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					THBTITUTQ T O R C U A T D DI T E L L &

CENTRO DE       SEIOLOGLh COFUIPARADA




FD'I,ITICAL EFFECTS OF 'INTRA-CC)TJNTRT
DISCQNTINUITTES.

Tormato S. Dl T e l k S a e b l a ~ y
                                    DepaPtmeak,
Faculty pf Phllaauphy, Unirern iiy US Bue~zws
Aires, Buenas Airea.
Preliminar: no citar s i n permiso del
              au tor.
        POLITICAL ASPECTS OF INTm-COUNTRY DISCOKTIHLrITI ES ('1



         The atuc1-y of thc political aspects o c c ~ n o m i c
                                                     f           de~elopmrlntIs In need noI
lormaliz~stE?n, in order to s b n d a r r i i z e t h ??stof variables ufled, a d the mnm re-
                                                      ~
latlonshipffi fa fbe l o ~ ~ Tar, In this papcr the task is atlen,pted, putting emphasis
                             e d
on the difference bctwleen the proccas In the older developed nation^ ahd h those
now drvcloping, an w e l l a
                           m      .3
                                 61    khe iaflucncc Q.I
                                                       thc Lnkm-country d i ~ n m t i n u i t l s s
                                                                                                  in
              r.
k h I ~ t t ~The d i f l e r e n r e e between t41c two @piers of processes, though" aye the
    ~
reslllt of a~al+inr= same get o basic hypotheses to two very different initial
                      the                  f
siixatioma,




The European model
- -
 = -




          Ln tho Eurwean c a w we can dfsthguiah a first                    of
                                                                    ~ t a p , early industrial-
               covering prslctitically d l af the WXth aentury, and a sesmd a m , of mass
                charartrriatlc at the present t h e . During t h e first stage a c n n s e w a t i v ~
                                                             h ~~
h s t a h l ~ s h r n e n t s f~cerl th an a g g r e ~ ~ i r g e: ~ i ~ai e middle class, orEnn-
                          m             ~i                                          d
izcd i n a Liberal party or some close equivalent of it. The warkin                         +.'ad
prmrly ~ r g m i ~ e d ,n that onlq-amnng ils upper strata and in the J
                                ~     d                                                     ,t indus
                                                                                                   d-
                                      h
trrn1 r a n c e n t r a ' t i b n ~ .T e w ~ knes R oI the w a r k b ~ l l i i ~yx cvcs~ted
                                              a                      ~           fi         ~rning a
~erirms       menace ta thn established order, in spitr o f its revslutlwary w radical
                                          :md the middle clnss were able to lead the forces of
              IS. The b m ~ r $ y o i a i e
              vikhaut lesr d k i n g r u n aye r by tIlr.ekr own popular auppcrrterx. #till: lilrcg
                 ixed.
ry u t r v i K:+.n


         Among the intellip!ntxia there was a f i f n ~ rdi speraion af opinion, msvlof
X11cn. hielring the L i k r a l pnrtira, md othcrc k i n g i t rthor tu the I ~ f t . t w C wiLh
little idemlogicall aethoritirianisrn.

         At a second g t q r [XXth cecalury j, with greater devclnpmrnt find urb,ml nation,
the-urh
--       n %orkinaclass gets organized znd lwcomcs more numrrnus. Clses differ-

(*I This i~ an i n t e r i l u reparl an an ongoing re search project whirh R I ~ a1 eslab-
                                                                                  R
    .- . a dam hank and a model
        .
    1 lsRlng                            of soni;ll change in btln Amrri pa. T h e project
   is supported iq the ~OCIOIDR)' Tn~titute the Faculty of Philosaphy, t h e Institututo
                                                uT
   de CRlcds, of the Paculw of Science, and t . h ~ ~ n t c for Comparntivr Rocidog?i
                                                        C       r
   af the Di Tell%Institute. In t h i s project I ern warking ~ i 3 h collahnrstion a
                                                                    the                P
   Oeca          it, Ezequiei Gallo and fllvia Si@. Both in tbc formal n q e c l s . and
   in thr        ~tivaone R of thim paper, thois contrihuiioa has hen n b t ~ n ~ ~ ~ n t f a l
                                                                                 ~
enre s diminish, shaping society in thr image s the middle ~trakk,
                                                          f                      lrhc workel-s,
i n ,*pit e nI thrir iracrr:~s~d    strength, a r c not sren ~s n acriolrs rnrnacr Io thr r s -
b ~ his h ~ d
        l    ordrr, hccauw incrr-ascd l I v I n ~     standads n~td  pzrrticlpation in EI wid^
number QP nssnciatisna hnvr: m d c thcm renasnnhlc and wadunlist, But still they
want i largcr aharc of tho cake, which 18 not eaeily a c c c p t d by the middle clas-
          l
ses. The latter seas qaposing the caL;lblishrn~nt+            en                   the
                                                                          ~ n d n n librrsl
parlies l o rally under the C n n s e n r a t i v e banner. The i         1ktve-Liberal polarity
of the first e h g e i replated by some variety 01 the LUSIWZLt i v e - I S b u ~
                        s                                               ~l*              c~nfrmr-
 tio on. Thc Intelllgentei~LB nmre to the left, x~ a whctle, than wliat 1L WBS at t h ~
tirst s L ~ p ,t h w g h $vilth a reduction of both extremes,, Acceptante of the "rules of
l h p n ~ rhjl~
        ~      "                                                   - --L - o
                   bccome very widespread, and the lower ec.nrlun~lf the w s r k l r a ~  -I



c l a s s have bneonle d ~ o u b ~ I I i ~ e d .
                                  ~


         I am quite aware that this i~ rt mver~i
                                             a         mplili caki on of the       but I R U E
gent tlmt i l i s u ~ e f u l o r the purpnse8 o crrrnpnrj Rno wfth the undereleuelnyed world,
                            h                  f
Probably i t It t v only Greal Brimin with 3riy degree or c I a ~ c n r a a ,parzimknslp for
tho first staae { X M l h wtutury k, For the second s L i g p it comes very near t o thn
farts i n -practlcallvall of Weatem Ehrope.

          A s for tho Knit& S t n k s , t h r pwsenro d t r f w t l e r and other much dis-
                                                                        h
                                                                                        ~I W C l
c u ~ ~ evd t n r s have tntruduccd Irnmomnt dlffrmncrs Ln t h IT------- B B . lit is m t a i d a
          f r
the              this palMar to an                     -nin an1                           r: said iin b r i r f that
the              tradltioln and thr                     -thy a f f                        nishccl tl.~cIntensity
             X I          IELXF.I~E: I
                                          .             11.1 -
of C ~ ~ V U c.unfliels,, _ _ _ - I _ : - _L_ krr!j.wuululcb LU 11i-lvt.a ~ w n w r r v x r ~ v u -- x i r m up o l a ~ i t y .
                                                               .
                                                               A.   .
                                                                    1                     -.-       T#.  -
                                                                                                              r
Znslcad of it, a rereion o Lhe C.r~nssrirali%pe-LibE!ra1
                                   f                                        alternatiora is still prepfinder
ant.




           We    can describe the pruceRges ~ u t l i n e dd h w e in terms d five arturn: {i ]
the upper                including landed interests and larger cnpitali;9lw, ;end what ':;a
               C ~ R W R ,
British call the E s l a b I i s h n l ~ n t ;( i i j the mass of the hourwuisi~and middle rlaes;
[ii i t h e i n t c l P i ~ . c n t z i ~ ; 1 the urban eklled working class; and (v 1 thc u r k l o w e r
                                        (Lv
working class, pius the rural w o r k e r s and l u m p e n p r o l ~ ~ ~ r i ~ t .

                                   t
            Fnr each a c t ~ r , h e r e :IFF a nurnhcr of clrarxc.tsristicsarc m ~ sEmow, in
                                                                                          t
urder to predict the political ~ i t u a t i n nwhich c m c r v s nut o their intrractinn, Tt
                                                                         f
will also he of intereel t i n f e r s a m e a the cbarackristic~ n the basis of i h e
                                   n               1                      a
irthere, wherever possible. Those inferred c h a r a c t e r i s t i a s \+-ill he vvarf able a
~ n t l o ~ r n o i r e the m ~ i e l while sopile athers ulill simply be given and will bc t e s r n ~ d
                    ts                ,
cax~cnm5.

           Strnply for purposes of odering and clarilying We model, we %-ill c1nssSf.v
the charnctcri stics d the aotnrs landsr four he-dings, namely:

        2.         Weights of hR:
                               -;
                              teE         p r c e n t a g p c over total porwulation: prestige;
                   ernn~mic  stares; intennity o clzss otganiz~kiun.
                                                  f

        2.         Relati, nhipa kwtyern actors. feeling of relative Id~pri
                               --                                                    vation: feclling
                   a enjaykng
                   T                                                        rclative ~ r i vIfm p s :
                               sclntl ve p r ~ v i l e ~ cdear of l u a l n ~
                                                           s;
                                             quo.
                   oppasltion to f i t a t u ~

        3.         Bqsl;c cultural andqollJea1 traits, author~tar~ani crncltiotdiaw:
                                   -                                  sm;
                   nationalism sl: ideologicnI srn~ttivity;           f
                                                          accapthnce o the "rules af Ihzg
                   gan~e".

        4.         Mahilizallon and integration tnobillzntion.n:social mnbflity; partici-
                            .-.--                   -
                   patioh in R B R O C I R ~ ~ O ~ R ,

        In the Ap                      2 al eac
                                        n                r terrna
                                                         e                 seen. Valuce are
given 20    them fr                    rrder to i        Lxndard 1         .f mersauremeat.
           -a1 eaaes a varinblr: d w - no1 ~ppdp  for n given actor, lor i Irrelevant at the
                                                                          s
            stage of elahoralion 01 the model. I ~ Q E C P~~ B ~ E I i~ marked not. & p p l l ~ -
                                                   n        I     Lt


        A first set of formulae wl19 be uwd ta inter some a i the vari~blue
                                                                          fro113 the
othere. A eecond set wlll be used to obtain the atmngt! o various pulrtiral I~CDUPB
                                                          f
-actual ap potontinl- es wall a~ Borne ~har~~)kerlrnfic~d r ldefilbg~r.The streagaih
                                                       OF t h
cmld be meamred @v the v o b s they would obtain in a moderakly free clecHan, or
by thalr 'tsxrgainln~power in a leaa "'dsmocratic" wt up.


