Docstoc

1 - Moreland City Council

Document Sample
1 - Moreland City Council Powered By Docstoc
					   Strategic Directions
Moreland Planning Scheme Review 2010


                Moreland City Council

                         Final Report

                           April 2010
                         This report has been prepared for:

                               Moreland City Council




                             This report has been prepared by:
                       SGS Economics and Planning Pty Ltd
                                              ACN 007 437 729


                                    Level 5 171 Latrobe Street
                                         MELBOURNE VIC 3000


                                           P: + 61 3 8616 0331
                                           F: + 61 3 8616 0332


                                      E: sgsvic@sgsep.com.au
                                      W:    www.sgsep.com.au



Offices in Brisbane, Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney




                                             In association with




                             O’Neil Pollock & Associates Pty Ltd
                                                 89 Eagles Road
                                            HARCOURT VIC 3453
                                                                                            Table of Contents


1      I NTR O D U CT IO N ................................ ................................ .... 3

1.1    Background ................................................................................................................ 3
1.2    Purpose ...................................................................................................................... 3
1.3    Structure .................................................................................................................... 4
1.4    Sources of Information ................................................................................................. 4


2      PO L I CY CO NT E XT ................................ ................................ .. 5

3      C ASE ST U DI ES ................................ ................................ ...... 9

3.1    Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change .......................................................... 10
       3.1.1       Overview ..................................................................................................... 10
       3.1.2       Case Study: Freiburg, Germany ..................................................................... 12
       3.1.3       Case Study: Toronto Green Roof By-law .......................................................... 16
       3.1.4       Implementation Options ................................................................................ 21
3.2    Sustainable Transport ................................................................................................ 26
       3.2.1       Overview ..................................................................................................... 26
       3.2.2       Case Study: Copenhagen Cycling Policy .......................................................... 27
       3.2.3       Case Study: Shared Parking in Portland, USA .................................................. 30
       3.2.4       Implementation Options ................................................................................ 33
3.3    Development Trends .................................................................................................. 37
       3.3.1       Overview ..................................................................................................... 37
       3.3.2       Case Study: Vancouver Eco-density Project ..................................................... 38
       3.3.3       Case Study: City of Burnside Ageing Strategy .................................................. 41
       3.3.4       Implementation Options ................................................................................ 42
3.4    Urban Regeneration ................................................................................................... 45
       3.4.1       Overview ..................................................................................................... 45
       3.4.2       Case Study: Transit Oriented Regeneration – Oakland, California ....................... 46
       3.4.3       Case Study: New York City Remediation Programs ........................................... 48
       3.4.4       Implementation Options ................................................................................ 51
3.5    Housing .................................................................................................................... 54
       3.5.1       Overview ..................................................................................................... 54
       3.5.2       Case Study: Greater London Authority Housing Strategy ................................... 55
       3.5.3       Case Study: Housing Glasgow ........................................................................ 58
       3.5.4       Implementation Options ................................................................................ 60


4      CO NC L US IO N S ................................ ................................ .... 64

5      AP PE N DI CE S ................................ ................................ ....... 67

Appendix 1 - Workshop and Council Considerations ................................................................ 67
Appendix 2 - Implementation of Specific Objectives ................................................................ 69
       Overview of the Victorian Planning Provisions ................................................................ 69
       Energy and Sustainability ........................................................................................... 72
       Building Standards .................................................................................................... 76



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc
                                                                                           Table of Contents

       Transport ................................................................................................................. 78
       Housing .................................................................................................................. 83
       Redevelopment ......................................................................................................... 86
       Incentives ................................................................................................................ 87


Figures
Figure 1 Climate Change Exposure and Infrastructure Sensitivity ............................................. 11
Figure 2 Green District of Vauban ......................................................................................... 13
Figure 3 Freiburg City Centre ............................................................................................... 15
Figure 4 Location of Toronto ................................................................................................ 16
Figure 5 Overview of the Green Roof Policy Making Process ..................................................... 17
Figure 6 Green Roof in Toronto ............................................................................................ 18
Figure 7 Green Roof Block System ........................................................................................ 19
Figure 8 Green Roof in Toronto ............................................................................................ 20
Figure 9 Copenhagen’s Bike Lanes ........................................................................................ 27
Figure 10 Bike Parking in Copenhagen .................................................................................. 29
Figure 11 Transport Mode Mix in Portland .............................................................................. 31
Figure 12 Central Oakland ................................................................................................... 46
Figure 13 NYC Brownfield Program ....................................................................................... 49
Figure 14 Brownfield Sites in New York State ......................................................................... 50
Figure 15 London Housing Development With Affordable Housing Mix ....................................... 56
Figure 16 GLA Policies and Actions ....................................................................................... 57
Figure 17 London Housing Conversion from Car Park to Housing .............................................. 58
Figure 18 Glasgow, with High Rise Community Housing .......................................................... 59
Figure 19 Structure of the Municipal Planning Scheme ............................................................ 69
Figure 20 Parking Precinct Plans and Parking Studies and Strategies ........................................ 80




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




1          INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background
Moreland City Council is a diverse municipality located in Melbourne’s inner-middle north.
Moreland’s historic context has helped to shape its character today. A significant factor includes
affordable housing which has allowed settlement by migrants from European and Middle Eastern
communities. This social, linguistic and cultural diversity has afforded Moreland many benefits,
many of which are visually evident in vibrant areas such as Sydney Road. Similarly, Moreland’s
industrial past now affords the area many strategic sites and a diverse range of lot sizes that allow
for a range of new housing development and employment uses to be provided, bringing a new
wave of population growth.


Moreland’s location and lifestyle advantages have prompted extensive change and renewal. While
manufacturing is still prominent, with gentrification Moreland’s workforce has become more diverse
and skilled. The built environment has also evolved to include inner city apartments as well as
heritage cottages and conventional single detached dwellings which still comprise the bulk of
Moreland’s housing stock.


These changes have meant that a number of strategic land use and development issues are
emerging. These include managing the shift of the built environment to higher densities, as well as
environmental and behavioural aspects such as greater public and sustainable transport use and
climate change resilience planning. Moreland City Council has already taken a forward approach to
these issues, incorporating sustainability objectives into its Council Plan 2009-2013 and through
the development of other strategies such as the Climate Action Plan 2007-2012 and the Moreland
Integrated Transport Strategy.



1.2        Purpose
The purpose of this project is to inform the review of the Moreland Planning Scheme. To that effect,
this project evaluates best practice national and international responses to key land use and
development issues such as:
       Environmental sustainability and climate change;
       Sustainable transport;
       Development trends;
       Urban regeneration; and
       Housing.


The applicability of these responses to Moreland in the context of the Victorian Planning Provisions
is also assessed. By looking to experience elsewhere, council can create a more effective and
robust policy framework to deliver a more sustainable future.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 3
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




P r oj e c t A i m s


The aim of this project is to provide:


       Ten best practice case studies assessing how key land use and development issues have
          been dealt with in other national and international local planning frameworks; and
       An analysis and recommended implementation approach for each of the five key issues.



1.3           Structure
This report is set out in the following manner:


Section 2              Briefly outlines Council’s policy context;


Section 3              Details emerging trends and case studies on the five themes and how these
                       have been addressed in other jurisdictions. It then provides an analysis of
                       approaches and considerations for Moreland within the context of the
                       Victorian Planning Provisions, as well as a synthesis of initiatives used
                       elsewhere that may be potential future options for Moreland to consider; and


Section 4              Makes conclusions on the way forward for Moreland




1.4           Sources of Information
Information in this report has been sourced from a range of materials as well as insights based on
developed case studies. Sources are noted throughout the paper.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 4
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




2           POLICY CONTEXT
This section provides a contextual overview of relevant policies in the City of Moreland. It aims to
set the scene for the case studies and implementation assessment.


The following documents were reviewed:
       Moreland Planning Scheme;
       Moreland City Council, Draft Review of the Moreland Planning Scheme, 2010;
       Moreland City Council, Council Plan 2009 – 2013, 2009;
       Moreland City Council, Mayors Speech 2009, 7 December 2009;
       Moreland City Council, Moreland Affordable Housing Strategy, 2006;
       DSE, Review of Planning Schemes General Practice Note, February 2006; and
       Moreland City Council, Review of the Moreland Municipal Strategic Statement 2004.


The review of key policy documents affecting future directions in Moreland found that
environmental sustainability and housing are important issues facing the City. Moreland City
Council’s Council Plan 2009-2013 includes strategic focus on areas such as facilitating housing to
meet the needs of the community, responding actively to climate change, and ensuring that land
use and development policies are appropriate for the long term. Moreland’s current Municipal
Strategic Statement (MSS) advocates for “an environmentally sustainable and liveable city, where
people can work and socialise locally”. Increasing gentrification and demographic shifts towards an
ageing population in Moreland has meant that affordable, appropriate and universal housing is
becoming a critical issue and this is reflected in existing documents.


