Roundtable Unilateralism.doc

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From Standalone to Superpower: The Evolution of U.S. Foreign

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  ID#                                                TL017
  Date of Re-Write                                   September 2006
  General Topic/Chapter                              National Security Policy
  Author                                             Bryan Reece

 How should the United States respond to terrorist attacks on its citizens? What should we do
 to halt the proliferation of nuclear or biological weapons? What role should the United States
 play in attempting to bring about a resolution to the bloody conflict between Israelis and
 Palestinians? Does the United States have a right to overthrow the leader of another nation?

 If you've paid any attention lately to issues of American foreign policy, you are aware that
 questions like these are debated continually. Sometimes these debates take place openly in
 the news media or in Congress; often they occur in closed-door meetings at the State
 Department or in the offices of the National Security Council.

 How can we gain better insight into the thinking of American foreign policy officials? Enter the
 Timeline to find out!

 As you learned in another Timeline devoted to the topic, public opinion must be taken into
 account by political leaders when setting the nation's foreign policy agenda. On some
 occasions, public opinion has pressured political leaders to act in ways that run counter to
 their foreign policy instincts; on other occasions political leaders have actively sought to
 manipulate public opinion in order to pursue their desired foreign policy goals.

 Given the challenge of fashioning foreign policies in a democratic political system, American
 political leaders have consistently attempted to develop doctrines—sets of guiding
 principles—to justify and explain U.S. foreign policy. These doctrines represent efforts to
 fashion comprehensive and coherent statements about America's role in the community of
 nations, signaling how the United States might respond to developments abroad. When the
 doctrines are announced, the target audience is not only the American public, but foreign
 political leaders as well.

 This Timeline illustrates how America's sense of its place in the world has changed since the
 early days of the republic. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, America was content to
 distance itself from the conflicts and historical animosities that appeared to plague the
 European continent. By the middle of the 20th century, however, the United States had
 replaced the major European powers, such as Britain and France, as the dominant military
 and economic actor on the international stage. By examining the doctrines discussed in this
 Timeline, you can observe the transformation of American foreign policy ideology that
 characterized the nation's evolution from an isolationist "stand-alone" to an interventionist

As you proceed through this Timeline, you will find it helpful to consider the following

    At each point in our history, how did the prevailing foreign policy doctrine purport to serve
     America's national interest?
    How does each doctrine represent an evolution from the previous one?
    How did each new doctrine, and the policies that accompanied it, affect America's
     relationship with other nations of the world?

    Suggested Videos
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P205           Web Site       http://www.globaljournalist.or   A Palestinian woman argues
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                              Journalism site (.org)


    1793: The Proclamation of Neutrality—Avoiding Entangled Alliances
    After defeating the British in the Revolutionary War, the United States was still surrounded by
    territory under the control of France, Britain, and Spain. In 1792, the armies of Prussia and
    Austria moved against the revolutionary government of France, plunging the European
    continent into more than two decades of bloody conflict, which ended only with the defeat of
    Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815.

    When hostilities broke out in Europe, President George Washington was anxious to keep the
    new American republic out of war. In 1793, Washington issued a Proclamation of Neutrality,
    declaring his intention to maintain commercial relations with all European nations and to
    avoid taking sides in the growing conflict. Washington also warned American citizens that
    they risked punishment if they provided contraband items to any of the belligerent nations.

    In his 1796 farewell address to the American people, Washington reaffirmed the importance
    of neutrality, declaring that the United States should shield itself from "entangling alliances"
    that might force the nation to take sides in the European conflict. "It is our true policy to steer
    clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world," wrote Washington. For an
    infant nation trying to find its place in the world, this isolationist policy seemed to be the most
    appropriate course of action.

    You can read the full text of the 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality at You can also read the
    full text of Washington's Farewell Address at

    Did You Know?

    The American Revolutionary War occurred from 1775 to1783. The war is also known as the
    American War of Independence.

    Historians have wondered how Great Britain managed to lost the war even they had a lot of
    military advantages over the Americans.

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      P207                                                 Web Site   Washington and Lafayette
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 Definition: Isolationism is a foreign policy doctrine that opposes all alliances and interventions in the affairs
of other countries. The doctrine dominated American foreign policy, with limited exceptions, until the onset of
World War II.