        The model 1s n s a aeirnuLation model, b c ~ r l s a deee not have feed hack.
                                                           it
It aimply psedlcte the &pea of political ailtu~ttlanthat will emerge out d $ven can
ditS~aa.It could develop into a simulatim model by fur the^ elahrattan.

                                           x
         3 what f d l o w e the model will l ddesc~ibed,giving some- supposed v a i u e ~
          n
ta the varYablea in order to we: its operation i n concrete casee. R f t e r w a d s , i l w.811
br ~ x t ~ n d c d the c z ~ c underdev~lnpedareas, m o ~ t I y raking into accourtt the
               to            DE                               by
atsong discanLLnuitara in development inside 3 given country.




          The varlnblcs under this hmding can be evaluated fur thc two s h p s d
f i r g e m devtelopmcnt thus:
         7 % r~ l ~ r ~ t i n thcsc variables and n o t o t h e ~ r nnt dun t o
              ~           of n                                    i~                   the I Rfh3f ~
                                                                                               C
others are hut impartant. It simply means that, given the context -Eurupean type
of developmen1 In n cspitn list CPCOR                      s above I                      lhc
more impnrt,ult ones in 01 -der to n                       the diffr:                      . Othcr~
may be e x t r ~ r n c l vimport.$tnr in the                 e
                                                            h t cam                       ~telg
equal f o r d i f f ~r n t couulri
                    r                       e , l i k t . tvpc nf Armv or Church urganizztion, are
not equal lor dihfe rrnt cw                 JUZ t h e i r effects arc morc complex a d hare not
I F P ~ mken I n h ac u ~ u n in
                               t            lent mocicl,

          24rc can emplav here an intsrrnedialp constriict, T n t a B i & t , which is us?
fsll In order to fiimplify the enfiutnc Formulac. l t e meaning a.111 hi. tihrniliar enough,
particularly I f wc t h i n k 01 it aa ;a ~ n rof pot~ntlnlltyof palifer which cnch p m p
                                                t
may wirlrl. Thr y.,y? in w h i ~ h ~ c r i ~ l bts ~ v i l l c t e t ~ f m i n dlate.^, through tho
                                       it         i        he
sthmr chnrncterlerlc~61 the actors. For the prescnt, we may posit the Toral Welghi
{'S'IV) or each ~cti>r aecu~clfnq thrsr ~ Q ~ ~ I L B F L C :
                                     t~




         TW IFW)          -                         ta~ n
                              l ~ v z ~ P ~ r c e nnver t e h l X E r m n m i ~
                                                                              f   i ~ n t n~- ? - s nrgtn-
                                                                                              ~     ~
                                                                                  ix:iL irrn *I~I-'$

         This I s a ~l~npLftL~aCidn,
                                  bt                                wag ai pliltting it would
                                                      re moss ~eneral
have heen

         TWI             = Fi ( P e ~ e e n t a pPrestige; Econarnlc status; C l a s ~
                                                 ;                                   org, Ir

rwre Fi i~ ; different function far each a c t n ~ .Theoretic~k
            1                                                 progress in this area
would lie in d~termininpl f o r m s of the functions: and cventua~ly n t r d u c i n g mope
                          the                                       l
variables i n t w   L l ~ c t r l , us- nddiUvn~1
                                                TarmuIae   to determns the 'consk-qnts"' kL.
TARLR 2. TaLd wwelghts nf rach actor, Europcm m d ~ l

                                     Values af       Total weight               Total weight
                                   ki employed      for fir& ~ t a g e        for ~ e c a n d t i x e
                                                                                            ~




Middle claae                          1                  15                          31. a




Ski 11d urorkers                      3                   9                          42




       A comment that can he rnade on l h i e table i a that i n the firat h b g e of in-
du        tia an, thr added weight of the middle c l a ~ sand the
                                                        z                             l a the
W(        Iberalis~ j l a scarcely ennu& t
                     m                     o            #dancet  l                    on-
 5
                   -
                     ~g
          n). Duri~ the socaad stage, the 7
amen togomer with the int~lligentzia( L a b u r 01 varioue iaeolopefi) approxnruately
             " 8       4 - 7
                                                        classes I
                                                                         ..           nd

came to the a m e total wrlzh: than the urn of upper and middle slilsars (modern
rmscrvotlsm),

         Rut t h i s rompnrison af ( h e toh1 weighls is not yet Icgitimate. U'e must
first ~xamJmer,lih~f s p p e n ~ o the ~tFacrvariables, fn order t know which elenment~
                        h       t                                   o
t o add together and with w h t corrections.




R e l a t i o n shlp_s-between               actar_2-detcrmiaati~n            of-main c l r ~ ~ ~
lin -
- =e .


           We w l r n n s i d #halt in a p j v m sclcrety there Ia a ~ n a I n
                 il               ~~                                               llna af rslenvqqe,
which divides thoso that are in support from thdse that a r c a w n s t the ~ a c i s;tatws      J
quo. It is not nlennt hero that those that nre in favour of t h e ~ m t u s            quo reject any
iypc of &hangen Simply t h ~ v        arc taken to h~J$t&ePxm a r e in support QL the praE
e n t di strihution o l pnwrr and resources than the other group. Besides, we call t h i a
h e m e r:Icwvsge                    them UP great chanccs thsl the most important social
confifcts wrill find f              n d o r ~~ m g e d h t h ides of that l i n e . But thtcr~ m
                                                         on                                          c
k m a y 61
       m n DUrCPY 0                                                        the same side nf the main
                                    1 k t w r . e n actors ~ c r u p y i a g
cleavage 1 1inn. T h e intensity of thaw "internecine" conflicts determines w h ~ t h n r
t hl          s actors can be ~ ~ g g r c g a t d a larmr polltical ~ro~rpirag. e will take
                                                     into                                  W
th,                            -
              :krl i r i the nvxt he~rdirmg. NOW we will u o n ~ ~ d c r tr8rlng o l T I L L ~ ~ n 3 i h
            I-*
                                                                             tho
                will poeit G h c f o l t o m l n ~
                                                 laypathceia

HYPOTHEST8 1: For a p;dven aclnr. t h e intensltrf of clpposItion to t h e st2;tys q o is
     an incrcnsinq function of Its fecllng ot r r l ~ t i v r
                                                            dcprlv~ltion;a dccvilsinl:
                       lecling of onjoying relative prEvI1~qrs;and n decreasing
     funrtion of I t i ~
     lunckinn ol thr [car 01 losing I h c relnlirfo prluilcgrs krditionally mjnyrd.

        k t us tali^ t h c rniddlc C F ~ E E as an e ~ ~ m p l The impl lest Iormdation af
                                                               e.
the relationship is La state that

                                         0T)p - DEPR - PRIbr                 - FEAR
K ~ ~ P F C PP
          O               inlcnsitv of o p p o e l t l ~ no ihc otntuo quo
                                                         t
           DEFR           fc=vlingelf se!ii?ived~yrirpallun
           PRW                                      rcl,tIivc p r l v i l ~ ~ e e
                          feeling ol' e n j u ~ i n g
           FEAR                                                        ~                     li~
                          rear ut loxinq rckulive r ~ t i v i l e g e s r ~ t 6 6 t l o n n lrnjoycd

             A p a u p wEl l feel at the snnzc t l mc n rrlativc d c p ~ i v n t i a n4 F a u;7 c a m e
                                                                                          1
group [not stec~ssarllytlsr. h 1 g 5 ~ in tt h s n ~ i e t y .hut ehe an@ it takes a 6 a refer-
                                                        ~        ~
ence EPF cornparifinn I and : rctnlirw p r i v i 1 r . k ~1 y cantr:ist with mother 'again, not
                                           i                           1
n e c e w s n r j l p t h i x la\\-eat in thc p n r i n l ~c:illr-). The hear oh losing its OW ~ ~ L v L I P ~ c H
may he p r c s r n t in l a r p quantltira (typically, pre-Kazi iSrmanpj or totally absent,

            In h e first slap? of lhd~1fitriilli~aLE0n         [I~IIPPK~capitalism) thp middle class
Is the mnln euntcradc~- f ttjc Eolnblisltmrnt. W r will consider that i t f r ~ r - l nn 1:lrge
                                o
aniaunl oh r ~ l ; i t i v rIlcpriuilii crn. !wci~uscqul' Ihc irnlsarlant class cliffcr                         -i?vaiL
ing ai L ~ Ptinat-, rlur la vame r x t i T n t l u feudal Lraitu fitrll t'~rnaln~rlg;         n                 ter
[rand r t fckels rgultc privilegcrl iris a r l s t h c wnrkt.rl.;, F01- thr snnlc, rtsaanns. nut
t h i s f ~ ~ l has J C~ S In'cnsifv Lh;w~Ihc abovr rnc.nt~rrr~rrlr p r i v n t i n n ; : I I E ~ t :PI.YB
                  l h S                                                     d                         i
f c r l s qc~ltrsccurr In i t s poslcLon, so that; wc cam cnnsidcr i t h x n a [car .of l a s i n g
                                                                                           ~
its p o s ~ t ~ o n ,h e rotcll~inrrtsrsult [ ~ C C
                  T                                     tablr : t ~ that i t rsnaes i t ~ e l r lbe up-
                                                                  is                             in
poajtinn to                                     a -1-7 son. in thrt .r;          gr o G n d                      fition
of t.hc k h r r                                 h'), ~ 1 ~s1diflcarc
                                                                6                   mush lc                     SC,
and p~rtici                                     .r. The 5 vh d e Far             ~ l x k p ~ frl
                                                                                              r                  IF^ of
                                                             C .. -1                 4 .-....
the i l l I               h      ii      I     1 - 3 4L
                                                              .
                                                              .
                                                              I
                                                                  1
                                                                  b-
                                                                    I   I      UL:,
                                                                                           ?
                                                                                     I ~ ~ - ~ L VI J K L L I I ~ ppriv
                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                     .a
                                                                                                      IA
                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                              a



ilr                                                                                                             h l r ~                        9
th                                                                                                                                 Ill n
W~CIIV   un in<- ~   1 r : c ~
                           r11   rmr   ~ L : L I U S nu12   C~nlyrnl-                             L~
                                                                        C : L ~ ~ ~ ~ P : I T - : DLI I \ Y       Lr   zr v   L&L*.IC%~   of
the v : ~ r ~ n h                                       : l 1 4 ICJI- :                                         IAE s
crisis of u                                                   u nur
                                                              C                                                 or
1 0 q k n ~i i 6 1         111115 1 1 trit11r1:4
                                 1        ~ ~           ~'Ifisa   nrk?r i r i l i mrr                           I sup
p n r l o f t h r srnllrs q11;r. 111 w i l l ~upporli t in itc: abcm l,v:~y. :%nri     prc~lsnl~ty with author4-
                                                    wlaich i t i n t h c task 01 thc nrrxt t ~ ~ t oF t oll - r n u l : . ~ ~
i t a r i n n or nntinn:llisf a v t ~ r t n r a c ~ s ,                                             ~ l
tv datecl Rut rhe p s ~ l h l e r n s f lawrlsrn or n:rzism w~lBno2 be c o n s l d c r r d in drrxjl
                                           o
in this paper]
                                                               inrtensiw j oppsitron to
'r'nBL15 3, ' m l c a l v ~ l u e a f the variables deterrninin~
                                  o                                       r
              the datus quo.      Middle cla&s, European model,

