer hope section
                             5:7–9 (remnant) hope with distress allusions
                                      5:10–14 long doom section
                                        5:15 short hope section
                                      6:1–7:7 long doom section
                                      7:8–20 short hope section
2.   Commentary
     a) Heading (Micah 1:1)
     b) The Doom of Samaria (Ezek 1:2–9)
     c) Lamentation over Israel’s Doom (Micah 1:10–16)
     d) The Oppression of the Poor (2:1–11)
     e) The Return of the Exiles (2:12–13)
     f) Oracle against the Courts (3:1–4)
     g) Oracle against the Prophets (3:5–8)
     h) Oracle against the Establishment (3:9–12)
     i) The Idea of Yahweh’s World Dominion (4:1–5)
     j) The Future Greatness of Israel and Jerusalem (4:6–8)
     k) Oracles about Jerusalem’s Present Crisis with Solutions (4:9–10)
     l) The Triumph of Israel (4:11–13)
     m) Call to Mourning (4:14 [5:1])
     n) The Messianic King (5:1–3)
     o) Israel’s Protection against Invasion (5:4–5)
     p) The Irresistible Might of the Remnant (5:6–8)
     q) Israel’s Purification by Chastisement (5:9–14)
     r) Yahweh’s Controversy with Israel (6:1–8)
     s) The Sin of the City and the Punishment to Come (6:9–16)
     t) Israel Laments Her People’s Faithlessness (7:1–7)
     u) The Discomfiture of the Foe (7:8–10)
     v) Restoration and Return to Jerusalem (7:11–13)
     w) A Prayer for Yahweh’s Intervention (7:14–20)


                                           Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 4
H. Nahum
1. Introduction
2. Commentary
   a) Superscription (1:1)
   b) A Psalm to Yahweh (1:2–8)
   c) God’s Wrath Personalized (1:9–11)
   d) God’s Dual Verdicts (1:12–2:2)
   e) Vignette of Battle (2:3–10)
   f) The Lion of Assyria Routed (2:11–13)
   g) Woe to Nineveh (3:1–19)
3. The Message of Nahum

I.   Habakkuk
1.   Introduction
     a) Authorship of Habakkuk
     b) Time of Habakkuk
     c) Message of Habakkuk
2.   Commentary
     a) Superscription (1:1)
     b) The Problem of Unpunished Wickedness (1:2–4)
     c) Yahweh’s First Response (1:5–11)
     d) The Problem of Excessive Punishment (1:12–17)
     e) Awaiting an Answer (2:1)
     f) Yahweh’s Second Response (2:2–20)
     g) Habakkuk’s Psalm (3:1–19)

J. Zephaniah
1. Introduction
   a) Zephaniah’s Identity
   b) Zephaniah’s Times
   c) Zephaniah’s Message: The Day of the LORD is coming to the world and to Jerusalem.
2. Commentary
   a) Title (1:1)
   b) Prologue (1:2–6)
   c) The Day of Yahweh (1:7–3:20)
        (1) Announcement of the Day (1:7)
        (2) Nature of the Day as Judgment (1:8–18)
        (3) The Day Requires a Response (2:1–3)
        (4) Scenarios of Judgment (2:4–3:8)
        (5) Nature of the Day for Hope (3:9–20)

K. Haggai
1. Introduction
   a) Haggai’s Identification
   b) Haggai’s Times
   c) Haggai’s Message
2. Commentary
   a) It’s Now or Never (1:1–15, August 520 BC)
        (1) Rebuke and Exhortation (1:1–11)



                                 Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 5
       (2) Response of the People (1:12–15)
    b) Take Heart and Work (2:1–9, October 520 BC)
       (1) Encouragement (2:1–5)
       (2) Promise of Glory (2:6–9)
    c) Promise and Prediction (2:10–23, August 520 BC)
       (1) Instruction and Assurance (2:10–19)
       (2) Assurance for Zerubbabel (2:20–23)

