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Chapter 10 _amp; Ch11 Section 2 Age Of Exploration _amp; Scientific


									      Age Of Exploration &
Scientific Revolution Study Guide

Please define each term & answer each question,
then study for your test on Thursday, October 27th.
1) astronomy
The study of the planets, stars, & other
 heavenly bodies. The sailors used
 astronomy to navigate the seas.
2) compass
Instrument that has a magnetic needle that
  always points north.
3) caravel
Sailing vessel better suited for rough seas &
  long voyages, because it was faster &
  easier to handle
4) astrolabe
Instrument that measures the angle of the
  stars; used to find latitude
5) circumnavigate
To sail completely around the world
6) Imperialism
A practice of a country controlling the
 government & economy of another
7) gravity
The force that causes objects to be pulled
 toward the center of the earth;
 discovered by Isaac Newton in 1675
 when an apple hit him on the head & he
 said, “I got it!”
8) telescope
An instrument that makes faraway objects
 appear closer; invented by the Dutch.
9) Geocentric theory
The theory that the earth is the center of
 the universe & that the planets, the sun, &
 the stars move around the earth.
10) Heliocentric theory
Theory based on Copernicus’s
 observations that all planets move around
 the sun
1) Marco Polo
Italian merchant
Traveled to China from Venice
Lived in the court of Kublai Khan
He wrote a book about China, rocks that
  would not burn, & mountains that birds
  could not fly over.
2) Kublai Khan
About 1215-1294
Ruler of the Mongol Empire 1260-1294
Served by Marco Polo
3) Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal
Founded a school for sailors in 1418
4) Bartholomeu Dias
About 1450-1500
First European to sail around the tip of
5) Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer
Sailed around Africa to India & back to
  Portugal again
Voyages 1497-1499
6) Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer
1492 – Arrived in the Americas
4 voyages
7) Copernicus
Polish astronomer
Developed the heliocentric theory
8) Galileo
Italian scientist
Proved the heliocentric theory was correct
Built own telescope- image 30 times closer
  & 1000 times larger
9) Isaac Newton
Discovered the Law of Gravity
Found final proof of heliocentric theory
10) Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer
Sailed from Spain to find a western route to India
Circumnavigated the world (1519-1522)
Proved the world was round
Proved Columbus did not land in Asia
1) Name 3 results of Marco Polo’s
journey to China?
Increased interests in:
1) Exploration
2) Foreign trade
3) Distant cultures
2) Who was the first European to sail
around the southern tip of Africa?
Bartholomeu Dias
3) Why did Europeans begin to search for a direct sea
route to India & countries to the Far East?

1)   To obtain spices & precious metals
2)   To spread Christianity
3)   land
4) What 3 things helped European explorers in their
search for new sea routes to India & the Far East?
  1)   More accurate maps & knowledge of astronomy
  2)   Better ships like the caravel
  3)   Improved navigational instruments like
       the telescope , compass, & astrolabe.
5) What were some of the problems that
European explorers faced on their voyages
of discovery?

1)   Storms
2)   Scurvy
3)   Spoiled food & water
4)   Starvation
6) How long did it take Magellan’s ship
to sail around the world?
What did his voyage prove?
1)   3 years
2)   That the earth is round & Columbus
     did not land in Asia, but the Americas.
7) Why do you think Queen Isabella agreed to support
Columbus after others had turned him down? How
many voyages did he take to what he thought was Asia,
but was really the Americas?

1)   She thought that finding a new route
     to Asia would make Spain richer
2)   4 voyages
8) What are 3 bodies of water named
after European explorers?
1)   Strait of Magellan
2)   Frobisher Bay
3)   Hudson River
9) What did the European voyages in
search of the northwest passage to the
Far East accomplish?

