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					                              Manure 101:
Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry.
                                                 Kevin Erb
                                 UW-Extension NPM Program
Farmer View of Site-Specific Future Manure
Regulations
       What is Nutrient Management?
              Common Sense.
   Combine on-farm nutrient sources, with commercial fertilizer, to
    meet crop need.
                   Environmental Aspects
                         of Manure
   Nutrients
     Nitrogen
     Phosphorus
     Potassium


   Bacteria/Pathogens

   BOD
                                                        Nitrogen
   Groundwater Concerns
     EPA  Standard: 10 ppm
     Blue Baby Syndrome


   Hypoxia
Hypoxia
                                                  Phosphorus
   Surface Water Concern

   Algae Growth
Environmentalist’s view
of how farmers
manage manure.


                                                              Phosphorus
   Movement
     Soil   attached is most common route
                1 lb P = 500 lb algae
                One ton soil eroded = 1 ton algae in water


     Stop       Erosion, Solve Big Part of the Problem
          National Buffer Initiative (USA)
                                                               Potassium
   Dairy Animal Health Concern

     Too    Much in Ration: Ketosis / Milk Fever
                                                                 Bacteria
   E. Coli
     Up   to 6 month + viable in soil

     Does       not survive as well on surface

     Enters       streams when manure runs off
                                                               Antibiotics
   Animals DO NOT break them down.
     Excreted intact with the urine
     Low level resistance concerns

                                    Biochemical Oxygen Demand
* A measure of how much oxygen is removed from a water
  body by the bacteria breaking down organic materials.
  (BOD)

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
* Oxygen required to break down chemical compounds in
  water body.
Manure Basics
   What is Manure?
     Urine,      feces

     Waste       feed

     Parlor      water

     Gray       water (sinks, etc)
Manure Basics
   How Much Manure Does a cow produce in a day? A week? A
    Month? A Year?
    The Influence Of Milk Production On Daily Manure
                       Production
How Much Manure?
 Typical            Dairy Cow:
     148lbs/day (18 gal)
     1036 lbs/week (124 gal)
     4440 lbs/month (531 gal)
     54020 lbs/year (6460 gal)
          Does not include youngstock, other wastes

                               Rule of Thumb #1
   One cow plus replacement plus wastewater = 10,000
    gal/year
What is in manure?
 Nutrients
     Nitrogen,Phosphorus, Potassium
     Micro nutrients (Sulfur, Boron, etc)
        Whatever  the cow eats that does not become milk or meat
           becomes manure.
                If it’s in the feed, it’s in the manure.
Dairy Diet and Runoff
 Manure from 2 rations applied
 1.28 and 0.48% P (rec is 0.34-0.38)


   Runoff was 4x higher for high P diet
     Same     lbs P applied
   Runoff was 10x higher when manure rates were the same.
          Ebeling et al, 2001
                                                              Dairy Diet Impacts
   Ave P in dairy ration is 0.47%
          Gunderson, Keuning & Erb, 2001


   NRC Recommendation is 0.32-0.38% P

   Higher rates are due to belief that lower P reduces reproductive
    efficiency.
                                                       The Manure Paradox
Crops use N:P:K in a 3:1:2 ratio

Dairy manure is a 1:1:2 ratio (available)
     Meet the crop’s N need = excess P
     Meet the crop’s P need = buy N fert
                                                Manure Nutrient Content
                                                                - Dairy -
_____________________________________
      N P2O5 K2O
                                                         (surface/incorporated)
                        ______________________
Solid (lb/ton)        3/43   8

Liquid (lb/1,000 gal) 8 / 10 8 21
_____________________________________
                                                  Crop Nutrient Removal
                                 N             P2O5              K2O
                             - - - - - - - - - lb/a/yr - - - - - - - -
Corn (160 bu/a)           160*              60                 40
Corn silage (23 ton/a)    225               90                170
Soybean (40 bu/a)         115               35                 40
Alfalfa (5 ton/a)         250               65                250
Reed canarygrass          250              125                325
      (5 ton/a)

Example of
P2O5 Recommendations for Corn
Yield Goal                                             Soil Test Level
      bu/a                        Low                 Optimum          High       Ex.High
                                  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - lb/acre - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

111-130                           65                45                  25                0
131-150                           75                55                  25                0
151-170                           80                60                  30                0

Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient Supply
Following a Nitrogen Strategy
Manure Application Rates
Nitrogen Strategy
 Maximum rates
 P and K in excess of crop need
 Efficient with time and labor
 Preferred when land is limited
Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient Supply
Following a Phosphorus Strategy
Manure Application Rates
Phosphorus Strategy
 Low rates
 Need supplemental nitrogen
 Increased time and labor
 Need adequate acreage


Manure Nitrogen Content
Total vs. Available
Solid Manure
Soil Test P Changes Slowly
   Soil buffering capacity
     The  amount of fertilizer needed to change the soil test level by 1 ppm
     18 lbs P2O5/acre = 1 ppm change in soil P
   Time is required to either lower or raise soil test levels.
Soil Test P Changes Slowly
- Example -
 Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH)
 Track draw-down of P over a
  CCOHHH rotation.

Soil Test P Changes Slowly
- Example -
   Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH)
   Track draw-down of P over a CCOHHH rotation.
       Corn @150 bu/a removes 55 lb P2O5/a/yr
       Oats @ 100 bu/a removes 25 lb P2O5/a/yr
       Alfalfa @ 5 tons/a removes 65 lb P2O5/a/yr

    Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5

Soil Test P Changes Slowly
- Example -
   Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH)
   Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation.
   Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5


Soil Test P Changes Slowly
- Example -
   Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH)
   Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation.
   Removal of P2O5 over rotation = 330 lbs P2O5
   Change in soil test P = 330 lb P2O5/18 =
    18 ppm P
                                                                 Regulations
   1972 Clean Water Act

   Point vs. Non-Point Sources

   Problem Not Yet Solved.

                                                   Regulatory Future
 Each Providence, State, County, Township may be different.
 Future
     Lower AU (animal unit) threshold for permit
     More phosphorus emphasis
     Future emphasis on bacterial / antibiotics / odor concerns

          Short term focus will be on P based nutrient management
Economics
(Nitrogen @ $0.20/lb)
Economics
(P2O5 @ $0.25/lb; K2O @ $0.13/lb)
                                 100 Cow Dairy
Manure P2O5 =               $ 1,650
(22 tons/cow/year @ 3 lbs P2O5/ton)

Manure K2O =                $ 2,288
(22 tons/cow/year @ 8 lbs K2O/ton)

Total Manure P205 & K2O =                $ 3,938
If You Are Going To
Use Manure
as a Fertilizer…

Soil Test Phosphorus Variability from a Wisconsin
Dairy Farm
Public Relations
   Manure Handling and Application
     Odor  control
     Real or perceived excessive rates
     Road spillage
     Traffic hazards & delays
     Spreading near water
     Cattle in water


Challenges of the Future:

   Dairy Trends.
     Management:   More cows, fewer farms.
     Realization by farmers that manure management requires a cash
      investment.
     Manure’s Internet IPO: Lots of ideas now, lots of broken ideas
      coming in a few years. Easiest to use / most farm-profitable
      techniques will remain.
Opportunities of the Future:

   Every farm will have a nutrient management plan.
     Nitrogen  – Phosphorus Pendulum
     Affiliated and independent consultants
     Site-specific research
          Between 1992 and 2001, UWGB was the lead institution for mass balance
           research.



                              kevin.erb@ces.uwex.edu

				
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