1823: The Monroe Doctrine—Stay Our of Our Hemisphere
Between 1815 and 1822, most of the nations comprising the Spanish empire in the "New
World" declared independence, and they sought diplomatic recognition from the United
States. Great Britain, which maintained lucrative trading relationships with the new Latin
American republics, was determined to prevent Spain from attempting to reestablish
sovereignty over its former colonies, and the British turned down a proposal from Russia and
France to assist Spain in this regard.

In 1822, after negotiating the purchase of Florida from Spain, the United States extended
diplomatic recognition to Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, and Chile, all former Spanish
colonies. The following year, word reached the British and the Americans that France and
Spain were plotting to invade these new nations. The British, who had fought the United
States only a decade earlier in the War of 1812, pressured President James Monroe to join
them in an alliance against a possible French-Spanish intervention in Latin America.

Monroe wrote to former presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, seeking their
advice on how to respond to the British request. They both suggested that an alliance with
Britain would be beneficial to the United States. However, Monroe's Secretary of State, John
Quincy Adams, was against the idea, and he was also worried about potential Russian claims
to territory along the Pacific coast. Adams urged Monroe to issue a formal declaration of
American intentions to the various European powers.

On December 2, 1823, President Monroe delivered his annual message to Congress. In his
address, he warned European nations that the Western Hemisphere was closed to any
additional European colonization, and that any further efforts to extend European influence in
this part of the world would be interpreted as "dangerous to our peace and safety." In return,
Monroe promised that the United States would refrain from meddling in European conflicts or
internal affairs.

Despite the bold tone of the "Monroe Doctrine," as this policy came to be called, the United
States lacked the military power to enforce it. However, because the policy coincided with
British commercial desires to maintain access to the markets of Latin America, the British
supported the Monroe Doctrine. With the assistance of the British fleet, the Western
Hemisphere was kept closed to further European colonization.

You can read the full text of the Monroe Doctrine at

Did You Know?

The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Florida Purchase Treaty was the
settlement between the United States and Spain that made the purchase of Florida from
Spain for $5million possible.

The Monroe Doctrine was proposed by President James Monroe in 1823. It opposed any
European interference in the Western Hemisphere.

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1904: The Roosevelt Corollary—Carrying a Big Stick
In the Spanish-American war of 1898, the United States flexed its military muscle,
establishing a formidable naval presence in both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, and
acquiring its own colonial territories in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. In
1903, President Theodore Roosevelt, who as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under
McKinley had been the leading advocate of military action against Spain, lent American
support to the efforts of a group of Colombian revolutionaries. Not long afterward, the United
States had a lease on the newly created Panama Canal Zone, and construction on the "Big
Ditch" was underway.

In 1904, a number of Caribbean nations were experiencing economic difficulties, and
Roosevelt feared that the Europeans would intervene under the auspices of debt collection—
much as France had done to Mexico in 1863. When the Dominican Republic defaulted on its
debt, prompting the Italian navy to dispatch some vessels to the Caribbean, Roosevelt
updated the Monroe Doctrine.

In what came to be known as the Roosevelt Corollary, the president declared the United
States to be the police force of the Western Hemisphere, pledging that America would
intervene in cases of "wrongdoing or impotence" by the governments of its Latin American
neighbors. The United States didn't want to intervene, he explained, but would be willing to
do so for the benefit of the region. Latin American nations found it better to take the American
assistance than to risk European invasion. (Listen to historian Walter LaFeber discuss the
Roosevelt Corollary at

Roosevelt was fond of quoting the phrase "speak softly, and carry a big stick." Under the
Roosevelt Corollary, the United States used its big stick frequently to intervene in Latin
American and Caribbean affairs. First the Dominican Republic in 1905, and then Cuba,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Haiti all felt the effects of American "influence" in the coming
years. Often, the intervention was aimed at protecting American business interests. In Haiti,
U.S. Marines stayed for almost two decades to ensure that American bankers could clean up
the local economy. Although the Europeans were kept at bay, the aggressive American
actions didn't endear the United States to the average Latin American citizen.

You can read the Roosevelt Corollary at http://www.theodore-

Did You Know?

Latin America has several definitions; one definition is that Latin America includes countries
where Spanish, Portuguese, French languages are spoken.

Cuba was colonized by Spain in 1511. The U.S. gained control of Cuba in the Spanish-
American war. Cuba became self-governing in 1902.