The following sub-sections outline in more detail the content of each document.


Moreland Planni ng Scheme


The Moreland Planning Scheme sets out the state and local planning policy frameworks and
ordinances to be followed when making land use and development decisions in Moreland. At a state
level, it mandates seven principles to be followed by all Victorian municipalities, namely:
       Settlement – provide for the needs of existing and future communities through zoned and
        serviced land for a range of uses;
       Environment – contribute to the protection of the natural and cultural environment;
       Management of resources – assist in the conservation and wise use of natural resources;
       Infrastructure – planning for development of urban and community infrastructure;
       Economic well-being – support the economic well-being of communities and the state;
       Social needs – provide land to facilitate the development of community resources; and
       Regional co-operation – to manage issues that require co-ordination at a regional level.


At a local level, Moreland’s existing MSS seeks to implement Moreland’s objective to create “an
environmentally sustainable and liveable city, where people can work and socialise locally”. The
MSS sets out goals and key commitments of the Council Plan and annual Mayor’s speech, as well
as a community profile, key influences and strategic statements. The current MSS details four
objectives based on the previous Council Plan:




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 5
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




         Improving social conditions;
         Creating a sustainable employment base;
         Improving the built and natural environment; and
         Open, responsive and consultative governance.


At present, key influences and issues are noted under the following areas:
         Achieving sustainability;
         Demographic changes;
         Demand for housing;
         Ensuring community benefit from increased density development;
         The changing needs of industry;
         Changing pattern of transport;
         Enhancing environmental assets;
         Enhancing neighbourhood character;
         Reducing environmental impact; and
         Melbourne 2030.


M o r e l a n d C i t y C ou n c i l , D r a f t R e v i e w o f t he M or e l a nd P l a n ni n g S c he m e ,
2010


Moreland is currently reviewing its planning scheme in line with requirements under the Planning
and Environment Act 1987. This draft review provides information on major issues facing
Moreland; how the current MSS implements State Planning Policy (SPP); the strategic performance
of the scheme; strategic work completed since the last planning scheme review; and make
recommendations on further strategic work or tools to achieve the strategic objectives of the MSS.


The report details state and local initiatives since the last review and notes that relevant
recommendations need to be included as part of changes to the planning scheme.


This report will inform content in Section 5: Strategic Issues, as part of the planning scheme
review.


M o r e l a n d C i t y C ou n c i l , C o u n c i l P l a n 2 0 0 9 – 2 0 1 3 , 2 0 0 9


Moreland City Council’s Council Plan operates under the following purpose:
          Moreland City Council delivers good governance to achieve a more socially and
          environmentally just and sustainable city.


Its vision is that:
          Moreland City Council will partner the community to be a city that is lively, proud,
          celebrates its diversity and cares for and respects all of its citizens.
Its strategic focus areas are on a sustainable and just city, a proud city, a healthy and educated
community, and a responsive organisation. A number of strategic focus areas are identified in the
Council Plan, including:




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 6
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




        Collaborate with the community and respond actively to climate change;
        Improve transport and mobility;
        Effective use of our land use and development policies for outcomes appropriate to the long
         term needs of communities;
        Facilitate housing that meets the needs of the community;
        Engage the organisation and community to make Moreland a prouder and cleaner city;
        Foster greater community resilience; and
        Appropriately respond to the population health needs of people at all ages and stages.


M o r e l a n d C i t y C ou n c i l , M a y o r s S pe e c h 2 0 0 9 , 7 D e c e m be r 2 0 0 9


The 2009 Mayors Speech highlights that Moreland is in a strong position to move forward with a
balanced budget, a strong capital works program, land ownership and strong planning, particularly
in Coburg through The Coburg Initiative. It notes that council will continue to work towards
initiatives including advocating for investment in affordable housing; investigating inclusionary
zoning, supporting sustainable transport such as car sharing and cycling; creating quality a
environment and standard of living; encouraging universal/flexible housing design and building a
sustainable community.


M o r e l a n d C i t y C ou n c i l , M or e l a nd A f f or d a bl e H o usi n g S t r a t e g y , 2 0 0 6


The Moreland Affordable Housing Strategy addresses Moreland’s commitment to affordable housing
issues from a social justice perspective. It provides a methodology for identifying unmet housing
needs in Moreland and approaches to manage these.


Local housing issues identified include a decreasing supply of affordable housing options, increasing
housing stress for tenants and purchasers, and a lack of appropriate stock given growing single
person and ageing households.


The strategy identifies that Moreland will continue to act as a facilitator and advocate for affordable
housing initiatives. However, it notes that as a local government authority, its scope for influence
involves using its powers to influence planning and the state government, provide community
leadership and resourcing, looking for creative solutions for affordability and facilitate projects to
deliver housing and assist in catalysing other investment.


The Moreland Affordable Housing Strategy implementation framework is based around five goals:
        To increase the supply of affordable housing in Moreland;
        To increase the supply of appropriate housing in Moreland;
        To encourage innovation in affordable and appropriate housing;
        To cultivate a social justice approach to housing across the municipality; and
        To monitor and analyse current and future housing needs in Moreland.


Strategies and actions then set out the activities and tasks to realise and implement these goals.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 7
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Department           of    S u st a i n a b i l i t y   and     E nv i r o n m e nt ,   Review         of    P l a n ni n g
S c h e m e s G e n e r a l P r a c t i c e N ot e , F e br u a r y 2 0 0 6


The practice note details the process for undertaking a planning scheme review in accordance with
Section 12B of the Planning and Environment Act 1987. The purpose is to evaluate and enhance
the effectiveness and efficiency of the planning scheme, including local planning policies and other
scheme provisions. It also identifies additional work to improve a planning scheme’s performance.
The review should include a number of aspects including major planning issues facing the
municipality, how the planning scheme implements State Planning Policy, and recommendations on
further implementation work.


Moreland City Council,                      Review       of     t he    M or e l a nd     M u ni c i p a l   S t r a t e gi c
Statement 2004


The Review of Moreland’s Municipal Strategic Statement (MSS) and Local Planning Policies in 2004
sought to identify the major issues facing the municipality; assess the strategic performance of the
scheme; document any undertaken or additional work to strengthen the direction of the scheme;
report on monitoring and review; and make recommendations on possible changes or further work
required to strengthen the scheme. This is important as Moreland’s MSS is the most frequently
referred-to local policy at VCAT (43% of cases).


Moreland’s MSS was assessed according to state and local policy frameworks, including Melbourne
2030. It was found that Moreland’s MSS had a high level of compatibility with the principles and
directions of Melbourne 2030. Areas which were identified as requiring review were:
        Structure planning for activity centres identified in Melbourne 2030 (Coburg, Brunswick and
         Glenroy);
        Work to accommodate any identified additional housing requirements; and
        Ongoing work to improve sustainability outcomes from land use and development through
         the planning scheme.


It was also noted that other key state government and Moreland policies need to be considered and
reflected when reviewing Moreland’s MSS. It also draws attention to the changes occurring in
Moreland’s community, both from a land use and socio-economic context, as well as highlighting
that there is increasing community concern with environmental issues. In particular, encouraging
more sustainable transport options remains a challenge.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 8
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3            CASE STUDIES
This section explores land use and development trends and issues that are emerging as key policy
determinants for all levels of government. These land use and development issues are:


         Environmental sustainability and climate change;
         Sustainable transport;
         Development trends;
         Urban regeneration; and
         Housing.


The way these issues have been addressed by other jurisdictions is outlined using two case studies
for each issue. Each case study includes:


         A contextual introduction including global setting, aim of strategic work, and the
          implementation strategy in place;
         How the issue has been introduced and addressed in local planning frameworks; and
         A critique of the strategic work and any limitations of the approach undertaken.


The case studies were selected in collaboration with a number of individuals who are regularly
immersed in the relevant field, through relevant literature, and based on similarities to the
Moreland context. These studies are considered to be examples of best practice in their respective
fields.


Following the case studies, a discussion of strategies to manage the land use and development
issues facing Moreland is undertaken. Options presented in the case studies are then synthesised
as potential future options for Moreland to consider. Implementation is then discussed considering
both the Moreland context and the context of the existing Victorian Planning Provisions. This
includes a brief context followed by responses to tailored issues that could potentially be addressed
(or otherwise) in the Moreland Planning Scheme.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 9
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.1          Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change

3.1.1        Overview

Environmental sustainability and climate change are emerging as key determinants of policy for
upcoming decades. Victoria’s Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability highlights that human
wellbeing depends on the health of the natural environment1, thereby emphasising the importance
of environmental issues in policy. However, human activity is having a profound impact on the
environment, leading to environmental contamination, resource depletion and climate change.