                         First stage                 Second stage                 SpeciaI case
                     {liberal capltr~llem]          [mass smIely)               (wrlous criels)

Rclratlvc deprivation           60                           20                          20




Intensity of nppo~itinn          1
                                21                         -2   0                       -50

         Fnt. f k h t h ~ n r t n r c . 9ppropin.t~
                  ~       r                                                               with t h p
                                                   forrnrrlne ~hsh.61rlA fnrlwT, in l i n ~
                                                                       hp
same hypothesis. as above. The various formulae could be reduced to the game ex-
pspssion, 'If t h e follnwina hypolka sls wrse cmaldcrcd:

HYPOTFIE,STS 2: The i n P n ~ i t y oppoaltion t o the R M ~ A experienced by mn
                                  oh                        C ~ Q
     actor i n a decreasing function of its economim at4u.us.

                   h
          T h i ~ y p t h e s i s might seem to              unnecessary, b e c a u ~ e simply giving
                                                                                        by
valltex tn the relational vnrixbles o table 3, Snr the u p p r ~
                                                        f                         classes anrl the workera,
their apprnpriate degree of opposition b the rnt:~tusquo w w l d eanerge [that is, tlae
upper clasc; alsvagra in support of I t , the lower claases always agdast it, wtth whaL
ever weight they Ravel. But It so happens t h t the amount d "deprivatinn'' [inclnd-
i n g t h effects c-f t h e three varihb3tfi) RrtrPFianrv tn turn W r m3ddle clan^ again~t
          ~
t h establishment, i a rnucb greater than the one necessary to p r d u c e the same
       ~
c1f;ect amang t h e w                    It cnuld              that i n some societies thr          ty uf
warkers dces nat i                       e feel '"d            I (hecause i t h a a n small         inor-
                                                                                                     ?
i ly lander i t ) , and y e t I..; ; i g i i n s t t h e nmmn quo. This latter effect soula u n ~ ym. &the
regult: of intraducing into the formula Ithe eccmcimic status o the actor,         f

        h Ihip atage of elaboration of the model, f o r m u l ~ e
                                                                will mot be ppravided for
these cases, h i t will b9 laken Inr granted that they arc nf such a type thaL always
               i
the! upper class is an arte ~ i d e the lence, md the wc-rkcrs an the nMer. But what
                                  rrf
h a ~ v r n a thr Intelllgentzis? This group is g ~ n e r a ly very claw ta the mass uT the
             to                                                  l'
middle lass 3 s far as its relniive econornirz p u z i ~ r r ~is concerned, Probably its
                                                          .';:>
                                                         --a+*
                                                                    R
f e rllng of rclativr d c p f vnthon and prlvil~ge T ~ f m l l a ro t h a w of the rniddlr
                                                        ~    C        t
class, in rvhich CFLSC it ~ h w l also shift from olrgositt~n support of Urr: Estab1is.L
                                          d                            to
m ent. Thi a doe# n i ~ h q s p ~ n : spite of l a c ~ c a s ~ d
                             t          in                     rndpration in the cmreasian of
it!             and scerzptance of the m l r s nf the game, ithe intellfgentzia                 s on
th             ' the undr? r d o g ~{of ILs ONTI cwntcy) m e n in the m a ~ abflue~
                                                                            l                   ics.
                 -.      --    that
Vt ~ u u l un(. ~u~gk-ejred Lbe intelIechI lire h a s instiIled ih Lhem mxcn man lrvsls
l o l aspi rnli on lh n l they will ~ l w n y feel strongly deprived and frustrald, This,
                                               s
hoke--fir, is not zr atmil drsrription of the slhation, ~ C I L U S P n t c l l ~ ~ t u ial ! n m d ~ m
                                                                          I                 i
 mass socieq xeem In 6Kl. quite s ~ t i s f i 4 Tar R e thrir p r ~ a m a llivcs ;tmd npir:~tinnw
                                                    as
a r e concerned. Rather f mwwld         BO~3i.mthat there Is a gencral tendency towarclfi
support- t h r underprivf legsd, a~ a constituent of intel Imtual culture itt a d t a n c d
sclcktka. The dt                 advancea           L sorci&!,                            0 tkls
t J p 2 of i L t t ~ a ~ t i 0 ~ Bt bc me           h the PC
                                                     y                                   !FB
over the gum tots                rrs. Thk           I wnight                             @ aacig
ties, b cmse the y are mr                 nized and thclir m m r k h g classes as.a L Y ~ w ~ ~ z F ~ ~ ,
                      .-
therefon;.-XL.r ;r: : .srtrim#            e r the fntcUectuals.

        T la rme that in mcleruewloped sooi@.tiasthe intellectuals are a h ~ sad
         t                                                                                ,
probably more intensely, oa the eklp ~f the oppressed than i modern mass e ~ c i g
                                                                      n
ties. But, ascwding to thfe modol, that ~ o u M becauee ctf the push exefl-ted by
                                                       be
           interne P~eLZogso dcpsi~~atian
their o ~ ~ m               f                  rather thm the pull from the oqanlmd
wa~lc.1~cra. 3dvia~mbdG M ~ ~ P ~ G tW ,p r ~ f ~ r the typical sitrlatinn w m t d h~ th,Q nf
           Ln                         h             e,
amug, aelf-cornplnvcd, pro-              irrtellsctuale. T h b i L m d r a s l with the
                                                                  s n
elelf-torturing, intensply Smetraterl InteTlectuah of the andclvlevebped lemtrios,
who turn rtp;sinat the E~tahPiabmenthut care little far orgmiacd labour. Rut o              f
Ebesc more L a t ~ r .
                                                                                                            1
         iY@ will   ~tattg,therefore, the f~'92Ioww
                                                  hypothesis:

TTYPOTRESE 3: Fnr the i ~ t ~ l l i g r zia, t h e irdc~sitp f o p p ~ i t i t on
                                        nt                  o                ~ the @3.jg592
     is an incmisimg fiinction o tRc ~ e k t t i v e
                                     f                 weight srf llhs working cheses i   a
        the sum tot31 aP adora.

        This could bo hprnslized b y adding 2 t ~ s m the formula givinB t h ~ W Y L P
                                                        Lo                   ~
nf oppiwit.ion o i h i~ t c l l ~ c . ~ u ~ofs the form
                f     n                    l ,




                                                                       t
       Supposing that fn othor reayecte the imtcllrctual~ r e alrl~ilrir n t h m i d d l ~
                                                          a                    ~
ckea, and by blfiim the values of tableg Z and 3, we obtain tab8n 4.


T.kB&E 4 . TypTcsl ~raiues f t h e varlnblea deterrninlmg lnCensiLy 01 u p p n u ~ , * r n ~12e
                         o                                                               Lu
           dntus quo. kte l l e c t u n t ~ ,European made l.

                                                                           stage
                                                                       S C Q ~ ~
                                                                      (mass sacietyl



R~lativa deprimtion                        60
Wel@tiucp r i v i l q y ~                  40
Pear lea i n priv 1 1 % ~ ~
              ~                             n
Full Wwarde working class                   9 (apprax. )
pmtenslty oI o g p ~ s l!on
                        t                  29
             'L'he meelllgi?ntzaa, t h c r a f ~ ~ r e , airno& always he qainst Che E ~ t x b l i a -
                                                     will
m ~ n t .An irnpodmt excepticm could be a v e q tr~dltlona1 m i d y , svhare ihe pull
                                                                           s
nT t h wnrklrtlq PFRRR f ~ a l m a ~ nil, and the %ntellectaals
             ~                  i         t                             nro s e s p ~ s t d
                                                                                          rnrmhnrs
nf t h e Edabliehment. In that c a ~ t          their $itltation will b ~ akfn to that o tho upper
                                                                          !              f
c l r ~ . s ,and they will be strongly in far,-curo the Btatus y o . But in mo& tmditfoml
                                                          f
awcirtirs of t h e present clay, FM rvIll bo scrl                  the m 1lectuah are imi;3v,ver-
                                                                          e
ished and feel a strong mnsc of dapri.r-ation

                                w t h e s e a put forth I n this pawgraph, we may achernatiae
                                ~ e of de
                                     s                                m model Ihue:




             A
             1 skilled




     First                                                 Sccortd st.%&-Eumpam model
          I"                                                      (''mass society'')




B a s i c c u l t u r a l a n d p o l - i t i c a l t r a i t s ;_whp a s e s w l t h w h o m ?