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1918: Wilson's Fourteen Points—Toward a World without War
As discussed in the Public Opinion Timeline, President Woodrow Wilson was initially
opposed to American participation in World War I. In the closely contested election of 1916,
Wilson campaigned on the slogan "He Kept Us out of War." However, continued German
attacks on American shipping ultimately led Wilson to ask Congress to declare war against
Germany in April 1917, which it did with considerable support from the American public.
America's mission, announced Wilson, was "to make the world safe for democracy."

Nine months later, in January 1918, Wilson appeared before the Congress and outlined his
plan for ending the bloody European conflict and for guaranteeing a just and lasting peace.
Wilson's plan, which came to be known as The Fourteen Points, can be broken down into
three main components. Points one to five announced some general principles of
international conduct, such as national self-determination, freedom of the seas, and a
removal of trade barriers. Points six through thirteen addressed specific territorial claims
made by the various combatants in the war. The fourteenth and final point proposed the
creation of an international organization, the League of Nations that would resolve disputes
between nations through diplomacy and negotiation and eliminate the need for war.

Wilson journeyed to Europe in December 1918 to promote his plan, portraying it as a superior
alternative to the communist ideology that had just produced a revolution in Russia. However,
America's wartime allies were intent on punishing Germany and exacting reparations for the
damage caused by the war, aims that ran counter to Wilson's initiative. Both the British and
French prime ministers opposed Wilson's plan, with the latter going so far as to remark: "Mr.
Wilson bores me with his fourteen points. Why, God Almighty has only ten." In the end, the
peace treaty signed at Versailles in November 1919 bore little resemblance to Wilson's
Fourteen Points.

Upon returning home, President Wilson faced as much opposition from the Senate as he did
from the Allies. Republican isolationists, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, demanded substantial
amendments to the treaty concerning American participation in the League of Nations. This
opposition prompted Wilson to embark on a grueling 29-city speaking tour to rally public
support for joining the League of Nations. Exhausted by the effort, Wilson suffered a
debilitating stroke. When he refused to compromise with Senate demands for changes in the
rules governing American participation in the League of Nations, the treaty went down to

For the next two decades, the United States would become increasingly isolationist in its
approach to world affairs. Wilson's successor in the White House, Warren Harding,
campaigned on a promise to "return to normalcy." The 1920s saw America engage in both
consumer consumption and a religious revival, while the 1930s brought the most severe
economic crisis in the nation's history. All the while, Germany struggled under the punitive
conditions imposed at Versailles, paving the way for Adolf Hitler to come to power and
eventually to plunge Europe into another nightmarish conflict.

You can read Wilson's Fourteen Points at

Did You Know?

In World War I (1914 to 1918), Great Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Italy, Japan, and the
United States defeated Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.

Even though President Woodrow Wilson proposed the League of Nations in 1918, the United
States never joined the League. It was dissolved in 1946.

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    1947: The Truman Doctrine—Containing Communism
    When the United States finally entered World War II in December 1941, after the Japanese
    attack on Pearl Harbor, the isolationist approach that had served as the foundation of
    American foreign policy since the presidency of George Washington was finally put to rest.
    Following its venture into the European conflict, America would no longer be able to retreat
    comfortably to its own shores. With no other nation capable of providing international
    leadership, the responsibility fell to the United States.

    At the conclusion of the war in 1945, the United States, in sole possession of atomic
    weapons and with its landscape virtually unscathed by war, became the dominant economic
    and military power on the globe. Germany and Japan were utterly defeated, many of their
    cities in ruins. England and France, though victorious, were exhausted by the war, their
    economies devastated and their once vast colonial empires on the verge of disintegration.
    Only the Soviet Union could approach the United States in terms of military power, yet it had
    suffered enormous casualties in the battle against Hitler's Germany.

    By 1947, the United States and the Soviet Union, former wartime allies, had become bitter
    ideological foes in the new "Cold War" struggle between democratic capitalism and dictatorial
    communism. The ensuing contest between the two nations was waged primarily along
    political, economic, and military dimensions, all of which rested on the foundation of
    containment theory .

    Announced in 1947, the Truman Doctrine represented the political component of containment
    theory. The nations of Greece and Turkey, strategically located in the Eastern Mediterranean,
    were both in crisis, facing potential communist takeovers. Great Britain, the former power in
    the area, was unable to continue providing financial aid to the beleaguered governments of
    Greece and Turkey, and asked the United States to step in.

