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					Urbanization and City Patterns

        Chapter 10 and 11
  (Note: This covers 2 chapters.)
  (I am testing both chapters.)
                 Urban Center Definitions
• Urbanization: (increase in) the number and percentage of
  people living un urban settlements. (Urbanized Population)
   – Driving factors:
       • Jobs
       • Services
       • Convenience/Proximity (distance and access to services)
• Primate City: a large city, dominating the country
   – Usually more than twice the next largest city
       • Often, dominant economic, political and cultural center
       • Jobs, services, convenience  migration
       • These are often megacities, and may dominate regions.
          Where have urban areas grown?
• 3% urban in 1800,
• now 50%+ and growing

• Change in extent, density, heterogeneity
• MDCs:
   – Ag. Mfg. Services,
   – Urbanization is effectively completed.
   – London, Tokyo, New York City, Los Angeles
• LDCs:
   – Migration from country in search of jobs,
   – Local population growth often outstrips job availability.
   – Delhi, Jakarta, Mexico City, Mumbai (Bombay).
   Historical growth: the rise of cities
• Models:
  – Technical (ex: Thebes-Nile River, Mesopotamia)
     • Irrigation: make canals, surplus crops drive pop. growth
  – Religious (ex: Aztecs)
     • Religious activities bring people together.
  – Political (ex: London)
  – Trade (Silk Road cities)
  – War (every city with a fort, shield wall or barrier:
    Paris,)
  – Multiple factors:
     • Technology, religion, politics, war, agriculture, and trade
                 City Hearths:
• Mesoamerica:
  – Aztec, Toltec Empires
• Andes
  – Incan Empire
• Nile Valley
  – Pharohic Dynasties
• Tigris-Euphrates Rivers:
  – Mesopotamia
• Huang Ho River Valley:
  – Han Chinese, many successive dynastic cycles
• Indus Valley
              Cities and Religion
• Many rulers used religion to maintain power.
• Belief systems shaped cities and architecture.
  – Cosmomagical (Cosmological) Cities:
     • Sacred symbolic center, aka Axis Mundi
        – Near seat of power and granary
           » Forbidden City in present Beijing
           » Imperial Palaces in Kyoto, Nara
           » Mayan city temples
     • Orientation toward the 4 cardinal directions
     • City layout reflecting cosmologial form
        – Sometimes architectural forms, such as solar observatories
        – Align the world to mirror aspects of heaven or the universe
             City Formation
• Spontaneous
  – Free time  specialization
  – Inventions  arts and crafts, trade, storage
  – Square for trade, wall for defense, temple for
    prayer, fort for powerful…
• Learned traits from other city patterns
  – Good ideas are copied.
     • Chang-an  Nara, Kyoto, Roman colonies, etc.
     • Figure 10.7, Map, p. 283
              Cities and globalization
• Global cities: global economy control centers.
  – Ex: London, NY City, Tokyo
• Globalizing cities: are modified by globalizing
  economies and cultures
  – Ex: any city not politically isolated from the world.
     • Even Timbuktu has had some globalizing influences.
         – The degree of globalization depends on accessibility and desire.
     Urban Ecology: Location
• Trade
  – Natural trade advantages (site and situation)
• Defense
  – Natural barriers to attack (site and situation)
• Food Supply
  – e.g. city states: city + controlled countryside
     • hinterland
• Risks
  – e.g. floods, quakes, hurricanes
         Defense advantages
• Site: characteristics of a place
  – Bluffs, rivers, islands, protected harbors, mesas,
    etc.
  – Local barriers of a city.
• Situation: relative location of locations
  – Far from enemy, intervening marshes,
    mountains, seas, etc.
     • Barriers (outside the city site) between cities or states
     • Ex: marshes and distance from Germany and Moscow
                Trade: Site and situation
• Trade sites:
   – Route branches, portages, end of navigable rivers, fords,
     river mouths, bays, estuaries, etc.
• Trade situations:
   – Closer to other cities
      • Berlin, Paris, London, Milan, etc.
   – Along trade routes
      • Singapore, Detroit, Venice (historical), Los Angeles
   – Access to nearby friendly ports
      • Mexico City, Beijing
   – Access to resources or production regions (agriculture/mfg.)
      • Hong Kong, New Orleans, Chicago
   Central Place Theory: Threshold and Range