Climate change is defined by the IPCC as a “change in the state of the climate that can be
identified by changes in the mean (and/or the variability) and that persists for an extended
period”2. However, it is most often summarised as the heating of the earth’s atmosphere, thereby
resulting in global temperature increases. This is occurring as a result of predominantly human
factors such as a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide and
methane) from human activities such as transportation, industrial production and deforestation.


Climate change has a number of direct and indirect adverse impacts. Direct impacts include
changing climatic patterns (including increased temperatures), sea level rises, water shortages and
extreme weather events, including bushfires3. Indirect impacts include the effects of direct impacts
on infrastructure durability, human health and loss of flora and fauna due to both temperature
increases and loss of habitat. Impacts on human health can arise due to increased heat stress,
particularly during heatwaves, and also due to a changing prevalence of disease. For example, an
increase in temperature is likely to improve mosquito populations who are then more likely to
transmit diseases. Impacts on infrastructure are likely to arise due to un-forecast natural pressures
on structures. One example includes underground piping that is likely to crack as a result of harder
soil which has occurred following increased evaporation due to higher temperatures. It can be seen
in the following figure that buildings and structures are at risk from a majority of climate change
impacted environmental factors.


Environmental sustainability is intrinsically linked to climate change. Excess resource consumption
is one factor leading climate change, however it also causes increased pollution and resource
destruction and depletion, for example through land clearance.


These issues are being dealt with at a local level through various initiatives dealing with the built
and social environment. One example includes improving the construction of the built environment
through building structures which are less resource intensive, for example by mandating that
buildings use less or renewable energy and water, and that are constructed using materials with
less embodied energy, that is, the energy used in the products own construction and transportation


      1
       Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability, 2008, State of the Environment Victoria –
      2008 Summary. Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability, Melbourne, Victoria.
      2
          IPCC in CSIRO, 2007, Climate Change in Australia, p 14.
      3
          CSIRO, 2007, Climate Change in Australia.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 10
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




to the site. Another example includes sustainable provision of human needs such as food or water,
particularly through reducing transportation costs. Sustainable provision of food is also necessary
from a social perspective, with the notion of food security growing in prominence. Food security
embraces the idea that people should have sufficient access to fresh and healthy food, which in
some particularly outer suburban areas can be lacking.


Figure 1 Climate Change Exposure and Infrastructure Sensitivity4




Community gardens are the most well known initiative facilitating access to locally provided fresh
food. These typically involve a common piece of land shared by a group of people to produce food.
Edible landscaping, involving the planting of fruit trees on common or public land, also provides a
way of getting fresh food to the community. Intensification of the urban environment has also seen
the emergence of green roofs and wall gardens as a way of increasing green space in cities. These
also help to mitigate the urban heat island effect caused by the mass of built environment.


      4
        Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2006, Climate Change and Infrastructure:
      Planning Ahead (Summary). Part of the Victorian Climate Change Adaptation Program, State
      Government of Victoria.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 11
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Carbon neutral futures are also emerging as development alternatives. These are particularly based
around precinct initiatives such as power co-generation, which can in many cases lead to
communities exporting energy to become carbon neutral or negative. These are also closely tied
into local water capture, reuse and food production which limit transportation costs, and thereby
climate impacts. Local water capture can involve capture of storm water at a dwelling level, or
even capture at a precinct level from a range of impervious surfaces.


The following case studies illustrate how two cities, Freiburg in Germany, and Toronto in
Vancouver, are addressing these trends. The potential for Moreland to adopt these measures is
also discussed.


3.1.2          Case Study: Freiburg, Germany

Overview


Freiburg, located in south-west Germany with a population of 215,000, is known as the ‘green
capital of Germany’5. Its reputation as one of the world’s greenest cities is a result of strong
environmental political leadership and adoption of green technology and sustainable living
standards. In the 1970s the residents opposed proposed chemical and nuclear plants in the
surrounding region. Following this there has been strong support for alternative energy and
reduced energy consumption.         The present City Mayor, Dr. Dieter Salomon from the Alliance
’90/The Greens, promotes sustainable development as a key platform for the city’s economic,
social and environmental development.


Recent examples of Freiburg’s leading environmental policies have been exemplified through the
development of two precincts Rieselfeld and Vauban. These developments emphasise the benefits
of reducing energy consumption and promotion of recycling and sustainable transport and living.
Both developments have had strict development standards that implement energy efficient
buildings, urban design focused on pedestrian and cyclist access and discourage car ownership
through significant levies and taxes. Rieselfeld was developed in the early 1990s on a greenfield
site whilst Vauban was developed on a French military base.


Apart from these leading precinct based developments Freiburg has set strategic aims for the city
to reduce its carbon emissions through reducing energy consumption and use and through sourcing
energy from renewable energy sources. The Freiburg implementation strategy has attempted to
create national, regional and local partnerships. Freiburg City Council has outlined its key policy
measures to implement alternative energy initiatives through:
          City solar projects;
          Subsidies and pilot programs for solar;
          Leasing roof surfaces; and
          Public relations campaigns.




       5
        Purvis, A 2008, ‘Freiburg, Germany: Is this the greenest city in the world?’, The Observer,
       http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/mar/23/freiburg.germany.greenest.city/print



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 12
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The key aim and strategic vision for the city is to reduce its environmental impact through a
reduction of CO2 emissions, conservation of land and reduction of resources. The city has set
ambitious aims including a reduction of carbon emissions by 40% of 1990 base levels by 2030 and
an uptake of 10% renewable energy6. The city council has also mandated that all new council
buildings must be energy efficient.


Freiburg legislation has included mandatory energy guidelines for new houses, which reduce
energy consumption by 30%7. This energy rating has recently been increased to achieve further
energy savings. Sustainable transport has also been encouraged through the construction of tram
lines, 500 kilometres of bicycle paths and a reduced fare ‘green ticket’ for public transport. Bicycle
hoops for parking are also extensively located throughout the city, at key commercial, transport
and retail areas. The inner city also enforces a no car zone and there are widespread 30 kilometre
speed limits.


Figure 2 Green District of Vauban8




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


Sustainable development policies and alternative energy polices in Freiburg have been adopted on
a local level through the city council. Emission reduction targets, set as part of these policies, are
therefore an integral part of planning in Freiburg. In 1992, mandatory building laws were
implemented to require new housing to reduce energy consumption by 30% through stricter
energy standards. Local zoning has been applied in Vauban and Rieselfeld to construct buildings to
a specific dwelling density and to built form specifications.


In Rieselfeld (population of 10,000) the development specifically aimed at creating a place that:
           Had high population density;
           Was adaptive to flexible urban design principles;


        6
         WWF, 2008, ‘Freiburg in a pathway towards a sustainable city’, WWF,
        http://www.wwf.fi/wwf/www/uploads/pdf/sustainable_model_city_freiburg_in_germany.pdf
        7
         Solar Region Freiburg, 2010, ‘Solar Region Freiburg’,
        http://www.solarregion.freiburg.de/solarregion/freiburg.php
        8
            http://www.messe-freiburg.de/



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 13
                                                                 Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




            Incorporated the concerns of women and families;
            Included residential and employment mix;
            Catered for diverse construction types and a diverse resident population;
            Prioritised foot traffic and public transport;
            Orientated toward low energy construction; and
            Contained high quality private and public spaces.


Key initiatives to achieve these ambitious aims were undertaken. Urban design and development
was a highly inclusive planning process that aimed to develop built form in a collaborative
approach. There was a strong emphasis in creating a local and accessible community where within
an easy bicycle ride or walk there would be key services. A tram line was also constructed which
offers frequent access to the centre of Freiburg. A speed limit of 30 km/h was imposed on all traffic
to increase pedestrian amenity and street activity. Initiatives to discourage car ownership include
limited parking, and parking in central garages.9


The energy system for the precinct was based on a co-generation plant delivering heating and
power; there is also solar energy throughout the development. Buildings were constructed to
minimise energy consumption and a process of ‘communication not penalisation’ was used to effect
behavioural change. In comparison with an equivalent development, due to the transport, energy
consumption, co-generation plant and building density there has been a reduction of 50% CO2
emissions.10


Vauban with a population of 5000, is a newer development precinct in the south-east of Freiburg
shares many similarities in the development of Rieselfeld. The Freiburg City Council paid
€20,000,000 for the site which was a former military barracks. As the development was owned by
the city council, the development was highly regulated and controlled to achieve specific
development outcomes. The aims included a sustainable development community, focused on
public transport and pedestrian access that protected existing vegetation and provision for local
services. This was implemented through the city’s planning process, co-operative community
engagement, co-operation with local businesses and enterprises and locally based initiatives.