    President Truman requested $400 million from Congress to address the crisis in the eastern
    Mediterranean, but he was met with strong opposition. Painting a grim picture of the likely
    consequences of refusing to face down communist aggression, Truman was able to secure
    the funding from reluctant legislators. In a speech before a joint session of Congress in March
    1947, Truman declared that "it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples
    who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
    This policy of internationalism came to be known as the Truman Doctrine, and the other
    dimensions of containment would soon follow. In 1948, the United States initiated the
    Marshall Plan, a massive campaign of economic assistance to rebuild the shattered
    economies of Western Europe as a bulwark against further communist encroachment.

    The next year, the United States helped to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    (NATO), a military alliance dedicated to the defense of Western Europe. Finally, in 1950, as
    communism spread to China and North Korea, American military planners drafted a secret
    document known as NSC-68, which would serve as the key policy manual for the Cold War
    over the next four decades. For the insight it provides into the interventionist logic at the heart

  Definition: Theory developed by George F. Kennan, a State Department official and Soviet scholar who
believed that the ideological principles of Marx and Lenin would propel the Soviets on a perpetual campaign
to expand the sphere of communist influence. Kennan called for active measures to contain the spread of
communism. These involved providing armaments, advice, and sometimes troops to the anti-Communist
effort. Writing under the pseudonym of "X," Kennan put forth his arguments in a famous article published in
the journal Foreign Affairs.
  Definition: Internationalism is a doctrine that a nation should work with other nations to achieve common
interests. Building alliances and compromising builds a stronger, safer world, than acting purely on self-
interest, or avoiding other countries altogether.

of American foreign policy during the Cold War, this document certainly bears reading; the
final section of this Timeline provides a link to the full text of NSC-68.

You can read the speech announcing the Truman Doctrine at

Did You Know?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949. The organization is also
known as the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance.

The term “Cold War” became popular when Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain used
it in his speech in 1946.

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1957: The Eisenhower Doctrine—Keeping the Oil Flowing
Oil . . . By 1957, America, the home of the world's largest industrial economy, needed a great
deal of it. And so did the other industrial nations of the world. Although America produced
most of its own oil in the 1950s, Western Europe depended almost exclusively on supplies
from the Middle East. However, the relationship between the nations of Western Europe and
their oil-rich former colonies was strained at best—especially after a joint British, French, and
Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956, in response to Egyptian President Nasser's attempt to
nationalize the Suez Canal and halt Israeli shipping through it. The Soviet Union was eager to
exploit the tensions in the region, offering military support to Middle Eastern nations solely on
the basis of sharing common Western enemies.

Eisenhower was far from happy with the Europeans' actions, but he was equally determined
to prevent an Arab-Soviet alliance. Addressing a joint session of Congress in January 1957,
Eisenhower pledged to protect Middle Eastern regimes from "armed aggression from any
nation controlled by international communism." Promising both economic and military
assistance to any Middle Eastern government that requested help in maintaining "national
independence," the Eisenhower Doctrine served as a Middle East corollary to the Truman
Doctrine announced a decade earlier.

Eisenhower believed that it was in America's national interest to adopt this stance, not only
because it rebuffed possible Soviet expansionism in the Middle East, but also because it
unified our energy interests with those of our European allies. To this day, Middle Eastern oil
remains critical to the world's industrial economies, and—despite the end of the Cold War—
the United States has demonstrated a willingness to use military force in the Middle East to
keep the oil flowing, as you will see a bit later in this Timeline.

You can read the full text of the Eisenhower Doctrine at

Did You Know?

The Suez Canal was completed in 1869. The canal connects Mediterranean and Red Seas.

According to the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, by the year 2020, oil
consumption will rise to approximately 60%.

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1969: The Nixon Doctrine—Helping Others Help Themselves
The Public Opinion Timeline discussed how the 1968 Tet Offensive further eroded American
public support for U.S. military intervention in Vietnam. President Lyndon Johnson declined to
run for reelection, and Republican candidate Richard Nixon won a close election, promising a
"secret plan" to end the Vietnam War. Once in office, Nixon had to deliver on his promise, as
demonstrations against the war continued to mount in intensity.

