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Age Of Exploration & Scientific Revolution Study Guide Please define each term & answer each question, then study for your test on Thursday, October 27th. 1) astronomy The study of the planets, stars, & other heavenly bodies. The sailors used astronomy to navigate the seas. 2) compass Instrument that has a magnetic needle that always points north. 3) caravel Sailing vessel better suited for rough seas & long voyages, because it was faster & easier to handle 4) astrolabe Instrument that measures the angle of the stars; used to find latitude 5) circumnavigate To sail completely around the world 6) Imperialism A practice of a country controlling the government & economy of another country 7) gravity The force that causes objects to be pulled toward the center of the earth; discovered by Isaac Newton in 1675 when an apple hit him on the head & he said, “I got it!” 8) telescope An instrument that makes faraway objects appear closer; invented by the Dutch. 9) Geocentric theory The theory that the earth is the center of the universe & that the planets, the sun, & the stars move around the earth. 10) Heliocentric theory Theory based on Copernicus’s observations that all planets move around the sun 1) Marco Polo 1254-1324 Italian merchant Traveled to China from Venice Lived in the court of Kublai Khan He wrote a book about China, rocks that would not burn, & mountains that birds could not fly over. 2) Kublai Khan About 1215-1294 Ruler of the Mongol Empire 1260-1294 Served by Marco Polo 3) Henry the Navigator 1394-1460 Prince of Portugal Founded a school for sailors in 1418 4) Bartholomeu Dias About 1450-1500 First European to sail around the tip of Africa 5) Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer Sailed around Africa to India & back to Portugal again Voyages 1497-1499 6) Christopher Columbus 1446-1506 Italian explorer 1492 – Arrived in the Americas 4 voyages 7) Copernicus 1473-1543 Polish astronomer Developed the heliocentric theory 8) Galileo 1563-1642 Italian scientist Proved the heliocentric theory was correct Built own telescope- image 30 times closer & 1000 times larger 9) Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Englishman Discovered the Law of Gravity Found final proof of heliocentric theory 10) Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese explorer Sailed from Spain to find a western route to India Circumnavigated the world (1519-1522) Proved the world was round Proved Columbus did not land in Asia 1) Name 3 results of Marco Polo’s journey to China? Increased interests in: 1) Exploration 2) Foreign trade 3) Distant cultures 2) Who was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa? Bartholomeu Dias 3) Why did Europeans begin to search for a direct sea route to India & countries to the Far East? 1) To obtain spices & precious metals 2) To spread Christianity 3) land 4) What 3 things helped European explorers in their search for new sea routes to India & the Far East? 1) More accurate maps & knowledge of astronomy 2) Better ships like the caravel 3) Improved navigational instruments like the telescope , compass, & astrolabe. 5) What were some of the problems that European explorers faced on their voyages of discovery? 1) Storms 2) Scurvy 3) Spoiled food & water 4) Starvation 6) How long did it take Magellan’s ship to sail around the world? What did his voyage prove? 1) 3 years 2) That the earth is round & Columbus did not land in Asia, but the Americas. 7) Why do you think Queen Isabella agreed to support Columbus after others had turned him down? How many voyages did he take to what he thought was Asia, but was really the Americas? 1) She thought that finding a new route to Asia would make Spain richer 2) 4 voyages 8) What are 3 bodies of water named after European explorers? 1) Strait of Magellan 2) Frobisher Bay 3) Hudson River 9) What did the European voyages in search of the northwest passage to the Far East accomplish? Claims in the Americas for the countries of England, France, Spain, & the Netherlands. 10) How did the work of Galileo & Newton affect the ideas of Copernicus? 1) Galileo’s work with the telescope proved Copernicus’s theories to be true. 2) Newton’s Law of gravity helped reinforce this sun centered theory. Age of Exploration Ideas to remember: Marco Polo’s stories of his voyage to China excited all of Europe. They could not imagine that Marco Polo really had traveled to a land with “mountains higher than birds could fly” and a land that had “black stones that would burn.” What could Marco Polo possibly be describing? Europeans did not know about the incredible Himalayas or about burning coal. Most Europeans had not traveled beyond their hometowns. Marco Polo’s exciting stories helped to make people interested in the unknown lands. As the stories were told, people dreamed of exploring such lands. Age of Exploration Ideas to remember: After Marco Polo’s death, Europeans began to reach out to other parts of the world. Many European countries established trading relationships with faraway countries in Asia and Africa. As commerce grew, people began to enjoy exotic goods. From the Indies, or lands of south Asia, came spices, silks, fine cottons, precious stones, tea, costly woods, and many other goods. Europeans found out that Africa was rich in precious stones, ivory, and gold. The routes over which these goods were carried were long and difficult. Land routes were over deserts and mountains, and goods shipped from the Indies by sea were reloaded in ports in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. These products were not only carried great distances, but were handled by many people. No wonder the products