• Threshold: minimum population required to survive.
• Range: maximum distance people travel for a service.

http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/APHG/Unit%206/
   urbannotes_files/image002.jpg
                   Central Place Theory
• All things being equal, go
  to closest service.
• Over time, patterns
  become hexagonal as
  competition increases.
   – Ex: Europe (night image)
• In grid patterns, start
  seeing grid central city
  patterns, too.
   – Ex: Midwest
              Globalizing City Problems
• Squatter settlements
   – Insufficient income  illegal housing, with poor/no services
• Informal sectors
   – All cities have them, all economies have them, all countries have them.
• Apartheid (There is a city model for this in the text.)
   – Isolation of undesired ethnicities in all aspects of life
• Central planned economy cities
   – Economic inefficiencies are costly, and quality is lower.
   – They may be as environmentally problematic as hyper-capitalist cities.
     (Central planning can miss local problems.)
• Hyper-capitalist cities (e.g. transition from communist)
   –   Business growth can result in illegally appropriated land.
   –   Illegal pollution is a larger problem.
   –   Laws may be less strictly enforced, and can be circumvented.
   –   Not limited to post-communist cities… See Singapore.
    Chapter 11: Inside the City
• Look at this as the other half of a single topic.
• Differences between cities are also found as
  differences within cities.
   – Patterns often repeat at different scales.
                  Models of urban structure
1.       Concentric Zone: Concentric rings: CBD, transition zone,
         independent worker houses, better houses, commuter zone.
     •     Like VonThunen’s concentric ring agricultural model
2.  Sector: initial land use patterns expand in wedges from the
    center. (think of this as being like wedges of different pizzas.)
3. Multiple Nuclei: Initial nuclei form around basic activities,
    and land uses are attracted to those nuclei of development.
   – Nuclei: CBD, harbor, university, airport, park, railroad
      yards, manufacturing, military bases, etc.
4. Peripheral Model: Ring cities and a ring road (next page)
                  4. Peripheral Model
• urban area with inner city
  and suburbs connected by
  a ring road
• suburbs become edge
  cities.
• Examples:
   – Washington DC
   – Los Angeles CA
• (Add the beltway!)
                       SJ Map
•   Colonial mission
•   Circles
•   Sectors
•   Nuclei
•   (Google Earth)
         Inner cities: distinctive problems
• Deterioration and Blight (housing & services):
   – Housing ages.
   – Rent < maintenance skip it.
   – Rent < bills, etc  abandon / raze / sell
• Urban renewal (& public, private, or both types of housing):
   – Demolition of old housing dislocates people,
   – High rises can provide poor environments if not careful.
• Renovation ( & gentrification):
   – Pay for renewal,
   – gentrification dislocates lower classes, usually affecting
     ethnicities.
               Land use influences

• Filtering: (a housing use/reuse pattern): Large houses
  subdivided, age, occupied by successive immigrant
  waves.
• Red-Lining: (illegal denial of credit): drawing lines on a
  map to identify areas in which loans will not be given.
• Public housing: units reserved for low income
  households, who pay reduced rates (e.g. 30% of their
  income) for rent.
                 Underclass:


• (inner city text reference, only there?)
• peoples trapped in an unending cycle of
  economic and social problems.
• Why?
                       Culture of poverty:
• Single Parents:
   – 2/3 of children by unwed mothers, 90% one parent, inadequate child
     care, deadbeat dads
• Poor Education:
   – Lack of motivation, less parental support, school drug use, etc.  low
     academic success
• High Crime Rate:
   – drug use, gang violence over drug turf, more visible drug distribution than
     in suburbs
• Segregation:
   – (chain migration), separation in poor regions by recent immigrants, lower
     classes, some ethnicities
• Economics:
   – insufficient local taxation  poorer services, (schools, parks, transit,
     refuse, libraries, etc.)
                Partial Solutions:

• Renovation (ex: urban renewal projects)
   – Problems
   – Benefits
• Annexation
   – Problems
   – Benefits
   – (who wins, who loses?)
                 Suburbs

• The Great American Dream (days gone by…)
• (Alternatively, the Great Escape)
  –   House
  –   Yard
  –   Garage
  –   Shopping
  –   Close Satellite workplace (Services and Industry)
                        Edge cities
• Peripheral residences, gas station, & other services develop
  over time.
   – Established shopping centers and malls,
   – Then light manufacturing centers,
• Often developed around nuclei of attraction.
• These become edge cities.
• Alternate explanation
   – (extension of central place theory)
   – original communities grow with increasing pop. density.
              Density gradient
• Change in density with distance
• Once high, with CBD and nearby regions
  densely populated.
• Decay and urban blight  suburban flight, 
  smaller cities farther out
                Suburban Segregation
Segregation by income…
• Upper & middle class housing, separated, zone no apartments,
  min. acreage (more sale profit)
• Jobs are often suburban, but the poor workforce is often urban.
  Need a transportation match for increased employment.
                   Suburban Sprawl
• Progressive spread of development over the landscape. (Why?)
   – Home ownership, lifestyle, Fed. auto subsidies, &
• Costs:
   – Inefficient costly development, less farmland, less truck
     farming, patchwork development, higher utility costs, &.
• Effects:
   – Increased dependence on transportation.
   – If inadequate, means, then less travel.
   – Lower class isolation.
                        Transportation

•   Loss of rail transit,
•   partial recovery,
•   90% interstate automobile subsidies,
•   ¼ of land  transit and parking, congested
•   Public transport:
     – Cheaper, less polluting, more energy efficient (if there are
       MANY commuters per bus). Separate rail services avoid
       delays of rush hour.
     – Under-funded in the US compared to the EU.
     – Arguably cheaper than building more roads.
         • Less pollution (tie to resources in previous chapters.)
        Government Fragmentation:

• Services in an urban area often cross multiple municipal
  boundaries,
   – e.g. transit, water, e-, schools.
• Costs are higher, when handled separately, and confusion
  abounds.
   – Some cities cooperate, forming combined governments.
   – This leads to…
   Inter-governmental Cooperation Approaches
• Metropolitan Governments: coordination of service provision
  – Councils of Government:
      • cooperative agency with local government reps, often used for overall
        planning.
   – Federations:
      • two tiered structure, higher level control over taxation, assessment,
        and borrowing, local service responsibility
   – Consolidations:
      • City and county governments work together, sometimes formally
        separate, sometimes unified.
   – This cooperation also facilitates better growth strategies…
                         Smart Growth:
• (Planning concept)
• Legislation and regulation with limiting suburban sprawl, and
  preserving (open space, e.g.) farmland
   – reduce infrastructure costs,
• Encourages
   – Compact development,
   – Infill
   – possibly greenbelts
   – limits annexation / development outside the city limits
   – (other means and outcomes)
             Questions?
• (Pause, query, wait…)
    (Time permitting) Tie back to:
•   Population
•   Migration
•   Cultures
•   Ethnicities
•   Manufacturing
•   Services
•   Language
•   Site and Situation
         Tie back: Migration
• Urban to suburban for quality of life, usually
  middle to upper middle class.
• Near CBD: If poor transportation or high
  costs, migrate closer to work, prices
  permitting
• Chain Migration  ethnicity concentrations

				
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posted:8/24/2012
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