Nixon was in a difficult position. A devoted anti-communist, he did not want to abandon
America's South Vietnamese allies or go down in history as "the first president to lose a war."
On the other hand, he couldn't continue to escalate the American military commitment
against the determined North Vietnamese forces. Accordingly, he developed a new policy,
labeled the Nixon Doctrine, in an attempt to resolve this dilemma.

Under his doctrine, the president committed the United States to providing military and
financial aid to nations facing the communist threat, but he made it clear that other nations
must eventually fight their own battles. Toward this end, Nixon announced a policy of
"Vietnamization," the eventual replacement of American troops with South Vietnamese ones.
In the meantime, the nation in question should give its own citizens something to fight for, an
incentive to fight against the communist threat. In the immediate case of South Vietnam, this
meant enacting such policies as land reform and building roads and hospitals.

The Nixon Doctrine's success in Vietnam was limited at best. Although Nixon reaped
domestic political benefits in the short term, the long-term result was the fall of South Vietnam
to communist forces in 1975. Whether this was due to a flaw in the doctrine or it was a
casualty of the Watergate crisis, which erupted in 1973, is open to interpretation.
Undoubtedly, Nixon's political problems led to a pullout of American troops and a cutback in
the promised military and financial aid to the South Vietnamese government.

After the Vietnam War, the principle of self-help would guide American policy in the fight
against communism. Public opinion in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a casualty of the
"Vietnam Syndrome," was decidedly against the long-term commitment of troops to distant
nations. However, as you'll see, under the Reagan Doctrine, the provision of military training,
weapons, and financial aid was another matter altogether.

Did You Know?

70,000 North Vietnamese soldiers launched the Tet Offensive on January 31, 1968. It was
the turning point in the Vietnam War.

Approximately 7,500 women served in the U.S. military in Vietnam during the war—they were
mostly nurses in hospitals. The U.S. civilian women that served were volunteers from
organizations such as the American Red Cross.

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1982: The Reagan Doctrine—Rolling Back Communism
President Ronald Reagan changed the rules of Cold War engagement. The president saw
the Soviet Union as an "Evil Empire"—a phrase he first used in a speech before the British
Parliament in 1982. No longer would the United States be satisfied with containing the
communist threat. Under the Reagan Doctrine, America was committed to "rolling back" the
communist presence practically anywhere in the world.

The United States became involved in controversial actions in Afghanistan and Nicaragua,
actively supplying weapons, military supplies, training, and intelligence to rebels seeking to
overthrow the governments there. The Nicaraguan case in particular brought both domestic
political opposition and international scorn. Although the anti-communist "contra" rebels were
seen as being of questionable character and intent, Reagan declared them to be the "moral
equivalent of our founding fathers." Furthermore, the Reagan Administration found a way to
continue illegally funneling funds to these rebels after Congress had cut off aid. The resulting
Iran-Contra scandal of 1986-1987 was the biggest crisis of the Reagan presidency.

Despite the questionable tactics involved, the effect of the Reagan Doctrine was to hasten
the demise of the communist threat. Recognizing that the Soviet economy was no longer able
to sustain the four-decade effort of trying to match the military might of the United States, the
new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s pursued arms control negotiations
and a general thawing of the relationship with the United States.

The Soviet bloc, however, was unable to tolerate a gradual thaw after years of Cold War
rivalry. In a series of stunning developments in 1989, the nations of Eastern Europe revolted
against Soviet domination. The Berlin Wall, the most visible symbol of the Cold War, was torn
down in November of that year, and the Soviet Union itself broke apart not long afterward.

You can read the full text of Reagan's "evil empire" speech at

Did You Know?

President Ronald Reagan visited the new reformist General Secretary of the Soviet Union,
Mikhail Gorbachev three years after he used the term “evil empire” to describe the Soviet
Union. He told a reporter that he no longer thought the Soviet Union was an “evil empire”
because it was a different era.

The New York Times reported in March 1991 that five ex-contra rebels were killed at a farm
battle in northern Nicaragua on March 1, 1991

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1991: The Powell Doctrine—Getting In and Getting Out
In 1984, Reagan's secretary of defense, Caspar Weinberger, gave a speech outlining his
vision of U.S. military doctrine in the post-Vietnam era. The "Weinberger Doctrine"
announced six criteria for determining whether to commit American military forces to a foreign

   Commit only if our national interests, or those of our allies, are at stake.
   Commit only with the intention of winning.
   Commit only if there are clearly defined military and political objectives.
   Commit only if the action has the support of the American public and its elected
   Commit only as a last resort.
   Be prepared to continually reassess the value of and need for American military

As a political statement, the Weinberger Doctrine was well suited to an American public
highly reluctant to risk the lives of its men and women in uniform, particularly after 240
Marines were killed in a suicide bombing in Lebanon in 1983.