The key features of Vauban include the strict regulation of car-ownership. There is an annual tax of
€18,000 on car parking11, which is possible through the construction of a tram route to Vauban and
prioritisation of cycling and walking and car sharing schemes, allowing alternative forms of
transport. Carbon emissions have been reduced through alternative energy through solar panels
and co-generation. Water consumption was reduced through rainwater collection and local
significant vegetation landscapes were protected. The zoning restrictions also require that buildings
orientate toward the prevailing sunlight to maximise solar efficiency. Significantly the involvement
of the local community was a key aspect in the project allowing innovative design and financing. 12


        9
         Siegl, K 2009, “The new district of Freiburg-Rieselfeld: a case study of successful,
        sustainable urban development”
        http://www.energiecites.eu/IMG/pdf/0902_19_Rieselfeld_engl.pdf
        10
             Siegl, 2009
        11
             Purvis, 2008
        12
             Scheuerer, J 2009, “Vauban District Freiburg”, http://www.vauban.de/info/.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc             P. 14
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Other built in mechanisms achieving sustainable outcomes include the provision of the federal
government’s energy rebate for feeding solar energy back into the grid. The subsidy paid by local
energy agencies allows residents to be paid three times the price of energy per megawatt, and is a
guaranteed income for a minimum of 30 years. The local energy agency which is a cooperative of a
number of regional councils offers subsidies for solar photovoltaic cells of around €20013. There are
also local landmark green energy projects including the installing solar panels on the roof of the
local soccer stadium (the first soccer stadium in the world to be supplied with solar energy),
installation of solar panels on the main train station and solar panels supplied to half of the city’s
primary schools.


Figure 3 Freiburg City Centre14




C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


There has been discussion to the effectiveness of policies in Freiburg affecting local precincts. Both
Vauban and Rieselfeld have a lower car ownership rate and higher rates of bicycling. In Freiburg
from 1970 car use for all trips has dropped from 38% to 32%. Waste recycling has also achieved
significant results, reducing waste from 140,000 tonnes in 1999 to 50,000 tonnes in 2000 15.
Significantly both precincts have enabled high housing density allowing the reduction in Greenfield
developed on the outskirts of Freiburg.


The commitment required from Freiburg has required dramatic political, social and business drive
to achieve these reductions in use and consumption. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that some
residents find the process too onerous, whilst in improving ecological standards there is a 2% rise
in home construction through the installation of technology16. When public transport is not
operating the residents of the districts of Vauban and Rieselfeld are isolated and fall back into car
use. There have also been anecdotal accounts of residents bypassing the local car tax by parking in
nearby neighbourhoods.

       13
            Solar Region Freiburg
       14
            http://www.madisonfreiburg.org/freiburghints.htm
       15
            Solar Region Freiburg
       16
         C40 Cities, 2010, ‘Freiburg, Germany: Cutting Home Energy Consumption by 80%’
       http://www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/buildings/freiburg_housing.jsp



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 15
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.1.3      Case Study: Toronto Green Roof By-law

Overview


Toronto lies on the shore of Lake Ontario, the easternmost of the Great Lakes in North America.
Home to more than two million people, the city is the key to one of North America's most vibrant
regions, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). A population of 4.5 million live in the GTA, the cultural,
entertainment, and financial capital of the nation. The city is also the seat of the Ontario
government.


Figure 4 Location of Toronto17




The Green Roof By-law is a part of Toronto’s 2007 Climate Change, Clean Air and Sustainable
Energy Action Plan, which is an aggressive environmental framework aimed at reducing Toronto’s
greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050.


There were a number of steps in preparing Toronto's green roof strategy. In 2004, the City
commissioned a team from Ryerson University to prepare a study on the potential environmental
benefits of widespread implementation of green roofs to the City of Toronto, given the local
environment and climate. The Study, titled The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Green Roof
Technology, was undertaken with a grant from the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' Green
Municipal Funds, and in partnership with Earth and Environmental Technologies, one of five Ontario
Centres for Excellence, supported by the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade. The
Toronto Green Roofs scheme is integrated with the new "Green Building for Cool Cities" project
which is built upon the ‘Cool City Program’ developed by the U.S. Green Building Council.




      17
        Toronto City Council website http://www.toronto.ca/ourcity/location01.htm accessed 15
      March 2010



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 16
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




History and Implementation Measures Considered by the City of Toronto:


In 2005, the City of Toronto released a report called Making Green Roofs Happen, which
documents the passage of Green Roofs from idea to inception.18 The report details the measures
which were considered by council, the relevant ones being summarised overleaf.


Financial Incentives
Toronto Water – onsite stormwater management is required by Toronto’s Water Pollution Solution.
This measure would leave most of the city’s building stock without financial incentive, so it was
decided to target existing buildings for retrofitting through a pilot grant program.


Figure 5 Overview of the Green Roof Policy Making Process 19




Toronto Hydro has an interest in encouraging energy efficiency, and has been directed
by the Province of Ontario to reduce demand by 5% by September 2007.                  Toronto Hydro was
asked to directly contribute to the green roof grants as the scheme was identified as being clearly
within Toronto Hydro’s remit through its effective reduction in stormwater treatment costs.


The City established an Eco-Roofs Program to make a minimum of 10% of the total industrial,
commercial and institutional roof space more environmentally friendly by 2020, by integrating


      18
        City of Toronto, 2005, Making Green Roofs Happen,
      http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/policy.htm accessed 15 March 2010
      19
           City of Toronto, http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/policy.htm accessed 15 March 2010



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 17
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




existing incentives and programs such as the City's Green Roof Incentive program which is part of
the Cool Roofs program.


Property tax reductions or rebates
As deployment of this instrument was prohibited under Toronto’s Municipal Act, it was decided that
grant programs were the best mechanism        for the City to control and set criteria for a specific
project, define a budget, and apply the program for as long as necessary to achieve the desired
outcomes.


Reduction or Rebate in Water or Energy Rates
Ongoing green roof auditing costs together with already low stormwater treatment costs made the
reduction in water rates an expensive symbolic gesture. Since energy savings would be reflected
in customer’s lower energy usage, rebates were felt to be both impractical and unnecessary.


Figure 6 Green Roof in Toronto20




Regulatory Options Considered by the City of Toronto:


Requirement of Green Roofs through Regulation
A strong regulatory approach was not viewed as entirely successful in Germany. Although such
approach encouraged many new green roofs, there was no mechanism to address maintenance
once green roofs were installed. Possibly for this reason, German cities seem to be moving towards
incentive-based systems.




      20
           Toronto City Council http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/pdf/makingsection5_nov16.pdf



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 18
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Toronto is within the jurisdiction of the province of Ontario, which is responsible for code
development and administration, while municipalities like Toronto are responsible for enforcement.
Under the Ontario Building Code Act, the City cannot exceed the requirements of the code. This
obstacle was worked around in 2007 via negotiation with the Province of Ontario.


Allow green roof space to be included as parkland dedication
This was disallowed due to the often exclusive siting of greenroofs, issues of maintenance and the
depth of the growing medium necessary to support trees – 1.5 metres.


Green Roofs as a Stormwater Best Management Practice
An evaluation methodology of the extent to which green roofs constitute best stormwater
management practice was established in conjunction with the Toronto and Region Conservation
Authority.


Integrate Green Roofs into Toronto’s Green Development Standards
Green roofs contribute to mitigating a development’s environmental footprint through reduction in
energy use, better management of stormwater, and increased urban biodiversity. Toronto City
committed to encouraging green development and committed to develop Green Development
Standards which integrate green roof policy into Toronto’s Green Development Standards as they
are being formulated.


Figure 7 Green Roof Block System21




Education and Promotion
Several initiatives were considered. As green roofs were a relatively unknown phenomenon, it was
decided to promote green roofs as a widely known option in order to reduce a buildings
environmental impact. Technical information was made widely available to both developers and
building owners. Education initiatives were directed to city staff so that discussions on green roofs
can begin at an early stage in the development planning and review processes.


      21
           http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/pdf/makingsection5_nov16.pdf



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 19
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Require green roofs on all new municipal buildings
Having the City lead by example and where possible install green roofs on existing municipal
buildings when their roofs are replaced, as well as on all new buildings, was seen as a positive
measure.


Establish a Website
This involved detailing benefits and answering questions about approvals processes and timelines.


Technical Booklet
One idea was to develop a technical booklet and promote: Toronto’s Green Roofs policies and
programs; Toronto’s green roofs criteria; the City’s design and construction approvals processes
as they relate to green roofs; suggest plant materials to encourage biodiversity; provide
construction and maintenance guidelines; and provide cost benefit analyses frameworks for
building owners and developers.