         Once we have the maln c l r m g r line, we mud see whether those R ~ O G S
that are thrown tagether on thc same sldc o it are mutuaI1y comp;ztnhla. P they
                                                  f                                 I
are, w e will add them togdbar i n urdar to see the t o t ~weight OF t h e plltfcal. co-
                                                                l
alItlon they fnrm ( s u b j ~Lo aarnle quallfic~tionarnlakirw to the mohillzdton af the
                             t
working class which w i l l b e seen later). If they are mt compatibl~,       turo or more
polffirnl, groupings will appear, BX Odds with c ~ c h   other, oa t k Ramp side of fbe
II
   main" lii3c. A thl-ce -or f our- COPnercd ot:rntest for ~ ~ C will br Lhc-'r e ~ u l t .A
                                                                    ~ C P
PI on1n.ucri-i OF IlwrI s@tcrrs
             c~                which ar .ct on opppsila aides of t h tlrnnin c l c z v ~brlt' ~
                                                                      ~                     ~
wrho are ntherwiae very s l lmllar ;ntheir val ues Is not a l i o w d by the n k ~ r t ~~ , u t
                         I                                                              j
                                                              are of c m m n possible.
tactical coalitions among the three or fnur c a n f e s t m * ~
Thcse prol-,kems will he treated lairr 0x1- Now wc will see the rules b ostabliah-
                                                                             r
ing the cx         ity h c t h ~ = r~ c t n r s .
                                     i

        Itc          actors lrre incompatible with each ather? h rc~?ision bisturir-
                                                                                   of
a1 md prcwm-nav cwea, and much current theorizing on tho subjrct , w l l l uncover.
several Eourceu o strrsss hrtwacxn. p t c n t i a l nllics. Some may he autharitari-an,
                    f
eithrr iileologics~Ilyo r psychalogically, making it difficult t o rooxlet i the a&me
                                                                                   n
coalition wfth those lower h this trail. Others may be highly emotional and tin-
puhiva in th,r e x p r ~ @ a l o n t k i r e e n t b e n t ~ ,chshm with the ateadier t 5 . p ~ .
                                of
Swmr may be mare wtlanalist than others. There w i l l be rho$^ preaccupjlcd by
Meological dilstinctialls, whlls! o t h ~ r smay not care far aach things. .%me may ba
13                     L Ihp pnl ftical rullog of thc= WmP,                         o
                                                                              thfraf, r e n R
                                                                            ~p:             ain-
u                     &rhowm~k reject my idea of part
                             ct                                              in crtmplwrnlsss with
tl

         We k ~ v e                          (see Appendix fop defhitions), namely:
                  stated here five ~-;~riablca,

         21                                                          (ACT)
                   Aulh~ritari;llnism,either idool~gica1 p~ychoIo~lca1
                                                       ax
         W         Ernntfon~lisrn(EM)
         r1        UatlnnzJ fsea (NAT)
         d)        Idrologicxl F e ~ s i t f r f~ l ~ ~ L j
                                                 IDEO
         C)        r'iCcPflAnce~f 2 1 % cukes or the Kame (AGRlJ 1381
                                        ~




HYPOTFTEYTS 4: ie                             the s ~ r n                               ge line w l l l
      hnvc 3 baa                              a~lbnthe                                   -e a r ~ l ~ cizm
                                                                                                        .1
      v:1lich i~ a 1              ring funr                                    d LUerelI c e I>dwi.en
      t heir 'alu~
        r                         a   ~~dr>.ihl                             )I- ion nlis I n~ttosnliam,
                                                                                         p
         ?
      id( o b ~ i c x l           'ity and :                                 f h c gzmI C -

          WP will cortfiIder that each o the f i v ~    f               inde~wndlentvariables arfcrrcd to
                                                                        t
above can vary ffrnm tn 100. The ~ttraction ~ d w e ~ n two a@tai=s t h e samr     anF              on
s i d e o the r r l a i u vlanr;:r#t. r v i ll 116: r i ~ l u u l i ~ Lby lthe lcs8lc~winl:furmula:
        f                                                              ~r


                                       XTTR, -140           Dij
                                               4
Where              ATTRij is the alLEtractiort b e t ~ v ~an?;two actors ti and J J
                                                          ei~
                   "ij    i the sum of the absaIute values oi Ihe live dilEc~ences
                            s
                          hrtwt-rn r h r independent variables for the two actors ( 1 and
                          j). Yslc~:eacA individual d i f f ~ r r n c ~ idcr a as amirnum
                                                                    ran
                          I b e .r.a3urs a 50 (rvpn if ar.LuaI1y greater)
                                         T
                   4      k n canstani, giving the "basic* :d.lrartinnw,

        IIvrr we have an important frontier for theoretical progrrss, which ~ h o t l l d
rafinr tbir firat g-rosa a t ~ t e m t n 01 the: hypalhtaia itaell ; 01 ifa airnplii~rrl n r ?
                                         t                          d                   I
         There sre caeca where cllaarlp dcfincd conlitlone: .:..srgc In s a w other
 cases this doean% happen, for example when tw mutually mta~oaietlc              actsra are
attrnct~d  towards 3 third on@. & this AB Lrr. other ~Lmilar
                       .             I                           casee the p o t e d f 1 co-
alition ahsuld be t e         Lhe f l a wing mlt2: ace thiF total ri$jcctiwn or attraction
                                     all
t o which ny glven             subjected by the others cbf the ca:  slition; E the rejlertion
                              -                      .-- - n member of the malfticrn; TP
is 1- ---- bhan t h e 2r~Lmcciuri, rl=jrvk cnr- n r w r na - -
    anrgpr I                       --i--L ILL-   - A .



jtcti~rmLPIP attractiow should be! weighted by the weights of the adom othrr t h w tho
o m heirw t e e t d ,

         Now, using the simplified formuhe seen above, we will give same p e a i h l e
rralues to the variables, 80 as to cnlcaLate the isrcea of ~ttmcfion rejeabn
                                                                    or
k t w w n actors. Far elmplicitg, we will n b calculate for the anti-&atus ~ U Q
                                            n                                  side
of f i n mzin cleavage.

        For the Illperail p e r i d , there am fwr adora on thf8 ~ i d e .The tPahesof
thefr five basic aZruml and political, tmffs, and o;f t h e forces between actnra, are
given R, the following tabb.

T B L E 6. Valuea of the basic cultural d ptltical trait@,a d forces d attract-
           ion between actors. Anti-atatu~qkla aide af main cleamge, t T l i h r ~ l ' r
           period. European model,

                   AZTT      EM      %AT H3EOL ACBU- Middle TnZ%llf- milled UtWkill~d
                                                         U S   C    ~   gontniawoskers workers
                                                                          B




         The value^ given to the variriaibles are baaed on impreaaionidfr: evid~rrce,
and their sole purpose is       10 gzve a "hrsL run" tn the model, Za see whether Lhe
results are.at ail nhusible,, !.TllUL Ul     -6rnca auk i a a coalition between middle c h a ,
intcllt~enk.:a and B
            ci                    s rkera ,              ! urnkill*                         are
                                                                   ~d and rural L V O P ~ ~ P S PeR
mt. Thie locsnlt n                Irp much               le their 1nreQhE. Is very small, and there
            2 --
                 a -.- -
isn't allykou~y- --n m w LI) PICK - up C I -I ~ B EILNR~Rncea. WI will B B that tn a country i n
                                     LL   3
                                                  F        - -..   e            ~
Lhe process of drvrlnprnnb, 14qth zrnpartanl Intcrwl differences, thr situation ia
v e q different.

          For the m a s ~wZCi&y e ~ i ~ cthero are only three actors on the anti E$ZI~.US
                              p           l,
quo side of the main cleava++z, and their raIues can be taleen to be typically those d
table 6 .
TABLE 6 , V s h e a o the baslc cultuml and plitiaal traits, and faraee of sttract-
                     f
          Ton between actore. Anti-8taius quo side of main cbavage, nfmmi88
              aocietyt' period, European model.

                                                     ACRU-Intelli- Skilled UmklllmB
                    AUT
                               EM              10IEoL LES geatzixrvorSters workers




        melligentziz and skilled workers, with the unskilled somewhat uzrcoavihced
about the utility o the Meilenuals, farm a strong M e a s co&litlion. Each ofIht
                   f
components o t h b plitlcal pphup ham cormidorable weight, becsllee of the almost
              E
complete organization of the wirarkfq elaes.




-M s h i l i z a t i o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n : t h a ccrnc_ept   of d i s p a s a l r i l i t ~ ,


                                                d
                               fa&om arc n ~ d in OWIPT rrrrrt~rstrnrl
         Still other backgrm~ncl                      tn             thr .sftua-
tion. Tho!

         a)                    [MOBT WN), meapina breakage st tmditioml bods
                      bili~atiot~
                  m d link-up with the modern ~ystcrn    r         s and aspira-
                              1
                  tbm. It wll1 be npp:Lied ouly t o the w

         b)       %cia1 rncrbiliry 5 1 ~ 1 I 1, a rOmpDuno m n a s u w 01 experienced ctanrl
                                              ~1
                  c m c t n h l c mobility, inker and irdrqqenemtimal.

         GI        PartZcipatisn in    assncfstionu [RSSOC), inohiiirg clirrifi urgtrrrk;+L iune
                  and &hers o various hypes.
                             f

        These variables set the stage which help&to uderdand mrno of the v+al~e6
given in the a b v e      To !=In I ~(,.Ilth, k t as s e the values o t h e m t h r e e h;rc!r-
                                            k             ~          f
ground variables f         priocki in the Eurepearr model: a tmdgtlonal one (only
used for cornparis         the l i b pal md rnass society ~ t t g ~ a .
TABLE 7 . Mobrluatlon and integration f u r the wurkirrg classes, a c . c a d I q to stages
          of thr Eumperul model.

                                                   Tradft ionnl          LlWraE            Ibkisa society

&Tobilizatlnn(skilled workera)                           10                 40                 100
Social mobility [a;kllld wrsrknrs)                        0                 10                  3D
Part. aasociatbns (@killedworkera)                       S0                 40                  RO!