In practice, however, the dispatch of American military forces to Grenada in 1983 and
Panama in 1989 did not exactly conform to the Weinberger Doctrine. In the former case, it is
difficult to claim that a small Caribbean island presented a vital threat to American national
interests. In the latter case, the forcible ouster of Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega did not
appear to be undertaken as a last resort, and the American public was given little opportunity
to participate in an informed debate of the merits of military action.

In 1990, as U.S. military and political leaders debated how to respond to the Iraqi invasion of
Kuwait, the Weinberger Doctrine was updated by General Colin Powell, the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Pentagon's top official. (Powell was a senior military adviser to
Weinberger when the Weinberger Doctrine was drafted). According to the Powell Doctrine, if
and when American military power is committed, it should be done with overwhelming force.
The goal, according to Powell, was not only to win but "to win quickly, with as few casualties
and as little damage as possible."

As discussed in the Timeline devoted to the topic, public opinion was an important factor in
shaping American foreign policy during the Persian Gulf War. It is easy to see how the Powell
Doctrine was applied during that conflict, and how subsequent American military interventions
in Haiti, Bosnia, Somalia, Serbia, Afghanistan, and elsewhere have attempted to conform to
the principles outlined in the Powell Doctrine. However, General Powell himself (now
Secretary of State Powell) has backed away somewhat from the idea of publicizing the
specific criteria for deciding whether military intervention is warranted, arguing that doing so
unnecessarily inhibits the flexibility desired by military and political leaders.

You can read a 1992 version of the Powell Doctrine at

Did You Know?

The United States Invasion of Grenada was given the codename Operation Urgent Fury.

The American military forces invaded Grenada on October 25, 1983. The British government
opposed the invasion.

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2001: The Bush Doctrine—With Us or Against Us
In the aftermath of the devastating attacks on the United States in September 2001,
President George W. Bush declared a global war on terrorism, to be led by the United States.
In announcing what some have labeled a new Bush Doctrine, the President stated that there
were no neutral parties in the war on terrorism: other nations would be considered either with
us or against us. American policy would target governments thought to support terrorism and
replace these governments with democratic political systems more supportive of the United
States. Consistent with this policy, President Bush assembled an international coalition and
ordered a military assault on the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, which he accused of
providing safe harbor to the Al-Qaeda terrorist organization of Osama bin Laden.

In his January 2002 State of the Union Address, President Bush identified the nations of Iraq,
Iran, and North Korea as the principal members of an "axis of evil." These nations, the
president claimed, supported terrorism, sought to acquire weapons of mass destruction
(WMD), and threatened the security of peaceful nations everywhere. He pledged that the
United States would not halt its anti-terrorism campaign until these potential threats were

You can read President Bush’s speech at

In January 2003, Tom Ridge was sworn in as Secretary of the new Department of Homeland
Security; and, as the threat of war with Iraq loomed closer, President Bush made clear his
determination that the United States would oust the regime of Saddam Hussein—with or
without the support of other nations. When the United Nations Security Council failed to
authorize the invasion, Bush led a “coalition of the willing” to attack the country, and
succeeded in driving Saddam Hussein from power in three weeks. Partly as a result, Libya
publicly abandoned its nuclear and chemical weapons research, while North Korea stepped
up its efforts to develop nuclear weapons.

Did You Know?

The United States Department of Homeland Security is headed by the U.S. Secretary of
Homeland Security. The responsibility of this body is to protect American homeland and the

The United States Secretary of Homeland Security has not been written formally in the
presidential line of succession. The current Secretary of Homeland Security is Michael

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James Monroe (1758-1831)
James Monroe was the 5 U.S. president from 1817 to 1825. Prior to being elected as
president, Monroe served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1782) and in the Continental
Congress (1783–1786). He was the governor of Virginia from 1799 to 1802. Florida was
bought from Spain in1819 during his administration. The Monroe Doctrine was proposed by
President James Monroe in 1823 in an annual message to Congress. It opposed any
European interference in the Western Hemisphere.