Identify suitable organizations to partner
The City determined to exploit synergies with organisations to pursue those implementation which
paths it felt lay outside its remit. These included:
            further promotion of the benefits of green roofs
            develop green roofing systems standards and certification standards, including OH&S
             guidelines
            develop audit standards for green roof maintenance and performance
            develop professional certification for installers and maintenance systems


Figure 8 Green Roof in Toronto22




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The passage of Green Roofs from an idea at a meeting in 2004 to the integration of the Green
Roofs Bylaw in 2009 could be characterised as a staged integration of significant existing
initiatives, driven by the exercise of a strong political will, focused toward the goal of making
Toronto an environmentally sustainable city.


        22
          City of Toronto 2007
        http://www.toronto.ca/changeisintheair/pdf/clean_air_action_plan.pdf



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 20
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Several stages are particularly worth noting within the context of the bylaw’s integration into
Toronto’s’ Planning Codes:


         In 2007 the Toronto City Council moved to immediately seek the required authority from
          the Province of Ontario to implement the energy efficiency requirements of the Ontario
          Building Code which were not due to be implemented until 2012. Further, in 2007 the city
          began to develop a more rigorous package of building code changes to bring about
          sustainable design in new construction (including green roofs) by 2010.
         The Chief Building Official in consultation with the Chief Planner was directed to bring
          forward new standards to require and regulate green roofs in the City, as a means of
          making this standard a mandatory component of the Green Development Standards.
         The Executive Director of Municipal Licensing and Standards was directed to integrate into
          any rating systems developed for rental residential units an environmental performance
          rating based on compliance or non-compliance with the City’s Green Development
          Standard.
         The Chief Corporate Officer, in consultation with the Chief Building Official and the Chief
          Planner were directed to develop a voluntary Energy Performance Labelling system for low-
          rise residential buildings, coordinated with the Green Development Standard labelling
          system.
         After the input of the various stakeholder groups was incorporated, the Toronto City
          Council adopted the Green Roof By-law in May 2009. The bylaw both requires and governs
          the construction of green roofs in Toronto.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The mitigation of the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHIE) currently has little purchase in the Victorian
regulatory environment, and substantial and robust frameworks would have to be generated to
integrate the UHIE on an economic basis. This framework is on the horizon, but is not yet part of
the municipal dialogue. Another factor requiring investigation is the increased costs of building for
increased roof loads; i.e. wet earth and foliage, combined with perhaps heavy hail loads. This is the
requirement which makes retrofitting nigh on impossible.       A careful comparative analysis of the
building codes employed in both Victoria and Toronto would be a precondition of any cost of
implementation comparison.


3.1.4          Implementation Options

D i s c u s si o n


The case studies in Freiburg and Toronto illustrate that there are viable opportunities to implement
environmentally sustainable initiatives into the built environment. In Freiburg this included a
combination of policy and subsidy programs. The inclusion of mandatory energy and layout
guidelines would certainly prompt environmentally sustainable development, but could also be
included as aspirational targets.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 21
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Freiburg has also targeted behaviour through the use of taxes on car ownership, with a combined
carrot-and-stick approach likely to achieve stronger results. However, such regulations may not be
viable in the market due to additional costs, thereby potentially acting as a dampener on
development. While it is recognised that environmentally sustainable design can add to the cost of
construction, lower outgoings often mean that such buildings command a higher purchase or rent
price, thereby making it viable for developers to provide. Mandatory regulations however may still
be received negatively by the market in the short to medium term.


Implementation of environmentally sustainable design guidelines would demonstrate Moreland’s
proactive approach toward environmental sustainability. However, such initiatives also contribute
to other objectives such as sustainable transport, food security and lower housing costs through
lower outgoings. However, the market and significant stakeholders may be adverse towards
mandatory controls, and this may result in the State Government not being onside.


I m p l e m e n t a t i on O p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C u r r e nt V i c t or i a n P l a n ni n g P r ov i si o n s


Moreland’s planning scheme provides an opportunity to encourage environmentally sustainable
design and sustainable transport initiatives. A Local Planning Policy could be implemented
illustrating the preferred development sought by Moreland, particularly with preferable targets on
energy and resource consumption. This guidance could also be provided in Moreland’s draft
Environmentally Sustainable Development policy. Some of the approaches to environmentally
sustainable development that have been undertaken by Freiburg potentially have application to the
Victorian Planning System, most notably through the adoption of zoning regulation requiring
housing lot orientation.


Sustainable transport guidelines can also be applied through a local policy in the MSS for the
direction of sustainable transport. This could address local pedestrian friendly areas and initiatives
to increase the attractiveness of cycling, including on road bicycle lanes, bicycle parking facilities
and showers in retail and commercial areas (see the following section on Sustainable Transport).
This could work in conjunction with reduced car parking rates in specified areas, particularly where
car share is a viable option. Council can also encourage the construction of green buildings in the
same manner of Freiburg City Council. However, Moreland City Council already has ambitious
emission targets.


Moreland could also advocate for changes to ResCode and building guidelines to provide mandatory
controls on certain environmentally sustainable guidelines. This could include orientation and
setting a target for resource consumption, similar to the Green Star model adopted currently.
However, a severe limitation for some initiatives is the additional cost, for example, mandatory
green roofs, which could be implemented through ResCode, would add significant construction
costs to new development due to the additional weight loads and structural elements required. This
would most likely adversely affect development costs and yields in Moreland. On that basis it
should be included as an objective, however not mandatory. It is likely that an incentivised
program could be more effective.


At a strategic level, Moreland could advocate for environmental targets at a municipal level, such
as those set by Freiburg. In addition, there is potential for educating, promoting and advocating for




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 22
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




better urban design, potentially through a demonstration building. Reduced rates, taxes and
subsidies could also be advocated.


Initiatives looking at food provision and co-generation could also be encouraged as part of a local
planning policy. This could include land provision for community gardens in new developments.


On a precinct based level Freiburg took a financial risk of owning land to create new development.
This was achieved through a culture of government determination of key developments.
Development outlines for density and provision of public transport enabled the restriction of car
ownership. Co-generation and encouraging reduction of energy through behavioural change is may
also be applicable, along with the reduction of speed limit to encourage pedestrian and bicycle
movement. Such initiatives would require change in Moreland’s planning scheme.


The applicability of selected initiatives in the current Victorian Planning Provisions is detailed below.


Mandatory energy targets for buildings and / or precincts


The LPPF (Clause 21 or 22) could be utilised to articulate more detailed aspirational goals and
targets pertaining to energy efficiencies and other environmental sustainable development
outcomes sought in order to advance the ‘best practice’ objectives articulated in the SPPF.
However, Clause 21 and 22 do not trigger requirements for planning permits and cannot contain
mandated requirements.


The Design and Development Overlay (DDO) and or the Development Plan Overlay potentially
could also be utilitised to outline specific targets for geographic areas or precincts (Refer discussion
below).


It is also highlighted that any energy target sought to be incorporated into the Scheme would
require sound strategic justification, be subject of Ministerial Authorisation and tested via a
planning scheme amendment process.


Increase minimum environmental standards, such as the star rating system, for
particular building and / or precincts


The Design and Development Overlay and the Development Plan Overlay can be utilised to specify
form and conditions of future development, including design requirements.


It is noted that the existing Moreland Planning Scheme effectively utilises these tools to advance
environmentally sustainable outcomes. Where there is supporting strategic justification, more
specific standards or outcomes could be incorporated into such planning frameworks.


Requirements and / or guidelines for provision of green roofs


Upon completion of the necessary detailed technical and strategic work regarding green roof design
and application, Moreland City Council could encourage (but not mandate) the incorporation of
green roofs in developments via the inserting of relevant objectives and strategy in the MSS




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 23
                                                                     Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




(possibility as one element of a broader ESD theme). This could be supported by including the
background research as a reference document in the scheme.


More prescriptive outcomes sought could be included on a site or precinct basis in conjunction with
the application of the DDO or DPO.


It is again highlighted that any change to the Planning Scheme would require strategic justification
to be documented, Ministerial Authorisation to be obtained and testing via the Planning Scheme
Amendment Process.


Amending building and planning codes to cater for an ageing population, such as
mandating wider doorways, ramps, grab rails


The current VPP’s at Clause 55 (two or more dwellings on a lot and residential buildings) contains
the following applicable objective and Standard. However, requirements relating to internal building
design are addressed via Building Codes.


Changes to ResCode for more energy efficient initiates such as lot orientation


Rescode has been incorporated into the VPP’s via particular provisions at Clauses 54, 55 and 56
including the articulation of design objectives, standards and decision guidelines.


Clause 55 addresses construction of 2 or more dwellings on a lot and residential buildings includes
requirements in relation to Energy Efficiency. These provisions apply State-Wide.                        As per the
discussion regarding ‘green roofs’, upon completion of the necessary detailed technical and
strategic work regarding future energy efficient initiatives, Moreland City Council could encourage
(but not mandate) the incorporation of the same via the inserting of relevant objectives and
strategy(ies) in the MSS, possibility as one element of a broader ESD theme. This could be
supported by including the background research as a reference document in the scheme.