Mobilization [Unskilled)
Social mobility {Unskilled)
Part. asaochtions (t-nskilledJ

                                                                               y,
         I the European ca?sae, rn&iliaatlrm takes phca ~ f r a d a ~ l and its growth
          n
fEl pamlkled by R ~ ilncroaee tn partferimtlon in asssciatiana and in c l a m omm-
                       I
ization [cf. tabre I). ff the w o r k m clase were mobilized without having rcn orgah     -
&lition of fts own, that would m w n that a great p d e n t l a l p w ~ is laR floating.,
                                                                            s
We will con~ider     that a mobilized working c h s represent6 a diapsaabla p w e r
                                                     ~
equal 50 the weight it would have if it fiad an amount of clam orgmizatba equal
t o it8 rnabi'liaatinn. Therefam, f ohlaah tthla d k p a a b l l i t y [DISP) we simply put
                                    a
t h e amount of mobilizatbn In the place occupied 1 2 class osgntlization i the
                                                          ~                       n
formula which gives the total w ~ i g h t the x a t k i ~
                                         of               clas9. T ~ u B we will have
                                                                             ,

         IIEP (Wi) - kWiXPerceld over fats1 I(Eeonomic s t d u r y Mohillzat g lod

         The dtaposnble p n r e r (or disposable weight) of a wrking class will be
d d e d to the total weight o its allies in order to obtain the toLal v~~jRhit, the PO-
                             f                                                of                            '
alitinn, when such a coalition can hr formed. Rut it 9s not usrd l a ahtain t h e rro-
Lat.ive web: of tha
             ht.               wnrki~   r       hin t k s c         For t h ~      rc
onlv its st,andan1 LC          hl c ~ br
                                       n        rhcrrfor          :h a coal         tdal
                                                                             7     .   P



th              able #eo ~ h of the  t                s is larger than 1,heir                    ially based
td              lt. Hut one prori                      be t a k e R inta ;dC count: th           r o the dla-
                                                                                                  n f
Is0             stead nf thr argai
                    .       .,
lf lnsloc rnp ~ n a l ~ t i o n t h e r c a non-wor~mgc~~a.ss
                                            1s
                                                   . 11total w eigM o the work
                                                             -
                                                                          f                      be madr only
                                                                           member witn n g n nuthnritarim<~m
n:- . a i ~ ~ i r .I ~ . ~ n ~. ' I J P ~ P
                sclli                          are anticipating parts of the t h e o ~ y o ~ ~ ~ _ i 0 ~ 1 1 s r n
                                                                                            ~ f
p p l p i which prapcrly hclarq:~. a l n t c r park of thia paper. An~ws.y, in t h o
                                                   in
K:;rrrnpcanmadcat w c arcnm>welescriklng, the di~pnanhleweight of the working
r l % v ~i equal to thcir nrganisaIly hasect t
             ss                                                                              them la na
                                                                            jht, X ~ s i d ~ a ,
authoritarian n r c m d i a m l nun- working c k               e             10 be link4 :,>. I there were
                                                                                                  f
one, an the other h M (sag. of a Bcmawj?tibc              LJrx               'Ihere mid be high ehqncea
that ita v a l u c ~     wauLd be incompatibLe with thay e of the wo~king                c1.w~.

       Vsrlaliona on t h b theme rwld be explored, I h o u ~ hh aMor tn explain
                                                                   ~
auch phenomena as Lou& B o n n p r t c ' B acwseian t o p w c r . Bul the P P C ~ C P ~ B C$11-
                                                                                           S
valved will be hettpr understbold after wmidcring Lhe m d e l for socirrirs with
hpcd,?nt isrtr;~-mu.ntr3rdiscontinuities.
          1 %can put the ,abnv~ n n a l d ~ ~ a t f n nr f ~ r l y
              ~                r                     h~          thr~ar

IIYF%3THESB5- 3The diegi>sable prswt?r of t ho worki
                                     .
      function ol[ its mak~iliza-tion It will add to tl                            ion
      into which it c n t ~Y, only i T in that roalIt lo1
                             r                                                     class
      autar with c l g n ;luiaurnarlan~srn- r emmiorna~ism.un rnc ntncs nand, the
                  n      i
                         .
                         .I-L
                          l  L-  -   L-
                                      '    .
                                            o
                                            .
                                           -I          .-  -...-*a




      ~~Iative weight o t h working c l a ~ g
                           f    ~               within the cozllition is a fuuctian o its
                                                                                     f
      arganizationaElmv a s 4 tnlal \wight, not i t s disposable power.
                           b

        The three background srariahlcs we are now .csomsIdering will h p treated rrs
                              00nIiythe power dlapoaabiIity of Lhe warking rlaas,
t.xqprruras. They influence not
k have a number of other effedll on the act of varlable~
 t                                                           treated before, that is.
the hasic rukural ancl wd  l       ite. Rtc        nut l i n e h p w Rrln      ~CSCB
to covpr t h i s area, which      ru nred d        cL~boraE     ion. We        . nL-
ternfled to g i v e mathernat     ~ulatiom          h-mothe    lacs, kll       ! taken
them into accoanf when gi36ng values to t h v~rinblea.
                                             ~

HYPOT HESLC 6: FRF.P given a d o r , atlfh~ritarimirn an incrcnsin~             function of
     the a m m a uh in~t:rbil#y or rlirninutfon of the actbrle ecodrrmlc status, aid
     csf fcwr of I a s i n ~
                           oneqsr e I i i r r e prjvilqcs. It Is a decreasina function of
     p;crtlcip%t n in associdinna.
                 b




HTFfJTHESTS     l i t F b r 8 gir,~crlador, nationdism is an increasing function of rnohil
         Izatron. It la nlao an increasing firnetion of rr;la.tiire       d~privation,w h m the-
         rirprivstion either is or is perceived tn hc duc tn f~wigrr               influpnces. It js
         a4                       ion of k.bt? leeling 01 enjoyiug. relat ivc priv~           ?hen
         .tb                      ly aro 01 are scel t o be r:lue t o io-r e i g n fnf
                                             r         n

HYPOTHESIS 9: For a giv                         , idmlogical         acnsSti\f&yis nn increauing fundion
                       n
     nf garticipal iun i                        ions. Jt i e n d ~ c s e ~ i fundion of social rnobil-
                                                                             ng
          it y ,

                   For a given a d o r , aecelJtmsc of t h e rpllprs of thc game h a in-
IIYPnTITF:.:SI3 If):                                                                        n
       rrn:lsing fund Ion of social muhilily, p3rticip;atiai-i in : 1 4 s * > ~ i : ~ t iand~ fwl-
                                                                                         nn
       ing of ~njrvviru:: r c h t Ivc pr.ivi8egcs. T i a durrras ing I'undiun o l me,hilii+ation.
                                                   t s




S --
---t r e n- g t h - a n d i d e o l o g y sf t h e p o l i t i c 3 1 g r o u p s .


          IVilh Ihc h y p o t h r a c s a d formutnc nlmady e a a a i d c d , tvc arc i- n pciaition
to cslculxEe the strewh ofthe various political coxlitiom, on either side of the
                                   added, t&bg care t o lnclube the Wwer diapoa-
mafv cleavage. Total wefghta ~ r r c
ability whel1 tho lstter k g~esiter,SOT the wlorking rlaaa, a d whan there I in the
                                                                            s
~t)alltiotl non t%rdrh c k a s member wiih either BIgh ~uthoritariamisrn high
          a           ;hg                                                 or
ernntjrraaliaLLL. * tat81 weights thus sbt.ained must be divided by the sum o t d a l
                 TL
                .m
                                                                              f
weights of i          !ipante,        I the re18                                F-
preted es tl
        d                that a       l~liiion r;


        The ideology of the poL#Ica2 combinati~ncan be obtained f r o m a wei~hted
averup of thc '%as ic cultural and political traits r1 (amhoritarianism. lerndiaml-
ism, nationalism, ideological sensitivity and acceptance of t h e rules o the game).   f
                                             can                                          l
Likewise, t h e intensity af s p ~ s i t i o n be c a l c u l ~ t e ? the ~ L i t i c r t group, in
the term ot a wcighlrd avsrage. Another h p a f l s n t cbararterrmrc is the "repre-
sentation of clws intc7.eetsq'. This can be obtained by a weighted Rrrerqe s the             f
economic status of t h v padicipark~01the coalition.

       The degree of stabflLp d t h e polfticsrl systnm could br mnmaur~d t h ~by
xreigMedwuma€ t h e i a e n s i t i r s d opp~sitim,probably corrected by the deffrce of
acceptance of the rules of the game and by the leva1 of ~utborltarlwn8sm.




              For. the develapin~           areas I? La Pmportnnt t o ndj r ~ the m d e 1 so A 9 to J n ~ l l l d ~
                                                                                          t
connMemt ion of intrn-country diacorrt inuitiea. Intra-country disc~ntbuities e ~ e                                    w
also present In t h Europcm hisiorical experience, aacl corild he taken Lnto accwm
                                  ~
t o undarslsn$ better what k p p n a d kherc, They weye left out of cnnfllcferntlon in
order to eimpliIy t h p cxpbsilion a1 the model. The slow m t p of rnobilizntlon o f t h e
rnI                  es ahd UI   nskilled u r t l : ~wc             zlakcs it less B P I                  ti3 C          the
irha                 I BI-lizkB 0I the Eu:rapem n                                                n~
                                                                    -hc mnsrres l i i ~ ig therr h                       rl c t ae
SnO                   their dit.nnr.nLtar power w
                                 rhunsclJr                          y, and tf                      h
                                                                                                  L c imp:              euu E   d
make on nqtlonal lLfc urns not V P ~ T largr. O n thr n t h r r brand, ..:. irn1mflab reason
for taking. 1                    11nt int r;a          * rfiscnnti                              it' developina arms is
thirt tbrp ar                    nr to the             nce of n a                               r bbry were 1lv1 b~ l h ~
                                                      r+.-.a-o   -
 KJF~WE!?I e x ~ i ~ i e n cm . n +v ~ L L V L A r a c s i r L c - ur i r l l p b L tuatmru, , , O w r e r e ~mit ig~t.tedor
rh;l                 ICI rentra              rf thr dcl              n:dinm hccarne 1la soma extent co-
                                                                                                      I