Quick Facts

         Born in Virginia
         Married Elizabeth Kortright in 1786
         His administration termed "The Era of Good Feelings"
         Served in the American Revolution
         Studied Law under Thomas Jefferson
         Appointed minister to Britain (1803–1807)
         Was the U.S. secretary of state (1811–1817)
         Was the secretary of war (1814–1815)

 ID             Image                          Copyright Info                                   Rollover

 P208                                          Web Site   James Monroe
                                               Date Copied:   9/19/06
                                               Copyright:     Public Domain

Harry Truman (1884-1972)
Harry Truman succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt as the 33 President of the U.S. (1945-
1953). Truman gave the order to use the atomic bomb against Japan in 1945; this brought an
end to World War II and the founding of the United Nations. Truman announced a foreign
policy known as the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The announcement was intended to put a
check on the spread of communism after the war—it represented the political constituent of
the containment theory. One of his well-known quotes is “If you can't stand the heat, get out
of the kitchen”

Quick Facts

         Born in Missouri
         Did not earn a college degree
         Served in the Missouri National Guard
         Married Bess Wallace in 1919
         Had a daughter, Margaret (1924- )
         Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower

 ID             Image                             Copyright Info                                   Rollover

 P130                                             Web Site   Harry Truman
                                                  Date Copied:   8/25/06
                                                  Copyright:     Public Domain

Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)
Reagan served as the 40 president of the U.S. He was initially a Democrat, and then later
became a Republican in the 1960s. His policies contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union.
Under him, an era of “New Federalism” was supported by the courts, shifting the balance of
power to the states. Reagan’s style of leadership considerably attributed to the high esteem
in which he was held by the American people rather than his policies. He often appeared
easygoing, grandfatherly, optimistic, and humorous on television broadcasts.
Write a one paragraph summary of bio. Include the following idea. President Reagan once
referred to the Soviet Union as an “Evil Empire”, maintaining his strong anti-communist

Quick Facts

        Shot by an assassin in 1981 while in office and survived
         Was the 33 Californian governor between 1965 and 1975
        Was an actor and a motivational speaker before he became president
        Earned the title of “The Great Communicator”
        A well-known scandal during his administration was the Iran-Contra Affair
        Died in California, 2004 as a result of Alzheimer's disease. He was 93.

    ID             Image                           Copyright Info                                 Rollover

    P053                                           Web Site   Ronald Reagan
                                                   Date Copied:   5/28/06
                                                   Copyright:     Public Domain

Colin Powell (1937- )
In 2001, Colin Powell became the first African-American Secretary of State in U.S. history
under the administration of President George W. Bush. He resigned in November, 2004. Prior
to becoming the Secretary of State, he was a national security adviser to President Reagan.
Powell later served as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the administration of
George H. Bush. The views of Powell’s method of responding to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
is known as the Powell Doctrine—that the invasion should be done with overwhelming force
and with as little casualties and damage as possible. Powell led the United States forces
during the gulf war in 1991.

Quick Facts

         Born in New York to Luther Theophilus Powell and Maud Ariel Powell
         Served in the Vietnam War
         Earned a B.A. in geology from City College of New York
         Received a MBA from George Washington University in 1971
         Published his autobiography in 1995, titled My American Journey
         Was a professional soldier for thirty five years

 ID             Image                         Copyright Info                                 Rollover

 P215                                         Web Site     Colin Powell
                                              Date Copied:   9/19/06
                                              Copyright:     Taken from the Southern
                                                             Methodist University website

President George W. Bush's commitment to extend the war against terrorism to all four
corners of the globe is a far cry from the defensive tone of Washington's Neutrality
Proclamation and the Monroe Doctrine. Over the course of the 19th century, American
leaders paid little attention to events outside of our "own backyard." The Spanish-American
War and the subsequent Roosevelt Corollary revealed American intentions to act as a
regional power broker, but it was not until President Wilson committed American troops to
World War I that the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs.