S u m m a r y of F u t u r e O p t i o n s f or M o r e l a n d


Based on the case studies, the following initiatives have been drawn out as potential future options
for Moreland:
        Implement a Local Planning Policy which includes targets and preferred development
         sought in Moreland. This could also include initiatives on community gardens and other
         food security initiatives.
        Continue to advocate for energy efficiency initiatives, for example dwelling orientation in
         ResCode.
        Advocate for additional subsidies to encourage implementation of environmentally
         sustainable design initiatives. These could include subsidies for solar photovoltaic cells and
         subsidised public transport fares.
        Implement      sustainable     transport    initiatives,   including    car-sharing     (see    Sustainable
         Transport section).
        Continue to engage with stakeholders such as government and industry about the benefits
         of environmentally sustainable design.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc             P. 24
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




      Consider undertaking public relations campaigns to influence resident behaviours, including
       providing more information on green buildings to the community (including developers)
       including through Moreland City Council’s website.
      Investigate the potential for the leasing of roof surfaces for green roofs.
      Investigate how Moreland can further reduce its environmental impact through energy
       efficiency in council buildings.
      Investigate the potential to deliver co-generation plants and any legislative mechanisms
       required.
      Improve education for Moreland staff to ensure that discussions on green initiatives can
       begin early in the building planning and development process.
      Consider encouraging all new developments to be constructed to withstand higher
       temperatures and extreme events as a result of climate change.
      Ensure that Council encourages the provision of fresh food by encouraging appropriate
       retailers and community gardens.
      Investigate ways that broader precinct approaches to land use, transport and shared
       energy generation and waste disposal can be integrated into new developments.
      Investigate the potential for Moreland to act as a leader by showcasing preferred
       development options to developers.
      Consider developing principles to be followed when encouraging new development. These
       could include high population density, adaptive urban design principles, social equity, high
       quality environmentally sustainable construction, diverse residential and employment land
       uses and high quality urban environments which facilitate sustainable transport modes
       (walking, cycling and public transport).




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 25
                                                                Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.2             Sustainable Transport

3.2.1           Overview

A sustainable transport system is one which enables the commuter a general mobility option, and
particularly for the Moreland region, an integrated system which allows the user to effectively
change between different modes.


The Centre for Sustainable Transportation in Canada has developed several criteria which together,
define ‘sustainable transport’. This particular definition has been adopted by the European Council
of Ministers for Transport. A sustainable transport system is one which:
           Firstly, allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and
            societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health,
            and promotes equality within and between successive generations.
           Secondly, is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode,
            and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development.
           And finally, limits emissions and waste within the planets ability to absorb them, uses
            renewable resource at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable
            resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing
            the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.23


Sustainable transport can be implemented through a number of initiatives. These include:
           Promoting walking and cycling through provision of walking trails and cycle lanes and
            facilities;
           Encouraging increased public transport use;
           Encouraging car pooling or car sharing;
           Advocating for a shift towards ecologically friendly cars such as those run on bio-fuels;
           Encouraging reduced travel or working from home; and
           Making car use relatively unattractive through traffic calming, parking restrictions and
            increased costs.


Development forms can facilitate more sustainable transport options. For example, transit oriented
development can encourage more people to live and work within the same precinct, or commute
between the two given their close proximity to public transport. A high quality and frequency
service will often result in the highest patronage. Reduced or costly car parking provision can also
result in a mode shift towards public transport. Both of these points are illustrated through the
dominance of public transport, walking and cycling to work in Melbourne’s central city.


The shift towards sustainable transport will be stronger given the impacts of climate change,
increasing traffic congestion and peak oil. The need to shift towards more sustainable modes of
transport, as expressed through policies to deter car use, should mean that driving becomes less
attractive. Similarly, should peak oil have an impact on fuel prices, thereby making driving


       23
            Local Government Association http://www.alga.asb.ay/policy/transport/sustran/



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc          P. 26
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




expensive and unattractive, this would place pressure on public transport and cycling networks, as
well as have extreme social impacts by limiting people’s ability to travel to places such as work and
education. Providing a quality sustainable transport network can help to alleviate these impacts.


The following case studies illustrate how Copenhagen and Portland are using policy to make
sustainable transport more attractive while deterring car use. The potential for Moreland to adopt
these measures is also discussed.


3.2.2         Case Study: Copenhagen Cycling Policy

Overview


Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark, located on an island in the south of Scandinavian Europe. It
has a metropolitan population of approximately 1.9 million. Copenhagen positions itself as being
different from other major European cities in terms of its cycling history and future cycling policy
aims. The City of Copenhagen claims for instance, that it has become socially acceptable to ride a
bicycle in the urban area, not only due to a ‘longstanding cycling tradition’, but also due to its
socially egalitarian way in which to travel throughout the city. Cyclists, the City of Copenhagen
state, are ‘evenly distributed over all income brackets’ whilst motorists tend to verge on the higher
                                                                                24
income bracket, and users of public transport have a relatively low income           .


Figure 9 Copenhagen’s Bike Lanes25




The City of Copenhagen offers bicycle track networks of over 300km in length, spanning both sides
of major road networks. Due to the wide availability of cycle tracks, as well as the safety of riding,
an area of importance which has been designed into the transport network through the
construction of separate road areas, it is estimated that one in three Copenhageners ride to work.


      24
           City of Copenhagen 2002, p.3
      25
           BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8224141.stm



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 27
                                                                 Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Additionally, the City of Copenhagen has formulated policies which are specifically catered towards
increasing the number of commuter cyclists.


The purpose of such policies is to highlight the effectiveness of cycling as a tool with which the city
can become more environmentally sustainable, as well as to coordinate whole of government
initiatives to improve cycling conditions throughout the city 26. Cycle policies were for example,
integrated into the Copenhagen Traffic Improvement Plan of 2000-2005 as a sub-section and were
thus acknowledged as an area of importance for the wider municipality and an integral component
of main-stream traffic planning. Furthermore, the City of Copenhagen developed a specific policy
entitled ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012’. This policy was developed from the Subplan for the Improvement
of Cycling Conditions which was passed in 2000 as a subsection of the City’s Traffic Improvement
Plan (2000).        Additionally, the Proposals for Green Cycle Routes (2000), and the Cycle Track
Priority Plan (2001), both of which are also subsections of the Traffic Improvement Plan served as
the basis for the development of the Cycle Policy 2002-201227.


The policy’s objectives are:
            The proportion of people cycling to workplaces in Copenhagen shall increase from 34% to
             40%.
            Cyclist risk of serious injury or death shall decrease by 50%.
            The proportion of Copenhagen cyclists who feel safe cycling in town shall increase from
             57% to 80%.
            Cyclist travelling speed on trips of over five kilometres shall increase by 10%.
            Cyclist comfort shall be improved so that cycle track surfaces deemed unsatisfactory shall
             not exceed 5%.28


 In order to fulfil these objectives, work will be concentrated in the following nine areas with these
 goals to be met by 2012:
            Cycle tracks and reinforced cycle lanes;
            Green cycle routes;
            Improved cycling conditions in the City Centre;
            Combining cycling and public transport;
            Bicycle parking;
            Improved signal intersections;
            Better cycle track maintenance;
            Better cycle track cleaning; and
            Campaigns and information.29




        26
             ManagEnergy 2010, http://www.managenergy.net/prducts/R949.htm
        27
             City of Copenhagen 2002 ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012’
        28
             City of Copenhagen 2002 ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012’, p.5
        29
             City of Copenhagen 2002 ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012, p.7



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 28
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


Efforts to increase bicycle-use in Copenhagen have been widely incorporated into the City’s
planning schemes. The result of including cycling in planning regulations is an improvement in the
overall ease and safety of the cyclist’s trip.


Cycling in Copenhagen has been included across all levels of traffic planning. The objective of this
holistic approach is that cycling will continue to have an important and vital role in Copenhagen
traffic in the future as well as be a prominent aspect of the urban fabric. Relevant plans are
outlined in more detail below.


The Traffic and Environment Plan (1997)
The primary goal of this plan is to minimize the growth of city motor traffic, and instead emphasise
the necessity of public transport and cycling to accommodate traffic growth. To promote cycling as
an alternative to the motor car as a primary means of transport, the plan mentions several key
strategies, including:
            the development of green cycle routes;
            improved bicycle parking facilities; and
            the extension of the City Bike project to the residential areas surrounding the city centre 30.


As a result of the objectives outlined in the Traffic and Environment Plan (1997), a number of plans
were introduced. These are outlined below.31


Figure 10 Bike Parking in Copenhagen32




The Traffic Improvement Plan (2000)
Quantitative goals for Copenhagen bicycle traffic development were first formulated in this sub
plan.

