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Naming organic compounds

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									Naming organic compounds
Naming organic compounds
   The basic rules
   There are some general rules which you
    should remember when naming organic
    compounds:
   The longest unbranched chain containing the
    functional group is the parent molecule or
    simply the longest unbranched chain for
    alkanes. Remember that the longest chain
    can go round a bend.
   Indicate the position of the functional group
    with a number, numbering from the end
    nearest the functional group.
   Name the branches and indicate the number
    of branches.
   Indicate the position of the branches with a
    number, numbering from the end nearest the
    functional group.

    If there is more than one branch, the
    branches are identified in alphabetical order
    ignoring any di, tri etc.
   Be aware!
    Each branch needs to be numbered
    individually, even if they are attached to the
    same carbon atom.

    The rule is a comma between numbers and a
    dash between numbers and letters.
Naming alkanes, alkenes
and alkynes
    Alkanes
    The alkanes don't contain a functional group
     and so the branches are numbered from the
     end that gives the lowest set of position
     numbers for the branches.
     Use the above rules to see how the names of
     the alkanes below are built up.
   Alkenes and alkynes
   The functional group in the alkenes is the
    carbon to carbon double bond.
    The functional group in the alkynes is the
    carbon to carbon triple bond.

    The basic rules of naming apply.

    The position of the double or triple bond is
    indicated by a number before the -ene or -yne
    part of the name.
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
   Alcohols
   The functional group in the alcohols is the
    hydroxyl group (-OH).

    Alcohols end in the letters -ol

    The basic rules of naming apply.
    The position of the hydroxyl functional group
    is indicated by a number before the -ol part of
    the name.
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
   Be aware!
    Alcohols can also be termed primary,
    secondary or tertiary.
   Primary has the -OH on the end of a chain.
    Secondary has the -OH on a non-branched
    carbon atom along the chain.
    Tertiary has the -OH on a branched carbon
    atom along the chain.
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
   Aldehydes
   All aldehydes contain a carbonyl functional
    group. The carbonyl group will never have a
    position number in an aldehyde as it is
    always on the end of the carbon chain.

    Aldehydes end in the letters -al.

    The basic rules of naming apply.
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
   Ketones
   Ketones also contain a carbonyl functional
    group but in ketones it is never on the end of
    a carbon chain.

    Ketones end in the letters -one.

    The naming rules in part 1 apply as before.
Naming alcohols, aldehydes and
ketones
Naming carboxilic acids and
esters
   Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl
    functional group (-COOH) The carboxyl
    group will never have a position number
    in a carboxylic acid as it is always on
    the end of the carbon chain.

    Carboxylic acids end in -oic acid.

    The basic rules of naming apply.
Naming carboxilic acids and
esters
Naming carboxilic acids and
esters
   An ester is made from an alcohol and a
    carboxylic acid.

    Esters have their own rules for naming.

    The first part of the name comes from the
    alcohol and it ends with the letters -yl.

    The second part of the name comes from the
    carboxylic acid and it ends with the letters -
    oate.
Naming carboxilic acids and
esters
Name of    Name of      Name of
Alcohol    Carboxylic   ester
           acid
Ethanol    propanoic    ethyl
           acid         propanoate
Butanol    methanoic    butyl
           acid         methanoate
Pentanol   ethanoic acid pentyl
                         ethanoate

								
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