L. Zechariah
1. Part I
   a) Introduction (1:1–6)
   b) Eight Night Visions (1:7–6:8)
        (1) The Pattern
        (2) The Visions
            (a) First (1:7–17)
            (b) Second (1:18–21 [2:1–4 Heb])
            (c) Third (2:1–13 [2:5–17 Heb])
            (d) Fourth (3:1–10)
            (e) Fifth (4:1–14)
            (f) Sixth (5:1–4)
            (g) Seventh (5:5–11)
            (h) Eighth (6:1–8)
   c) Symbolic Crowning of Joshua the High Priest (6:9–15)
   d) Messages Prompted by the Question of Fasting and Morality (7:1–8:23)
        (1) The Question (7:1–3)
        (2) Reiteration of the Word of Former Prophets (7:4–14)
        (3) Promise Remains for God’s People (8:1–23)
2. Part II
   a) First Oracle (9–11): The Advent and Rejection of the Messiah
        (1) Yahweh’s Kingdom in Syria, Phoenicia, and Philistia (9:1–8)
        (2) The Coming of a New King (9:9–10)
        (3) Jubilation over Release from Captivity and Newfound Prosperity (9:11–10:1)
        (4) Rebuke for Sham Leaders (10:2–3a)
        (5) Jubilation for the Restoration of Judah and Joseph (10:3b–12)
        (6) Taunt-Song against Tyrants (11:1–3)
        (7) The Fate of the Good Shepherd (11:4–17)
   b) Second Oracle (12–14): The Advent and Reception of the Messiah
        (1) Jubilation in Jerusalem over Enemies Destroyed (12:1–9)
        (2) Weeping in Jerusalem over One They Had Pierced (12:10–14)
        (3) Cleansing Jerusalem from Sin, Idols, and False Prophets (13:1–6)
        (4) The Smitten Shepherd, a Remnant Spared (13:7–9)
        (5) The Day of Battle for Jerusalem (14:1–5)
        (6) New Jerusalem (14:6–11)
        (7) Plague on Those who War against Jerusalem (14:12–15)
        (8) The Pilgrimage of the Nations to Jerusalem where the LORD is Worshiped as
            King over All (14:16–21)

M. Malachi
1. Introduction


                                 Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 6
     a) Malachi’s Identity
     b) Malachi’s Times
     c) Malachi’s Message
2.   Commentary
     a) Heading (1:1)
     b) Six Disputations (1:2–4:3)
        (1) Dispute about God’s Love for Israel (1:2–5)
        (2) Dispute about God’s Honor and Fear (1:6–2:9)
        (3) Dispute about Faithlessness in Marriage (2:10–16)
        (4) Dispute about God’s Justice in the Coming Day of Judgment (2:17–3:5)
        (5) Dispute about Repentance for Robbing God of His Tithes (3:6–12)
        (6) Dispute about Speaking against God (3:13–4:3 [3:13–21 Heb])
     c) Concluding Exhortation Referring to Moses and Elijah (4:4–6)