Claims in the Americas for the countries of
 England, France, Spain, & the Netherlands.
10) How did the work of Galileo &
Newton affect the ideas of Copernicus?
1)   Galileo’s work with the telescope
     proved Copernicus’s theories to be
2)   Newton’s Law of gravity helped
     reinforce this sun centered theory.
Age of Exploration Ideas to remember:
Marco Polo’s stories of his voyage to China
excited all of Europe. They could not imagine
that Marco Polo really had traveled to a land
with “mountains higher than birds could fly”
and a land that had “black stones that would burn.”
What could Marco Polo possibly be describing?
Europeans did not know about the incredible
Himalayas or about burning coal. Most
Europeans had not traveled beyond their
hometowns. Marco Polo’s exciting stories helped
to make people interested in the unknown lands.
As the stories were told, people dreamed of
exploring such lands.
Age of Exploration Ideas to remember:
After Marco Polo’s death, Europeans began to reach out to other
parts of the world. Many European countries established trading
relationships with faraway countries in Asia and Africa. As
commerce grew, people began to enjoy exotic goods. From the
Indies, or lands of south Asia, came spices, silks, fine cottons,
precious stones, tea, costly woods, and many other goods.
Europeans found out that Africa was rich in precious stones, ivory,
and gold. The routes over which these goods were carried were
long and difficult. Land routes were over deserts and mountains, and
goods shipped from the Indies by sea were reloaded in ports in the
Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. These
products were not only carried great distances, but were handled by
many people. No wonder the products were costly by the time they
arrived in Europe. It is easy to see why Europeans wanted to find a
cheaper way to transport goods from the Indies.
Age of Exploration Ideas to Remember:
Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal was determined to
find a better and cheaper route. He believed there was
an all-water route from Europe to the Indies. He believed
it was possible for ships to travel south along the coast of
Africa, around the tip of Africa, around the southern tip of
Africa, and into the Indian Ocean all the way to the Indies.
To help achieve his goal, Henry the Navigator founded a
school for sailors in 1418. The best maps of the time
were gathered together. Sailors studied geography and
astronomy. Important new landmarks in technology were
used and developed at Prince Henry’s school. One was
how to use sailing instruments, such as the compass, that
the Portuguese had learned from the Arabs. Another was
the creation of the caravel. The caravel was a sailing
vessel better suited for rough seas and long voyages.
The astrolabe was also used to determine the angle of
the stars for determine latitude.
Age of Exploration Ideas to Remember
Bartholomeu Dias sailed from Portugal to the southernmost tip of
Africa calling it the “Cape of Storms.” It was later renamed the
“Cape of Good Hope” when Vasco da Gama sailed into the port of
Calicut, India 10 years later. Five years before Da Gama’s voyage,
an Italian seaman named Christopher Columbus began his first of
four voyages from Spain in 1492. Columbus thought he could be
the first to reach the Indies to the Far East, because he knew the
world was round and he thought his route was shorter. The
Portuguese, Columbus believed, had been wasting their time trying
to reach India going around Africa. However, in 1502, he wrote, “I
have come to believe that this is a mighty continent which was
before unknown.” Although Columbus was the first to reach the
Americas, it was named after Florentine geographer Amerigo
Vespucci. In 1504, Vespucci was quoted as saying that the lands
across the ocean made up a new continent, “which it is proper to
call the new world.” Martin Waldseemuller, a German publisher,
was so taken with this remark that in 1507, he issued a world map
that labeled the southern land “America.”
Ideas to Remember About Scientific Revolution
In 1535, Copernicus had a unique and dangerous idea. He believed
that the universe was sun-centered and that the earth, planets, and
stars revolved around the sun. This theory was called the
Heliocentric Theory. However, during the 1500s, scientists believed
that the universe was earth-centered. This theory is called the
Geocentric Theory. According to the Geocentric Theory: seven
planets-the moon, the sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn, Revolve around the Earth. This is what the ancient Greeks
believed and the Christian Church believed too. It took more than
100 years after Copernicus death for Galileo to prove the Sun-
Centered Heliocentric Theory to be correct. Galileo (1564-1642)
used the Dutch invention, the telescope, an instrument that makes
faraway objects appear closer, & proved the Heliocentric Theory to
be true. His book in the 1620’s shocked the church & angered the
pope. He also discovered craters on the moon, which disproved the
medieval beliefs in the heavens being smooth & perfectly shaped.
He discovered moons circling around Jupiter that challenged the
view that all heavenly bodies moved around earth. He also used the
Scientific Method to study the laws of motion. He found that all light
objects fall at the same speed as heavy objects.
Ideas to Remember About Scientific Revolution
On Christmas Day in 1642, the year Galileo died, Isaac Newton was
born. During his lifetime, this English mathematician and scientist
would offer the final proof that the planets revolve around the sun.
According to legend, Newton found his answer when he was sitting
beneath an apple tree in 1675. Suddenly, an apple fell from a high
branch and bounced off his head. Newton concluded that there was
a force called gravity at work. Gravity is a force that causes objects
to be pulled toward the center of the earth, like the apple was pulled
toward the ground. In 1687, Newton published his belief that the “law
of gravity” causes the planets to circle the sun in a work known as the
Principia. He wrote, “If I have been able to see farther than others, it
is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Newton and
other Scientists of his time also developed what is now called the
“scientific method.” This method of thinking holds that no idea should
be accepted as true unless it is thoroughly tested. These scientists
questioned old ideas and demanded proof, and if they could not be
proven then they looked for new theories that could be proven. This
gave birth to what we know as modern science that if it can’t be
proven true through a test, then you should come up with a new
hypothesis to test to be true.
European Historical Understandings
SS6H6 - The student will analyze the impact of European
exploration & colonization on various world regions.
a. Identify the causes of European exploration & colonization:
include religion, natural resources, a market for goods, & the
contribution of Prince Henry the Navigator.

SS6H6 - The student will analyze the Impact of European
exploration & colonization on various world regions.
b. Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, & France in
Asia, Africa, & the America.

Read & Answer questions 400-405 on page 156 - 159 in your
blue Georgia CRCT Test Prep 6th Grade Social Studies textbook
to check your understanding of the content.

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