        30
             City of Copenhagen 2002 ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012’
        31
             City of Copenhagen 2002 ‘Cycle Policy 2002-2012’
        32
             BBC News



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 29
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The Traffic Safety Plan for Copenhagen (2001)
This plan is an important initiative from the City of Copenhagen to reduce the number of serious
cyclist causalities for the period 2001-2012 by 40%.


The Cycle Track Priority Plan (2002-2016)
Cycle track networks are to be extended in accordance with this plan. According to the plan, 51
kilometres of cycle track, reinforced cycle lanes, and link up sections will be laid out over a 15 year
period.


A Proposal for Green Cycle Routes (2000)
The Green Cycle Routes of Copenhagen are a cohesive network of cycle routes and footpaths that
were integrated into recreational areas such as parks and waterfront areas. The paths avoid
sections of heavy traffic through the use of bridges or special traffic signs and signals.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The bicycle is an individual means of transport which people can use to cut through the congestion
of the city. This tendency will become more overt as issues of motor traffic capacity and parking
shortages are felt in both city and regional centres. These plans address the need for cycling
infrastructure to encourage and facilitate increased cycling, particularly at a local level. However,
cycling lanes often require funds and co-ordination at a regional level to ensure provision on a
regional basis.


As the issues of increased fuel costs, peak oil and climate change continue to make an impact on
global policy formation, the bicycle as an individual means of transports will be reinforced in local
planning agendas. The opportunity to integrate bicycle transport into a holistic transport policy
framework that includes public transport and further infrastructure development should not be
overlooked however as this approach could lead to bicycles being used as an effective means of
transport over longer distances.    It would be of optimal advantage to Moreland City Council, if
future cycling and transport policies favoured increasing the safety of cycling and cycling conditions
are improved.


3.2.3         Case Study: Shared Parking in Portland, USA

Overview


Portland is located in the state of Oregon, in the north-western corner of the United States of
America (USA). Portland has a metropolitan population of approximately two million people.
Portland is considered one of the world’s greenest and liveable cities due to its approach to
planning and outdoor spaces, plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and comprehensive
transport system.33 It provides a range of transportation methods, with a system of trains,
streetcars, buses and aerial trams serving the city’s residents.

       33
         Sheppard, K 2007, “15 Green Cities”. Environmental News and Commentary,
       http://www.grist.org/news/maindish/2007/07/19/cities/.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 30
                                                                  Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Portland City Council has implemented Transit Oriented Development into the local planning
framework through the development of shared parking schemes. Shared parking accordingly, is
when ‘two or more land uses share the same parking spaces’34.


Figure 11 Transport Mode Mix in Portland35




Transit Oriented Design is increasingly becoming an integral tool of sustainable urban design.
Particularly in the United States, its viability being driven by:
            Increasing interest in inner city residential sites that are close to rail transit (largely being
             driven by escalating traffic congestion);
            Rising land values creating economic conditions to incentivise mixed-used, compact
             development;
            The trend of people moving back to cities thereby creating new investment opportunities;
             and
            Demographics shifts leading to an expanding market for higher-density, mixed-use
             communities.


The optimal outcome from the development of such spaces is that during peak parking demands,
shared parking initiatives can reduce the total number of parking spaces that are required. This
outcome is compared to that of ‘business as usual’ whereby parking requirements occupy individual
land use. Thus, the primary benefits of shared parking is a reduction in land necessary to


        34
             Stein & Resha 1998, p.iii ‘Shared Parking in the Portland Metropolitan Area’
        35
          FastCompany 2010 http://www.fastcompany.com/1558244/inspired-ethonomics-portland-
        a-global-model-of-transit-oriented-development



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc            P. 31
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




accommodate parking needs, which ultimately preserves more land for green space and
development density. This in turn helps to create a sense of community, and contributes to the
establishment of a ‘sense of place’.36


I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


At present, transportation investments are guided by two key policy documents: The City of
Portland Transportation System Plan (TSP) and The Regional Transportation Plan (RTP). With
respect to sustainability and the transportation network, there are several other documents that
outline both capital investment plans and strategic policies that are aimed at achieving triple
bottom line development goals.


These plans aim to achieve the adopted goals by specifying, for example, parking ratios,
development bonuses and requirements, street design standards, street classifications, and
elements of programme design such as demand management. These documents include:
            The Bicycle Master Plan (currently being updated)
            The Pedestrian Master Plan
            The Streetcar Master Plan (currently being drafted)
            The PDOT Sustainability Plan (Internal procedures)
            The Local Action Plan on Global Warming
            The Central City Transportation Management Plan (currently being updated as part of the
             Portland Plan)
            The Portland Zoning Code
            The Portland TOD Zoning Code
            PDOT Peak Oil Implementation Plan37


The adoption of Metro’s Urban Growth Management Functional Plan requires that ample parking is
provided for a given land use, but that it should not encourage excess parking availability. Within
this plan, the council intends that shared parking be implemented as part of a holistic development
strategy that contributes positively to the management of density in urban areas.


Further refinements of these concepts for application at the regional level are highlighted within the
Metro Functional Plan. Specifically, these refinements establish both minimum and maximum
parking ratios for land use, as well as prescribe more restrictive parking ratios in areas that are
deemed to have good transit service. Furthermore, the plan iterates that jurisdictions should
provide blended parking ratios that consider various parking demands so as to decrease the
number of code required parking spaces.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The success of the transit-oriented development (TOD) is based upon a combination of diversity
both in population and land-use. Such diversity allows for a range of opportunities within a
particular geographical region. If local destinations can provide sufficient services in the way of

        36
             Stein & Resha 1998, ‘Shared Parking in the Portland Metropolitan Area’
        37
             www.planning.ci.portland.or.us/zoning/ZCTest/400/450_Transit.pdf



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 32
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




work, recreation, residential, and retail, then there is less incentive for residents to use their
automobiles for single-use journeys.


The ‘local’ element of the area is further integrated into the retailing strategy, with local stores,
cafes, and civic places feeding into the creation of a sense of place. Transit-orientated development
also emphasizes the walkability of an area, so that the dependency on car use is reduced. Thus
human-scale is emphasized within the strategy of TOD, and is integrated within the development
by creating streets that are pedestrian and bike-friendly, but that also accommodate limited
                     38
automobile usage          .


3.2.4          Implementation Options

D i s c u s si o n


Strategies to promote sustainable transport have been based on limiting the attractiveness of the
car, and increasing the attractiveness of other modes of travel, such as walking, cycling and public
transport. In Copenhagen, local policies aim to improve the quality of cycling routes and facilities to
encourage use. In Portland, restrictions upon parking spaces have increased the inconvenience of
car use.


The strengths of these policies is that both initiatives are relatively achievable at a local level. In
addition, both types of policies send a message about the types of transportation that are
preferable, and in effect penalises those who choose to drive. It is important to note however that
these policies are best implemented together, for example, it is unreasonable to remove parking
yet fail to provide alternative transport options. However, Moreland has relatively high quality
public transport access, and in many areas this may not be an issue. Shared parking in particular
could also result in a more efficient use of land.


The reliance on user response is potentially a weakness of such policies. Despite dis-incentives,
people may still choose to drive, thereby creating traffic and parking management issues in areas
where such car restrictive policies have been implemented. In terms of implementation, a
significant issue is the ability of local government to liaise with other traffic authorities such as
VicRoads and Department of Transport, who may be slow or unwilling to respond to the need for
improved sustainable transport options. Issues relating to shared parking such as split titles and
time of use may also discourage implementation from a development perspective.


Shared parking in particular presents Moreland with a unique set of opportunities. Shared parking
could not only result in a lower rate of parking provided, thereby (in the case of residential
development) creating more affordable housing, it may also increase the quantum of public spaces.
If shared or reduced parking spaces and rates were implemented, the cost of a parking space could
be split from a dwelling, thereby reducing the cost of a dwelling. Remaining spaces could be
provide at a precinct level and then used as public spaces or as commercial car parks when not
being used by residents.

        38
          Calthorpe 2010 in Doody, C. 2010, ‘Inspired Ethonomics: Portland, a Global Model of
        Transit-Orientated Development’



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 33
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Key stakeholders such as VicRoads, the Department of Transport and the development industry
would need to be consulted and involved in implementation. Provision of cycle lanes on main roads
in particular could be hard to implement on areas where cars or trams are priority. Similarly, roads
constrained by development are difficult to retrofit. Reduced parking provision may not be
attractive from a market perspective and on that basis developers may not be willing to implement
such initiatives.


I m p l e m e n t a t i on O p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C u r r e nt V i c t or i a n P l a n ni n g P r ov i si o n s


Sustainable transport initiatives are able to be implemented through the local planning policy
framework. This could include a specific policy relating to sustainable transport options. Similarly
schedules relating to parking could be amended to set new parking rates or implement a parking
precinct plan that facilitates the sharing of parking spaces.