                                  Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 7
Appendix A: Suggested Sources for Reading on the Minor Prophets
      Achtemeier,       E.     Nahum–Malachi.                  Davidson, A. B. “Prophecy and
            Interpretation. A Bible Commentary                       Prophets,” in Dictionary of the
            for Teaching and Preaching.                              Bible, 4:106b–27b, ed. James
            Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1986.                          Hastings. New York: Scribner’s,
      Alexander, T. D., Jonah, in Alexander,                         1911.
            D., D. Baker, and B. Waltke,                       Davidson, A. B. Old Testament Prophecy.
            Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah.                               Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1904.
            Tyndale Old Testament                              Davidson, A. B. The Books of Nahum,
            Commentaries.                                            Habakkuk and Zephaniah, in
      Allen. The Books of Joel, Obadiah,                             Cambridge Bible for Schools and
            Jonah, and Micah. New In-                                Colleges.
            ternational Commentary to the OT.                  Dillard, R. D. “Joel,” in Evangelical
            Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.                            Commentary on the Bible, ed.
      Baker, D., Obadiah, in Alexander, D., D.                       Walter A. Elwell (Baker).
            Baker, and B. Waltke, Obadiah,                     Dyck, Elmer. “Jonah among the Prophets:
            Jonah, and Micah. Tyndale Old                            A Study in Canonical Context.”
            Testament Commentaries.                                  Journal of the Evangelical
      Baldwin, J. Haggai, Zechariah, and                             Theological Society 33.1 (1990):
            Malachi. Tyndale OT Commentary.                          63–74.
      Boice, J. M. The Minor Prophets. Grand                   Eaton, J. H. Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
            Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.                                 and Zephaniah. Allenson, 1961.
      Braun, Michael A. “James’ Use of Amos                    Ericson, Norman R. “The NT Use of the
            at the Jerusalem Council: Steps To-                      OT: A Kerygmatic Approach.”
            ward a Solution of the Textual and                       Journal of the Evangelical
            Theological Problems.” Journal of                        Theological Society 30.3 (1987):
            the Evangelical Theological Society                      337–42.
            20 (1977): 113–21.                                 Expositor’s Bible Commentary, which
      Brueggemann, Walter. The Land.                                 will be strong on supplying
            Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977. Pp.                        specifically premillennial
            90–106.                                                  interpretations of key passages.
      Brueggemann, Walter. Tradition for                       Harrison, R. K. “Book of Zechariah,” in
            Crisis: A Study in Hosea. Atlanta:                       Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia
            John Knox Press, 1968.                                   of the Bible, pp. 950–56.
      Calvin, John. Commentaries on the                        Harrison, R. K. Introduction to the Old
            Twelve Minor Prophets are                                Testament [IOT] (Grand Rapids:
            generally outstanding.                                   Eerdmans, 1969).
      Childs, B. Introduction to the Old                       Hengstenberg, Ernest Wilhelm.
            Testament as Scripture                                   Christology of the Old Testament,
            (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979).                    and a Commentary on the
      Clements, Ronald E. “The Messianic                             Messianic Predictions. Grand
            Hope in the Old Testament.”                              Rapids: Kregel, 1956.
            Journal for the Study of the New                   Hillers, D. Micah. Hermeneia.
            Testament 43 (1989): 3–19.                               Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.
      Clements, Ronald E. Prophecy and                         Hosch, H. “The Concept of Prophetic
            Covenant. Studies in Biblical                            Time in the Book of Joel,” Journal
            Theology. Naperville, IL: Alec R.                        of the Evangelical Theological
            Allenson, 1965.                                          Society 15 (1972): 31–38.
      Clowney, Edmund P. “The Final                            Hughes, P. E. Interpreting Prophecy: An
            Temple,” Westminster Theological                         Essay in Biblical Perspectives.
            Journal 35 (1972): 156–89.                               Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.
      Craige, P. Twelve Prophets (2 vols.).                    Hyatt, J. P. “The Book of Amos,”
            Daily Study Bible: Old Testament.                        Interpretation 3 (1959): 338–49.