hrr                  :s of tthr              lrld p w r             ure, at the experae sf tht?ir own p~
T ~ ~ J I ~ I - La !Leas. Thia ~ r l a y
                  I -
                                             ...--..
                                           rmpyru r u e 1 1 RMLL both central a d
                                                                                                 .r-...inL--
                                                                                                        ~p~lcr'al  RFCaB 01
t h e dcuelopina nation are being expisItcd I;ry am Impea                                                      3wrt WO r k ~ r ~
of Singapre, rrtaIl clerks of Lfma, oil wrkcrn ef k                                                            zly a few of
tho many cases k LhEs sltuat ion. Thr C:uropean experlance waa u n lrmrl becaru SP
                              n                                                                                cnt
~~~~~~~~~~~"4- overly pmvcrf!~l
                                                                                                          -   - -   L
                                                cxtcrnal ~ P ~ V P F to hake ac~vantageof Irrtm-@numr~~
                                                                       Y
differenspa.
          Another adjustment to be made for the now developing areas is due to thp
great unwenneas in t h evolutfan of the v a ~ I o u a
                              ~                              indicators of modpmizxtion or
champ, not only between one s a o n nnd the otlacr, hut within the namc rcgion.
Rducxtion ou-tstrippinp t h c cxpanainn of thc occcapalional B ~ ~ Y C ~ L ~ Tscmi-feud:~l
                                                                                     -C,
comtrnints to mobility, rcsist~nce snanu~l
                                         2a                labour, ImpoVeri.&ed      gentry or
middle clasn, y werty-&;trik~n      pricste and dhcontented colonels, air?Ihe source
of ,fnumerable h~adaehes m y g~vernrn~nt scientifiic observer. i[t L pm-
                                for                        ox
poacd here to lump Ithem all tagdher and to form with ith~~rnncw actor, to bc
                                                                            a
called Thc lnconarrgrrr~nt.SQmo sort of interne status incongmence seems to b the             e
oharwterlstlc of thrse groups. They arc the ''rotw cabalbrasrr                   and "caballems
         ,                                were gmphically dlescribd by their opponents
mto~'', B ~ a l r n a ~ c s u p ps r t ~ r s
                              d~~ ~
in t h Chi IF nf t h ~
         ~                                            30 exitsLrld in the Europe3            ence,
3 s L o u h IYnplcon                                  t c r of fa.ct, tho i ndividua         :de-
viatiom f~   rom whni                                                    l
                                                      a1 stage of the E I m e a n            IU Id
b
l            rcd i this wag. Grcat Britain bring t h c first nation t o take the lead in
                  n
dl           ?nt, It is the only cnuniry : ~ l m o s texempt from lhese proups, st Iead in
It           rial perilrsd.

         55re will summarize the above conaideratiam h two h>pothcscls.

IIYPOTHESIS 11: In n pprewent-day rl~velopingmqtian, ~ltrlonghtm-country dis-
         ~wlrLilsuiCie@iiry 'lruutld tu ckpprar, furraliktg a IT-~ILEI~              y
                                                                          r~latjvc-ly r i v i l ~ i e d
         arez and s perhphenl, h a c i r ~ ~ a r d
                                               one.

ISYlTJTHESE 12: h a present-day develophg carrdry, groups with irrtensc status
       incongruence are l i k ~ l y appear, k d h in the central and in the peripheral
                                   to
         :1?-eaE+*




        The new actor will b e a~sigmeda total weight, based on twrq campnetits,
One of t h ~ m its average ecun~nlic
                is                         status. m the &her the intensity of its ia-
                                                     3
                                                     i
                                                                          l
ternal inwngmrnce. Of course, thc sdnr will cxid o a y Il l he t o ~ a nurniwr of
                                                           rl
peuple in t h r ~ s r condiliuna exceeds a certain arniwn, The Icirmula For its total
                      .
weQht will be LtrerPIure

        T W LIWC) = k WC $economic status *internal fneonpruence x10-2

       In most hktorical rases, tbers is only one t.ym c inccrngm-uc-nt
                                                           f             grwp of
importance. I there wcrr two ns n ~ o r r a d d s with each olber, e!~cnruxllr; a more
             f                           at
refined model cou,uld include them a11 separately a&actors.

         lt i n d attempted here to aseign values, but kt Ls sugg:p;estcrlthiti thc tdal
             s
weight s h l d c o m e oat to be of the order of rnmgnitude of that of the whole middle
clasa, i those cmes where Zr impact olf the Incongruent fs
          n                       :e                                     T i s , in spite
.of their amall n u d a r o , ie m index of th;e irnpadunc                  dsaignsd to
them. A similar treatment uaa given to the inlellect~

           Am effect d incongruence i s to makc tthh group feel intnw.cly deprivedl
whtever its ccorzornfc Istatus. ThIs will put it aalmoet always against the status
quo, that is, on the d h e r eide of the main clcavsga. Thsy will tend to be highly
a u t h o r i t m u and emotional, as well as mLiunalist. Thcy will have vrry loa ~ c -
ceaancs ofthe rules of the game. ;\a for idealogics1 sensitivity, it may vary
f r o m low i Borne cases like those conncctccl with pemnhrn, to f~lirly i ~ h cam
                n                                                            h    in
muniet or similar 1ypn of I-eveh:t,iom~movements of uderder~elopedcoantrles.
I many csaes, t b u g h , an a~?aren€Py
  n                                         high ideolop;kal aenshIvfty is not auch, but
only a alermtyped expression .pf high emotionalism with oppos-fti~no the &~.tus
                                                                          t
quo. Com~epiunl
              distin&ion bedwecn lheac txvn s a ~ s s s an impoptad fmntinr for
                                                    i
reaeareh.

        It ccan be appreciated already that the incongruent groups are the ideal
Pa                   ~hllized1rkrnB@Bl, w h e e diapolaakle pomrerthey arc very well
Prl                   ncfir: of I'Ihey have what Is needed, accmdlng t o hyputhssie 5,
hip                  i r n o r e nmtianalksm). Their c0alitiiotl i what Glno Gerrnani,
                                                                  s
taking the Lath American experience, haa labcll~d         m-einnaPibrno pgwJa_r faterm
nthich includes, peronism, vaqgiarno, aprisrno, fidoliarno, and communist move-
meats i some linderrl~vaIop~rj
        n                             countrlcs). The marxist tradition call3 thia type: o f
malftion-Wjapartiarn, on the b s i e ot the Earopcan experlonae.

         TO camplde the picture oroat.ted by tMs added polfiaancy d tlr~      rmcionrrlkta
p p l a r coalition, mre must p i n t t o an opmslte phenomenon occuring to thr middle
claseea, the skiIled workere, and often also ta the intellectuals (except when they
cobcfde whltla the hmngruentnt), All these groups tend to lase lheir salt ae a risult
d mndi2;ions in the central area of a davelophg nation. The re!FttivE?ly p r i v i l ~ e d
position they engoy p i s a v h the peripheral are&) makee them too ressonahk loo
early, that h, it hcreaetes their acceptance s the rule6 of the game. It 2;aL ddi-
                                                   f
rnfnishea their mtlonaPierm, because directly a t indir-rectdp ft 1s q l r w clear that
they are copartlcipants of the sphere sfpower and prosperity of the! forempclvtrers
and their world market.

          Chr the intellectuals a peculia~procpaa is a iwork: unlesa they happen LQ be
                                                            t
an@ the hcongmed groups, ihey w i l l copy t h e i r colleqpeu 01 Lhc a d v a n ~ e d
    of
                                                    ".
mtions, ~uffrrjt-q r.?~] f n ~ c i nim effect This is eqlr ivalerrt t o thc r l ~ m o n -
                       3       'r        ~t
strat ion eKfwt not iccahlr amcrnE t h ~ m l d c l l ~classes of developing r i b 2 0 ~ ~ TIlr
                                          *                                                 3.
capyIng r h a l ~ ~ t ~ ~t h ed s r ~m i l inn rrbm-t wi 1 l T rnrl l o rn;&t~ them hrw in ern:
                             of j h i i
Tj~nallty                                              n
             ;tnd authorltxrirrnism, and tm high i ideolo~ical         sensir h~ ity. In thB way
they brcome er-en rnors estranged from tl~elr           arm working classes, and particularly
from the. pnpulat~nnfrnidille nr wnrking class) of the p r i p h e r a l ;Irma. T h r pop11at-
ion of l h i s jwriphhnral arna, brcauso a its hnckw.rutn~ss,i s h i g h ~ r all hnr?tari:m
                                           l                                       in
                                      .
Igm, and o f t r n in mmat innalisrn '!%rrplntlvr ds~privatinnit c x y o l - i c n ~ r f iriti a v i a
 ,hecentral area decreases its acceptance of the rules of the game, and increases
 ita nstjar                  -. p e r ~ e i
                                        otioncrf a    res bdween the ~ m s ~ e r i afy r
the c m t r                              l:
                             p a ~ c o nlmic inte     rR for t h e intellectuals oI the
peripher4                    y they a] more
                                        re            d f m m forlcligm inflaenres , and
t                          dqrsrrTtwork as Intensely an them as wae tj
            'indian effectnf                                                        n the
1           rea, Thore are higher shances that, they w4 f l happen tn br.           e
                                                                                    h in-
            t gmups.




 be-effocta a k I n t r a - c o u n t r y d d l a o o n t i n u i t l a a s a mpeueal G a s e s
o_f t h e p r e r ; I ~ u a . . h y p w t h e s ~ .


         The efIecca routlin& a b v e c m be descrlbed as the reauk d applyfne; the
pmyimxlx hypotheses to the partialar situation d a cmntry with l m p r t a n t d W e r
                            l
m c e s bcfwcrn c ~ n t r a and peripheral arc=.



        ---
        Effsrtx on inteyi2.y o J - c p ~ s - $ i n n ,
                              nrcn the r e l a l i v e deprivatba is! kept cotmtant or diminiah~d,
        I n LRe c c l n t ~ l l
      the rcht ivr privilcgc increases. Therefore, fnt enqfty of opwsikion will d~
                                      is
orcam, nccnrding tn I ~ y ~ o t h e a 1. Cencraily, this is nai enough In s h i f t aaetar
from a m e l d r o thr maLn creava~e the other. Sn some c s e s , thnugh,p&'t-icularly
                  f                      to
when there is n, sudden mohilizatiun accompanied tn?- m r a l urban, migration, t h e
presence o Ihc nwsnpa may cauac the middle class oft h e c ~ n t r a l
            f                                                           arpa to fear
loskip; ita privileges, and thnrefare to rally under 1                   .ocamp, w e n
"before !ta time", that js, brfore re~ching     the maa


b)     effectq-qn-g@horitari;~nism,
       These are nu tlisrct r r f ~ c t n ;rutharttarfanismdue to ce~~t.rnli-peripher;l~~
                                        om
                                                                        L
relationshipa, except when a audden mohiiizakion m d lnflrix I r r u m workers prc-
                                                                n
daces in the middle class a fear ol baing ils pri\rileges, and I h r l - ~ f oan Tncsr;~eo