were costly by the time they arrived in Europe. It is easy to see why Europeans wanted to find a cheaper way to transport goods from the Indies. Age of Exploration Ideas to Remember: Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal was determined to find a better and cheaper route. He believed there was an all-water route from Europe to the Indies. He believed it was possible for ships to travel south along the coast of Africa, around the tip of Africa, around the southern tip of Africa, and into the Indian Ocean all the way to the Indies. To help achieve his goal, Henry the Navigator founded a school for sailors in 1418. The best maps of the time were gathered together. Sailors studied geography and astronomy. Important new landmarks in technology were used and developed at Prince Henry’s school. One was how to use sailing instruments, such as the compass, that the Portuguese had learned from the Arabs. Another was the creation of the caravel. The caravel was a sailing vessel better suited for rough seas and long voyages. The astrolabe was also used to determine the angle of the stars for determine latitude. Age of Exploration Ideas to Remember Bartholomeu Dias sailed from Portugal to the southernmost tip of Africa calling it the “Cape of Storms.” It was later renamed the “Cape of Good Hope” when Vasco da Gama sailed into the port of Calicut, India 10 years later. Five years before Da Gama’s voyage, an Italian seaman named Christopher Columbus began his first of four voyages from Spain in 1492. Columbus thought he could be the first to reach the Indies to the Far East, because he knew the world was round and he thought his route was shorter. The Portuguese, Columbus believed, had been wasting their time trying to reach India going around Africa. However, in 1502, he wrote, “I have come to believe that this is a mighty continent which was before unknown.” Although Columbus was the first to reach the Americas, it was named after Florentine geographer Amerigo Vespucci. In 1504, Vespucci was quoted as saying that the lands across the ocean made up a new continent, “which it is proper to call the new world.” Martin Waldseemuller, a German publisher, was so taken with this remark that in 1507, he issued a world map that labeled the southern land “America.” Ideas to Remember About Scientific Revolution In 1535, Copernicus had a unique and dangerous idea. He believed that the universe was sun-centered and that the earth, planets, and stars revolved around the sun. This theory was called the Heliocentric Theory. However, during the 1500s, scientists believed that the universe was earth-centered. This theory is called the Geocentric Theory. According to the Geocentric Theory: seven planets-the moon, the sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, Revolve around the Earth. This is what the ancient Greeks believed and the Christian Church believed too. It took more than 100 years after Copernicus death for Galileo to prove the Sun- Centered Heliocentric Theory to be correct. Galileo (1564-1642) used the Dutch invention, the telescope, an instrument that makes faraway objects appear closer, & proved the Heliocentric Theory to be true. His book in the 1620’s shocked the church & angered the pope. He also discovered craters on the moon, which disproved the medieval beliefs in the heavens being smooth & perfectly shaped. He discovered moons circling around Jupiter that challenged the view that all heavenly bodies moved around earth. He also used the Scientific Method to study the laws of motion. He found that all light objects fall at the same speed as heavy objects. Ideas to Remember About Scientific Revolution On Christmas Day in 1642, the year Galileo died, Isaac Newton was born. During his lifetime, this English mathematician and scientist would offer the final proof that the planets revolve around the sun. According to legend, Newton found his answer when he was sitting beneath an apple tree in 1675. Suddenly, an apple fell from a high branch and bounced off his head. Newton concluded that there was a force called gravity at work. Gravity is a force that causes objects to be pulled toward the center of the earth, like the apple was pulled toward the ground. In 1687, Newton published his belief that the “law of gravity” causes the planets to circle the sun in a work known as the Principia. He wrote, “If I have been able to see farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Newton and other Scientists of his time also developed what is now called the “scientific method.” This method of thinking holds that no idea should be accepted as true unless it is thoroughly tested. These scientists questioned old ideas and demanded proof, and if they could not be proven then they looked for new theories that could be proven. This gave birth to what we know as modern science that if it can’t be proven true through a test, then you should come up with a new hypothesis to test to be true. European Historical Understandings SS6H6 - The student will analyze the impact of European exploration & colonization on various world regions. a. Identify the causes of European exploration & colonization: include religion, natural resources, a market for goods, & the contribution of Prince Henry the Navigator. SS6H6 - The student will analyze the Impact of European exploration & colonization on various world regions. b. Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, & France in Asia, Africa, & the America. Read & Answer questions 400-405 on page 156 - 159 in your blue Georgia CRCT Test Prep 6th Grade Social Studies textbook to check your understanding of the content.
"Chapter 10 _amp; Ch11 Section 2 Age Of Exploration _amp; Scientific "