                                      Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 8
Johansen, J. H. “The Prophet Hosea: His                  Miller, Patrick D. The Divine Warrior in
      Marriage and Message,” Journal of                         Early Israel. Cambridge: Harvard
      the Evangelical Theological Society                       University Press, 1973.
      14 (1971): 179–84.                                 Morgan, G. Campbell. Hosea. London:
Kaiser, Walter C. Malachi—God’s                                 Marshall, Morgan & Scott, Ltd.,
      Unchanging Love. Grand Rapids:                            1948.
      Baker. Kaiser makes a concerted                    Morris, Leon. The Biblical Doctrine of
      effort to indicate the meaning of                         Judgment. London: Tyndale, 1960.
      Malachi for today.                                 Motyer, J. A. The Message of Amos—The
Karlberg, Mark W. “The Significance of                          Day of the Lion. The Bible Speaks
      Israel in Biblical Typology.”                             Today, series. Downer’s Grove:
      Journal of the Evangelical                                Inter-Varsity Press.
      Theological Society 31.3. (1988):                  Ogilvie, Lloyd John. Hosea–Jonah.
      257–69.                                                   Communicator’s          Commentary.
Keil, C. F. The Twelve Minor Prophets.                          Waco: Word, 1991.
      Vol. 10 in Keil and Delitzsch’s                    Ryken, Leland, How to Read the Bible as
      Biblical Commentary on the Old                            Literature. Grand Rapids: Zonder-
      Testament.                                                van Academie Books, 1984. Pp.
Kidner, D. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.                          165–75.
      Tyndale Old Testament Commen-                      Sailhamer, John H. “The Canonical
      taries.                                                   Approach to the OT: Its Effect on
Kidner, Derek. Love to the Loveless: The                        Understanding Prophecy.” Journal
      Message of Hosea. Downer’s                                of the Evangelical Theological
      Grove: Inter-Varsity Press.                               Society 30.3 (1987): 307–16.
Laetsch (Concordia). Excellent                           Schultz, Samuel J. and Inch, Morris, eds.
      conservative Lutheran interpre-                           Interpreting the Word of God.
      tation.                                                   Chicago: Moody, 1976. Contains
Lange (Zondervan), an very useful                               these essays: S. J. Schultz, “Old
      expository/homiletical resource                           Testament Prophets in Today’s
      from the 19th century.                                    World,” 46–59; C. Hassell Bullock,
Leslie, E. A. “Micah the Prophet,” in                           “Entrée to the Pentateuch Through
      International Dictionary of the                           the Prophets: A Hermeneutics of
      Bible, vol. 3 (1962): 369–72.                             History,” 60–77; Steven Barabas,
Limburgh, James. Hosea–Micah.                                   “Bibliographic Tools of Biblical
      Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox,                       Interpretation,” 238–72.
      1988.                                              Scott, R. B. Y. “The Sign of Jonah: An
Longman, Tremper, III. “Micah,” in                              Interpretation,” Interpretation 19
      Evangelical Commentary on the                             (1965): 16–25.
      Bible, ed. Walter A. Elwell (Baker).               Smith, L. P. “The Book of Micah,”
Mays, J. L. Amos. Westminster Old                               Interpretation 6 (1952): 210–28.
      Testament Library.                                 Smith, Ralph L. Micah–Malachi. Word
Mays, J. L. Hosea. Westminster Old                              Biblical Commentary, vol. 32.
      Testament Library.                                        Waco: Word.
Mays, J. L. Micah. Westminster Old                       Stuart, Douglas. Hosea–Jonah. Word
      Testament Library.                                        Biblical Commentary, vol. 30.
Merrill, E. H. “The Sign of Jonah,”                             Waco: Word.
      Journal of the Evangelical                         Thompson, J. A. “The Book of Obadiah,”
      Theological Society 23 (1980): 23–                        in The Interpreter’s Bible, vol. 6.
      30.                                                Verhoef, P. A. Haggai and Malachi. New
Meyers, Carol and Eric. Haggai,                                 International Commentary on the
      Zechariah 1–8. Anchor Bible.                              Old Testament.
Miller, Patrick D. “God the Warrior.”                    Vischer, W. The Witness of the Old
      Interpretation 19 (1965): 39–46.                          Testament to Christ. London: Lut-
                                                                terworth, 1949.


                                Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 9
Waltke, B. K. “Book of Zephaniah,” in                 Whiting, J. D. “Jerusalem’s Locust
     Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia                       Plague,” National Geographic 27
     of the Bible, 5:1051–55.                               (1915): 511–50.
Waltke, B. Micah, in Alexander, D., D.                Wiseman, D. J. “Jonah’s Nineveh,”
     Baker, and B. Waltke, Obadiah,                         Tyndale Bulletin 30 (1979): 29–51.
     Jonah, and Micah. Tyndale Old                    Wolf, H. “‘The Desire of All Nations’ in
     Testament Commentaries.                                Haggai 2:7: Messianic or Not?”
Ward, J. M. “The Message of the Prophet                     Journal of the Evangelical
     Hosea,” Interpretation 23 (1969):                      Theological Society 19 (1976): 97–
     387–408                                                102.
Watts, J. D. W. The Books of Joel,                    Wolff, H. Hosea. Hermeneia.
     Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk                        Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
     and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible                   Wolff, H. Joel and Amos. Hermeneia.
     Commentary on the New English                          Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977.
     Bible.                                           Young, E. J., My Servants the Prophets.
                                                            Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952.




                             Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 10
Appendix B: Minor Prophets Reading Report
I have read the following books in the Minor Prophets:
Name: _____________________________________________________________
                                         Please write your full name clearly



I read how much of the book?     ¼   ½       ¾       All
                        Hosea
                          Joel
                        Amos
                      Obadiah
                        Jonah
                        Micah
                       Nahum
                     Habakkuk
                    Zephaniah
                       Haggai
                     Zechariah
                       Malachi




                                     Minor Prophets Syllabus, p. 11

								
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