                                                                               r~
of nuthu~itarianiamn o r o r d i n g t o kypalheoi~ Yul~rruf o r actors in t h r cent cc and
                                                   6.
the periphery are generally different., d ~ l ~1 d i f f r s c n r ~ s t h r rultreral barkgkgrmrnds
                                              a  c                   in
ohfa mag. vary arcnn23ng to countries) anri area because a e ~ o r i d i n ~ l ~ swhich im,     s
usually lower in hachni-d irrm~, e r r e ~ s e s arnolmt 01 authurilarisriisrn ac-
                                   d            the
- d i n g to hypolheeia 6 .


c)     Effqcts on cmotlwalisrn.
       Xu d i r r r l rfrccts. Bul generally cultural condit iam makc the peripheral
a r m mom         rinnal. n r a ides, higher afisoclflt Lonhm i the central area reduces
                                                              n
it8 nm~toonlzll~m,     sccnmling to hyplhc8ia 7.
dl      .-
        EfIects on natiom1isrn.
                     -
         Lxtionaliarn dc crsMt4es, for the actors Ln centml areas, relsfive t~ w k t
               ~
it urru1d t r if Chgt are= dldnlt hava a dependent p r i p h e r y , T h i r ia h n a s c UCPOTCJ
ing t laypothclab 8 n~tiomaliamL a decreasim function of relative privileges,
     o
wrhm these are seco aa kfnked to the forem influence. CamrcrrrcIy, mtionallsm
in           lor act o rs In the                                       lrld be ii that :LTP ,a
di          ? a ccntra l one fc                                        1 here, t bough* L hat
in          ing cwril:TICS: t ~ ~ n r c l
                             BOTIC
                                                                                  --
                                               j-.' even t h higher 0ne8, may lee* a
                                                                                      t - - 1



stmw relative deprimtwn vie a vis foreign powers or dominant rnharities {some
colonial cmeer usrticularlpl. Even in t h ~ s ecases the difference between center
md periphery map subsist.


e)      Effects on IdenlogeglcaI sxyJtpvJt&
        Yo direct effects, Often for ednr~ahionaland cultur41 wrs~onmit will be
h i h c r in the center. Beeidea, higher participation in meaciations there will k ~ s p
high the valuo nf ideologie~l   sensitivity, accordha to B ~ w t h e s f s . But high ~ocia6
                                                                         3
moblESty is Iike$ to ~ ~ L I 1t somewhat, accsrdim to the same hypothesis.
                               C C



f)      Efiecta an a c ~ ~ p t g n _ ~ _ ~ 9 f _ t h ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ f t l h e _ g ~ ~ e +
        Acceptance of the ruIes 01 the game will be higher in tbs central aroaa,
because ;it is inrre~sed the feeling of enjoying relative privileges. according
                          by
t o hypothesis 9. Besides, fohko~~ing same hypcathesls, it will also be higher
                                       the
b~causc blgher p&rLiclpntion in i3seoFfatY om and Righer rn0bilil;v.
         of


        In thie WRY we harbeused the general hypothesea to earphin the diflerences
between thp contra1 md the peripheral arm, and between the central Rren and
what it wuuld be it it didn't havr a pcriphrrsl awa drlprndrnt upon it (rvhich mrould
reduce us to the r1Eur;6p.ean.'madel),

                     e the pic
                     n mndc
                     9

H'                                       *nIrfil at-         t r ~ l i ~qp      es suffer a
                                         eh they r           )By the 1 1        ,hose in ad-
                                                             n-rr   +:-.


HYPOTHESIS 14: Thr incongruent tend to be high ln reMivedeprlvat~on,authorr-
     itarianiern, cmotinnali8m and n~tionalism.They are low in acceptmce of
      the rules of t h r g;.lmo. They MI-y in ldrileoloflcnl serlaltlvfty, hut trnd to be
      lower L that tra& Lhan the non-inmngmrnt intcllecLuala.
              a

KYPOTHESTS 15: Mobilizakian occum suddenly and abruptly to workers In prcscnt-
     day devcbping nat~nns,nnd tonds to wtetrip their clms org:~nizfltian,
        5l'hrn c o m p r i n g t b r rrlative r a l u ~ a the basic cu1t~tral
                                                        of                   and political trafta
for central snd priphr:sal areas, il must be kept in mind, apart from the l i ~ of          t
                                                                           &Tohillastion wdll lie
effects above wllint-d, that mo63lliz;blnn h a to hc c n n ~ l i d e r ~ d .
t&ea to be sn exwenow 1-ariahk. It8 cffects, i will be sccalledl, are:
                                                           t

             I on wthq~rEaslanLsm,except hdirectly throu& reactions of xradoae
             b s (nee Ihypotheuia 6 ) .
              e

b]        B eharplg incrtasos ern~lionaliam.(This im, at later ~ t a ~ e e ,
                                                                         ueually di-
          mintshed, 'absorbed t , hp participnlfon i aplsmiations, that is, I t gett inp;
                                                    n
          aecustamed to the urban wag o life, acmrding t o hgmtbesis 71,
                                        f

01'       R incresses nntisrrsliam, by mnking t h actor aurare of the totality of the
                                                   ~
          country    A        ~        h i        )
                                     h~ ~1 Wv r ~ via mass mediil fser hypbthesis H j .

d)        Nil on idrrdogical s c n ~ i t i v i t ytacc hypothesis 9 ) .

                         s the Rcr-cptnncc                                                 ?  it is nsso-
                         n break: Ijie with                                                 o L e -sir les
                                                                                             f h
                              i.a    nftrrL ~ ~ - t ~ t : l                                 iations ancl
                         *,   **.-    , .- .-..>+-- L




          Actual pmcetmea o change in developing mtions map be qulto varied. In
                                   f
~ach   case studied, values should be given t o all tho rarinblcs, cxscpt thoac whd3lly
endogenous. B R hould bc ndired t h a m ~ s of tlw hypthescs have hccn atated in
                                                  t
f n crnrncnt.; tcrrns that Is, giving thc m f g - ~of t h padin1 drrir;atiws, A b ~ o l u t e
             11                                     ~       ~
va~luc-s arc usually d~pendentnot only on onr hypothesis, hut nn n t h e r s as w e l l , sad
                                                                             c i
     ~hs@;bufts. u r ~ r v c r 3~efl~Ctiw pecull~kr~ h a r ~ c t e r i ~ t iotfsbch country miid
             n  .-*
                 ..
                -.I
                rr                     the
prriod ciolected.

          We will analyr ! one polssfble sequence. based on the Arg~ntinim~ q c r i e n c e .

        k, us lake iun initial gastiob, with &baut ha Lf Ihe popuIation in tr3~
         l                                                                                         central
area, and haLl in 21~e peripheral ( A r g r ? n t i m o the es rly f b i r t i e ~of t h i ~ * , r ~ r r t q r j .
                                                        f
There i s as yet lltt le or no rnobiliza~ o ~ ,
                                              i                                'rhn cmtwl area has
                                                    and no f n ~ n n g w e n t .
values similar L Lhrrsc of t h e Eumppm l i b ~ r a H q c , hut carrecled as a result of
                   a                                         l
the center-gwsiphcry r ~ h t i n n s h i p a .W c h ; ~ v e I given concrde loraruEae fns i k ~ a c
                                                          ? #
effectsL this is an area F o r furthrr relinemerit. nf the model. B Z I estlmalco o'f the
                                                                                   ~
effects p r m i t us l o etate the values for the c e n t r a l area as follows.
T A D L B 8. V~lue-B the basic mlluraI and poll-tical traits, ilnd forces of attrack
                    for                                                            -
             ion between actors. P~P-mnh-ili ion &;LBO, Awed lno came.
                                           zat

                                                          ACRE- Middle            $killed U n ~ k i l l e d
                    BUT       EM       NAT        IDEOL    LKS cEaas
                                                                                  workere work :rs

Middle class           1
                      21       20       51,        ,517    100      --      -20       40         -4   o




        fa tho central area, the eitu:ation which c m e a e s i s nrz alliance between
intellectuals and skrllrd workera *he traditional Soeialish pady). The unskilled
workera ar
them, nnd r
                                              -
                                  itr of thr alight ~ 1 which the &killedones exert on
                                                            1
                                  e of ow1rcnrning the resistance of the intelkctlrsl to
accept then                       %RE is rv,jrctcd from the malition, because it is not
                                               ch a c c q     he mlea o f the Errme for the
ta&e of tse tntellecl                          the pull I     rrksrs on the middle elasa,
the rejection of t h e                         trong~r         of the heavy whrel~hterrjo~el
by that g m u p ('irieigtktoa F ~ j t O Q e~f the llt~eral
                           a                              EUroWm atam. rnaltmlierl by t5e
percentage that t h e "ccrntral" papulr?lbn Is ol:the who               ry). The mi dd Z     a
C~~BFYpoea it alone, forming t h R d i e n l PAvt.y. Thp!
                                            ~                           h r n ~ n t 1 9 jra nxm
                                                                                  h~
CrsnsenvtSitVe  party  .
         9Vc hawe a m & taking only into rlecount the rentral area, in o r d ~ r avoid
                                                                                 to
bmnecarm;! ?y compllcatwns in t h e expodtion. ACtlt~llIy,1~~lur.4should he given to
xcEcrrs i r l h ~psrlpheml Rrea, and some ol them will be found to coalesce with the
                 :
Radicals, others with the! Facialms, finally aame with the Comernatives and yet
same will he left to thernaelves. BTobiilnatiom beiw fairlv low for the woedl un-
8kllld workers, ant] very low for the ulo~kersi~ the perlphersi area, there will
be little likellhmcpd of a mtionalida. popular coalition. But we mu& notice that the
unskilled urban wuskam am: clvt Irrie~rxt edi d u Lhe main pulilical ~ r o u p s , u IV
                                                                                 d   ~
the center-priphcry effects suffered by the other anti-atdus quo actors.

           At a asacond dxge, rnobllkation start8 h earnew, b r i n ~ f w ''tfma o   r          f
t m b l o s , ' . The middle class fears for its relatiw privileges, and pFhesPe to the
s id              status quo, orientimg the RadisaI party in a mnrc c0nser1~aiva nrag    it

An                lent g m p arises in the cantpal wca (sornr I n d u s t ~ l n l i a t ennd arm! 7
                                                                                         :
gnn          , The ~ktlled    workem, with lncsensed m a b l l i z ~ t b n ,herome marc cwt,
t ional nncl sornewhat more mtbnalfsti~,         Unskilled wr                                     hmge,
md their ernot lomli srn and natin-r~liern      rwch high VR                                      c r nf
the rules of the gam e which the1 had l ~ ~ f f o ddlsnppea
                                                    re                                            un-
                    . . ..
beamble for ~nttllectuals,&a t h e following table showa, but tlnd slrnllareips wlth