Instead of stepping further into this role, American political leaders in the wake of World War I
balked at joining the proposed League of Nations, and America once again retreated from the
world stage. It took the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the dropping of the
atomic bomb on Hiroshima in 1945—events that marked the beginning and the end of
American participation in World War II—to finally extinguish the isolationist impulse that had
governed American foreign policy since the early days of the republic. The latter half of the
20th century witnessed a sustained American effort to contain and ultimately defeat

What the future holds for American foreign policy doctrine remains to be seen. Technological
progress has made it practically impossible to retreat to an isolationism doctrine, so the
country appears firmly set on the internationalist path. The war against terrorism, if it can be
won at all, is not likely to be won anytime soon. Yet the manner in which the United States
explains and justifies this campaign will have a significant impact on our relations with our
allies and with other members of the world community. Many of our closest allies, including
France and Germany, are worried that unilateral actions by the United States are creating an
anti-American climate in the world, and would prefer to see American power channeled
through multilateral institutions like the United Nations. Others, including President Bush, feel
American power must not be restricted if terrorism is to be defeated.

The war is also having a great effect on our own domestic political system, with civil liberties
being constrained in the interests of national security and opposition to military action rising
across the country. The mix of international and domestic events means that nothing less that
the future of democracy may be at stake. Your political attention, and your political
involvement, is needed now more than ever.

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Test Yourself
[Existing MC Questions (Questions 1-10)]
1. Under which doctrine did the United States commit itself to defending the access of
   Western nations to Middle Eastern oil supplies?

        Eisenhower Doctrine.
       Monroe Doctrine.
       Reagan Doctrine.
       Nixon Doctrine.
       Truman Doctrine.

2. The unifying factor in shaping American foreign policy doctrine in the last half of the
   20thcentury was ____________________.

         anti-communism
       promotion of democracy
       anti-terrorism
       concern for human rights
       dependence on Middle Eastern oil supplies

3. The event that marked the end of American isolationism was ____________________.

             U.S. entry into World War II
           the Korean War
           the fall of the Berlin Wall
           the Great Depression
           U.S. entry into World War I

4. Under President George Washington, the United States adopted a foreign policy
   dedicated to ____________________.

             maintaining strict neutrality
           extending American influence in Latin America
           keeping European powers out of the Western Hemisphere
           fighting communism
           preserving a strong alliance with Great Britain

5. Which of the following policy statements was intended to signal America's willingness to
   act as a regional policeman in the Caribbean?

            Roosevelt Corollary.
           Reagan Doctrine.
           Powell Doctrine.
           Truman Doctrine.
           Monroe Doctrine.

6. The last of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points concerned ____________________.

              the establishment of the League of Nations
           opposition to forcing Germany to pay reparations for the damage it caused during
            World War
           his devotion to the principle of freedom of the seas
           the need to return the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to France

           the right to national self-determination for all peoples under European colonial

7. The Truman Doctrine was announced in response to events in ____________________.

              Greece and Turkey
           China and Korea
           Panama and Grenada
           Israel and Egypt
           Czechoslovakia and Hungary

8. The Weinberger Doctrine reflects shifts in American foreign policy that came about as a
   result of the American military experience in ____________________.

             Vietnam
           Afghanistan
           Panama
           Nicaragua
           Germany

9. Which of the following groups of nations compose the "axis of evil" identified by President
   George W. Bush?

              Iraq, Iran, and North Korea.
           Philippines, Cuba, and Syria.
           Cuba, Iraq, and Serbia.
           Syria, Libya, and Afghanistan.
           Iran, North Korea, and Libya.

10. The phrase "speak softly and carry a big stick" is most associated with

             Theodore Roosevelt
           Harry Truman
           Ronald Reagan
           George Bush
           Richard Nixon

[New MC Questions for New Content (Questions 11-15)]
11. Ronald Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as the:

         Evil Empire.
       Axis of Evil.
       Iron Curtain.
       New Hitler.
       None of the Above.

12. The Cold War described the conflict between:

         the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
       the French and the British.
       Mexico and Texas.
       the Union and the Confederates.

       the 13 Colonies and the British.

13. The Truman Doctrine tried to contain:

          communism.
       liberalism.
       democratic principles.
       capitalism.
       freedom.

14. The Powell doctrine looks to engage in conflict when it is predicted the U.S. can win:

         quickly.
       eventually.
       as long as the international community helps.
       the ethical arguments surrounding the war.
       the economic justification for the war.

15. The declaration of the Monroe Doctrine was in response to concerns that ______ would
    attempt to regain its former colonial territories in the Western Hemisphere.

        Spain
       England
       France
       Russia
       Portugal


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