the newly arisen Inconp-nlent group. hte~l@&aakt skill& .rrrc>rkereelill maintnin
                                                      and
sf         lilllragi?, but their totnl wight is ernallcr                  hc
n:        ;a~WPIL~RF    c0~11tiun.Again, a. comph~t.c dc                  ruld
h:        r into nmount a l s o the peripherd area.



TABLE 9 .              fay the basic cultural ant        l
                                                        e trafts, wid forces of attract
                ion between actors. "Time crf troubles" &age, Argentine




hcongrne~

rn

&
5

'Unskilled


            A O h H mtagm ensues, wlth p a c l o n a l l a r n p ~ p = (per~ntsirr                    mrleLy) hi Lhe
go~e-crimcnlt. Thc inconparit, who hieve fin;zlly obtained power, increase thpir
             l                 in
~ e n e r s~ahiciprition swsor2lstiom and dher xctiulth?~. and consrcmmntly :11sa
t h e i r acre1 ptanrr ol            ?% r d the game. T h e i r id€                      sensit ivnty slight lv
iacr~mns,        and thc                       bagi.3 ta cool of                      ?duals start incrras-
ing tl-ipir e>motional                         .arisniem aa a re                                           of
                                                                                       a the t l m ~ t ~ o u h l r S .
  1
T hey heeu                                     ?reasim their i d e o l ~ i c a l          sensit ir              rkclrs
CCbnt ~T~LIP. i~         < their rr             rn. The                                so hcgin                  off
t h @IF   rrnd           t, R B the            se the Ir                                      result             h t*
    L-tI..L..  -            I
                   are sr .S .
                          L    I  --
                                  m
                                               .
 ~ L C L L ~ ~ L Z L ~ ~ I 111 np : u l a m e IsulaLetr, areu Lne r l a c l u r l i L r l r r L a p p r n a r ruahiiion
                                                    - 7 - L - J                       ! A: - ---


 L & m t ~ ~ e r ever. The follotvina I n b l outline8 thc sEttintim.
  s              than                                   ~



TABLE 10. Values for the basic cultural and plftlcal t r a i t s , slnd f o r ~ e sf attract-
                                                                                  o
          lorn bct ween Rcrtnm. W~cfann k t n pomlnr g n ~ ~ n m m s nA, ~ e n ine c-0.
                                       l                                  t         t
         A final. fourth stxge, can hc visualized, when nacinnalisrnn popular be-
mmas worn a t h r w g h long tenure o officc. {Similar results will he arrived at
               t                          f
If B is thmwn mt front power as In the Argm;Ene case). The incunyrrrisr~l,         bcrurr~r:
somcwhat lens aulhoritarfm, they lose thcir cnthmsiasm and some o their =ti02 f
alisrn @heyarc increasingly srit-ilqed ris a vIs other groupag, They accept tbn
rules s the Emne t o x l a ~ c.dent, and hcseasc their idealogic~1
       f                          r                                        sensit ibr,.ityt o a
mint ncar t h e level ~ J T ~ F of ~ h middlc c I ; a ~ & ~ s . ht~llcctlmalsb v e m ~ d e
                                R t    ~                  The
                      n
importank e m e s i omter to u n d o r s t m d their eountry, partimrlarly increasing
their nationalism and their a c c e g ~ n c e the rules of the game, Workers continue
                                            01
losing entbouskam, and incrcne ing thcir ncccptnnne n the rube of tho game. The
                                                     f
result ia that tthe earlier oppositiun between the intellectuals and tbe incongruent -
elite hhs vflnishd. r should be addE d that t
       aa               t                                  la1 incon                  -ighal
                     Ihas
inconpent ~ r o u p pmh ably dim i ~ i s h e d     r       tlt of the                 er.
 his r d ~ c e their tntal we ight ggt inmngr~
               s
                                    .     . -. -
                                                           I they ar
                                                           .-                         n into
the massl of the bmrgeoele and m l ~ t ~ ! lckaanca, ItltaLlactaala and workers h a b e
                                                t.
finaSly eaabllshd a stmw link, partic-uhrly skilled tvokers. The situation 16
prone to the form&tina s f a papular palay with the warklng clas~es, intellectuals
                                                                              the
and the wicklv v a d i s h h ~ o n ~ m e n frlitr, Ry lhis time, the central area of the
                              h               ,
cour~try si            in a mas;s societ, stage, md therefore tha middle c l ~ a n s
                                           y                                           are
m the cod6            5 side t*r:en ii the y nn lmger fear f o r their privileges. Tablo E l
gives the rpalut=srar e n .s anurnion.
                         11
                           l
                             _ ., *, -..


T B 11. VaLea for the b a s k cultural and polftical traite, aad forces of attracL
 Am
        ion between actors. Worn out n,  acdonxlie ma popular, ,473         ase.

                                                       A CRU-
                  RUT                              J    --.-



Skilled w.          36        20     50       40         all                    --        30




       By this timn, in a caae Phe Argentina, the country prohablg h a a l a ~ g e
                                                                                ~
majority of Its popul~tiaain the cedml area, and the next &age wualcl be Its
compkte assimilation to the haaic tralts af the Earopean madel f fhr ma$$ 90-
                                                                       n t tr
tidy &age. The reeults of thc whole promss may have left Home peculiar traits;,
though, as E sort of cultural lag, differlentl~ting a i t u d l o n from t h d typic~lly
                                                  the
described for maas ~ o ~ i e t y .
XPP?-E2"I-EIX:    D e f i r r i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s


UPPER CLASS. T inrrludcs large landawn~rs,flnmcial capitabts,
             t                                                                      m well m t h e
                                                                                            t
             cagitalfsts ancl member! of the Establlahmad.
        iar~er

MI13D LE CLASS: It inchdea the mass of the bourgmisie and middle clplss, but
       ~OPR not Inclnde rr dm~btfulZntorrndcrliatn ntmturn made up o ~ m a l Ff        artisans,
       nNmnrs or r c n t ~ r s ~rnall l a a of Band, snd uthes members of a loc~Bq5'
                              of          p
       Iwsrrf, parrrr.l~la1rrl idrile st raturn, w l ~ i r l ii often numerous in undsrdorrcl-
                                                               s
       oprd nmaa, AparL from that qialificalbon, it include^ both urban and rum1
        rncrnbcra.

INTELLECTUALS: mfined strictly, in Lips&'$ @B$nea+          1h6eh distinguishes them
      trom protessinnrrk mrl n t h c r ~ur'n.a"rrtail" jnteliedual know led^-e.

URBAN RK11,lRD WORKERR: I!gper str8tum af urban workers, including artismuas
     and u t h e ~members of the alwre-defined intcrmrdin~r.dr:&urn.

UESKILLED SYORKERS, URBAN AhT RURAL: includes the lower stsalurn o urban            f
      wrnrkrra, and psslrtically nil nf t h r l s n d l ~ s srt~ral
                                                                  workers, plus p a d s of
        t h r intot-n-rcdir~tr t r . ~ t urrfr:rrd L a ahwe, a* far aa they a r e rural.
                             ~            m


'r'1IE. INCONGRUENT: Gruupa with s t r o n ~  internal &l;du@inonngmencea, Thcy
                                       status to qualify fnr rn~mbrrship thia gt-u-r,clp.
              middle or uppt?.rc l a a ~
          hatme                                                        ni



                  with a scale where 600 i8 tho highest d u e
PRESTIGE: Pre~aared                                                               far the society.


I KTENRTT IOF C M&iORG22101XATIOh': Amount, iatcnsil y and salWity of direct
           '
        claas arganixzkinn (snaiabs trade unions, business Eraups, pmfkasinnal
        assac5akiinns).

FEEZIYG OF RE TATWE DEPRTVATIQN: It. has t o be consldewd via rn via a h i g h e r
                    which the actor compnres himself. B mzy Iwt a ior~igtigroup.
      group ~ r ~ i t b

I'EE LING 01; ICUJCIYIKG RR LATIYE PRNILRGES: Cansidered uis a v i s an inferior
       RrtlUp i b j L h which the actnr ;~cPually cm-qares himself. It can ho an ; I . F ~ ouf ~
       Ihe same area, lor ui andher area of the sKmn country, n r a carnplrlx corn-
       pound i m q c . I1 could be a f o r e i ~ n c f o r , this dncs not seem to 1)e ~ ' p r ? ,
                                                 ~         but
        likrly.

T'EAR   OF a W I N G R E WTIVT< PRWfLEGRS: EL:                 must be s fesr o I sucMen and rarlic-
        al or vialent IVRS.
OPP(3SI"PXON TO STATUS QUO: mensfiy nf artt,rg~wisrn o the ddominnd mtrrmctore
                                                             t
        of power and privilege. B d w s not w e d to be an opposit Ion wainst the
        govarnmcmt, because! onen a pnpulsr c:ovcrttmcM is. 1n power, m tall. NB       d
        ~uppdera                             the remaiairkg social d i s t r i h t l o n of pn%Fr.
                   arc intenally ~ g a i a e t



EMCITIOINAL~SM: Tendency to react emdiortaliy m impitbl~ely sltu~ltions
                                               d           h
      where expression of aggression is dcrnand~!.

NATTOXALIGM: Either iderrloglcal o r p~ycholagical,whichever higher,

II3EOiXGfCA L SEM"STW6TY: Pranecupatisn with idecllaaicnl mattera. R cnmes
       close t o the srnRe i which Lipset uses it In JJnionLkmocracw-, Ft probably
                            n
       ha^ a greater snlphasis on idrolo~ical,3nci less on pol~cica,thwgh.

ACCEFTANCF: O F T H E RU LRS OF THE GAME: Does not inbVolrrc acce@lng all the
     dornfnmi ~ralues thp society, nor i it incornpdfib with oppositjon. I n
                       of                     s
     tho latter rrase, it will spell a -'loyal oppw;rltionN.

nlIOBILI3;ATTLlN: R~rmk~agc with tmdlticpn, and mdad with mass! media and other
        rnt                  lvrr nr
                  ornrnur~iral     r              aapirntions. Ii part I t @an he
                                                                r
        rnt       by the cssn~umplb               "forbiddenh articles, vating,
                        ~
        mRna m r m rr ~ h E ' ~ B V I O U T .


30C4A1, MOBTLTTY: A measurc averaging inter and Intpageneaatiolnal d d a , ntrd
        expcrimccred aa wcll as expemablc- rnobilfty.

PARTIC1PL4TIONIN A8SOCL4TIUFFS: Intensity md strength of participation frc mil
                                                   i
                                                   n
     types of rwlubary R S R C J C ~ B ~ ~ Olncludip~
                                             ~B,     class nrganlzations. The index
      mu& cornpx~ncl    j[Rtensity of padicipation L any given ~ ~ ~ a c i a t i o n ,
                                                     n                           nunurnbar
                                                            and pltrccatagt? of the mcm_
      of as~ociatiElans a which thp indiviclual b p l n ~ s ,
                       t
      bcrs o t h e collrctive actor t h d belong tn assclciaiions.
            f




Note:   A complete bfhliqraphy, with references t the h ~ ' p o t h ~ ~ e s
                                                    o                 mentioned in
        the text, ~111: given in t h fiml draft of this p a p r .
                      bn              ~

				
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