A local cycling policy can be integrated into the Moreland’s planning scheme through the Local
Planning Policy Framework, either as a local policy or in the municipal strategic statement.
Moreland can work with other agencies such as VicRoads and neighbouring local governments to
encourage provision of cycling routes at a regional level. This could also include lobbying for better
access and layouts of new subdivisions, wider roads to include bike lanes (where applicable) and
ensure that bike parking facilities and showers are provided in new developments. The quality of
bicycle transport is thus crucial to Moreland residents’ decision to cycle or not. Safety and a sense
of security, effective travelling speeds, health, comfort and the cycling experience are all significant
factors if cycling is to prove competitive.


Transit oriented development, particularly with a reduced car parking element results in an efficient
use of land, reduced construction costs due to reduced parking provision and the ability for land
used for car parking to be utilised more efficiently with dual purposes. This could be implemented
through changes to parking requirements in activity centres, particularly through the planning
scheme. For example, this could be through a review of parking ratios or development of shared
parking precinct plans. However, there are issues regarding title sharing and time use conflicts that
would need to be resolved. This form of development presents opportunities in the form of
increased housing affordability due to the separation of parking from dwellings, as people without
cars could purchase a lower-priced dwelling without on-title car park provision.


The applicability of selected initiatives in the current Victorian Planning Provisions is detailed below.


Reduced or            maximum            car     p a r k i ng   p r ov i si o n    rates      f or    bui l di n g    and
precincts


The standard car parking provisions outlined in Clause 52.06 can be reduced or waived via a
planning permit application. Clause 52.06-6 also enables Parking Precinct Plans to be prepared.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 34
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




R e q u i r e m e n t f o r p r o v i si o n f o r s ha r e d c a r p a r k i ng f a c i l i t i e s i n hi g h de nsi t y
areas


Shared parking is distinguished from unbundled parking as one spot being utilised by two users, in
comparison to unbundled parking which separates a car park from a title. Council can undertake
(or require proponents to prepare) a car parking study / strategy and resultant Parking Precinct
Plan (for inclusion as an Incorporated Document at Clause 81). Such a Plan can specify parking
rates.


M a n d a t i n g p r o v i si o n o f b i k e p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s a n d a m e ni t i e s ( e g s h o we r s ,
lockers) in buildings


The Particular Provision at Clause 52.34 relates to the provision of Bicycle Facilities. The
requirements apply in addition to any other provisions of the scheme.


C o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r b e t t e r c y c l i n g pa t h s a n d f a c i l i t i e s i n p u bl i c s pa c e s a n d
s u s t a i n a b l e t r a n sp o r t o p t i o n s


The development of cycle paths / facilities and land for public transport (such as a rail station) are
items for potential inclusion in a Development Contributions Plan.                       It is noted however that a
Development Contribution can only be obtained from new development in accordance with an
approved DCP.


Council can also require the provision of a cycle path / facilities and advance sustainable transport
options as conditions on new development via provision in a DPO of DDO.


S u m m a r y of F u t u r e O p t i o n s f or M o r e l a n d


Based on the case studies, the following initiatives have been drawn out as potential future options
for Moreland:
        Include a sustainable transport and/or cycling policy in the Moreland Planning Scheme
         under the Local Planning Policy Framework. This policy would reinforce the Moreland
         Integrated Transport Strategy and Pedestrian Strategy, and encourage the provision of
         cycling facilities such as bike racks and showers in new developments.
        Lobby key stakeholders such as VicRoads and Department of Transport to improve cycling
         track and lanes at a sub-regional level.
        Amend parking requirements to either set a maximum rate of parking by land use or
         include a shared precinct parking arrangement in strategic locations with high public
         transport and walking/cycling accessibility such as the Coburg Activity Centre. A maximum
         rate would discourage additional provision of car parking, but should mandate provision of
         bicycle parking facilities. Potential for a shared precinct parking arrangement should be
         investigated further in strategic locations. A trial run could be undertaken on council owned
         car parks. This could then be implemented through schedules or reference documents in
         the planning scheme. In the City of Melbourne, a maximum car parking rate of one spot
         per dwelling is set.
        Investigate the potential to tax new car parking spaces.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 35
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




      Continue to promote walking and cycling through provision of walking trails and cycle lanes
       and facilities. This also includes improving cycling conditions through regional cycling
       routes, improved routes to and within activity centres, improved signalling and better
       connections between cycling and public transport interchanges.
      Consider providing further information and public education campaigns on the benefits and
       ease of cycling within Moreland.
      Encourage increased public transport use through marketing and education campaigns,
       including distribution of route maps.
      Encourage car pooling or car sharing.
      Advocate for a shift towards ecologically friendly cars such as those run on bio-fuels.
      Encouraging reduced travel or working from home.
      Consider making car use relatively unattractive through traffic calming and parking
       restrictions.
      Provide car parking on a precinct basis with more restrictive parking ratios in areas that are
       deemed to have good public transport access.
      Investigate the potential for parking ratios which consider various parking demands so as
       to decrease the total number of required spaces through shared parking.
      Ensure that urban design and streetscapes are pedestrian friendly to encourage walking.
      Consider the needs of older and mobility restricted persons through urban design and
       appropriate street furniture.
      Ensure that significant developments above a certain threshold provide Green Travel Plans
       as part of their development applications.
      Investigate the need for council to provide public parking, and any consequences for on-
       street parking should this approach be adopted.
      Consider encouraging parking spaces to be built to room height to enable retrofitting (as is
       advocated by the City of Melbourne).




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 36
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.3          Development Trends

3.3.1        Overview

Development trends affect the way people experience an urban environment and the way in which
governments respond to these changes affects the quality of living for residents. Development
trends include demographic change, change of living preferences, economic development and
social awareness around resource pressures.


Population change is likely to influence on the provision of facilities and the nature of our built
environments. A growing and changing population requires a tailored response to ensure that
community facilities continue to meet the needs of communities. Particularly in Moreland, a shift
towards a more educated and higher income earning population also means the nature and
standard of services and facilities expected changes. Other ageing nations such as Japan have
evolved their workplace and employment structures to facilitate an ageing population, for example,
by encouraging people to stay in the workforce longer. This would require improved mobility and
access for older people to enable them to move between home and employment.


The ageing of the population is anticipated to place greater pressure on existing services, and the
preferences of older residents. The two responses have included design changes to the existing
environment, through universal house design which reduces the number of stairs and widens
doorways and landscape changes to the city through design features such as handrails, accessible
public transport and convenient and safe pedestrian access. There are also service delivery
responses particularly toward the push for residents to ‘age-in-place39’.


In existing urban areas development trends have emerged through a preference towards smaller
households and located closer to the city. This has created the need for the development of more
diverse housing, particularly for single person households, whilst personal preference has seen
development within close proximity of the city resulting in urban renewal and gentrification of
working class and industrial areas. This has placed pressure on existing infrastructure and
resources. In particular, the demand for housing means that land cannot be used for other
purposes.


There is also a trend towards more sustainable living, there has been a trend toward personal
preference through transport choice, housing choice through energy standards in households and
renewable energy uptake as well as government led projects that have led to sustainable projects.


The following case studies illustrate how Vancouver and Burnside in South Australia are using
policy to respond to these shifts. The potential for Moreland to adopt these measures is also
discussed.




      39
        The concept of residents remaining in their current residence and still having the ability to
      access aged care services.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 37
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.3.2         Case Study: Vancouver Eco-density Project

Overview


Vancouver, British Columbia is Canada’s third largest metropolitan area with a population of 2.1
million (2006 Census). Vancouver’s location on the nation’s west coast means that it is relatively
isolated from Canada’s other large metropolitan centres – Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec.
Vancouver is also a significant destination for migrants to Canada. The City of Vancouver is the
largest municipal authority in metropolitan Vancouver and incorporates the CBD and inner
metropolitan area. The City of Vancouver’s population grew by 6% in the inter-census period 2001
– 2006 to 578,000 people.


The Eco-density Project is a City of Vancouver initiative. In 2007, the City launched the Eco-density
planning program with the purpose of improving Vancouver’s liveability in the context of increasing
energy costs and changing climate by increasing the density of the built urban form.


The program sought to identify how increasing density can:
        Improve the accessibility of communities to retail/town centres and transit opportunities;
        Reduce development pressures on the urban fringe;
        Better utilise existing urban infrastructure;
        Allow for efficient new community based energy conservation and material recycling
         schemes;
        Allow for the introduction of urban agriculture (food production) programs; and
        Decrease the carbon footprint of communities.


It is of note that the contribution of increased urban density to improving housing affordability was
not a stated aim of this program but is a likely outcome of increasing density.


I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The program proceeded in three phases. The first phase involved extensive consultation with the
community. Following this, an Eco-density charter and initial list of action items for council were
produced and adopted. The Eco-density Charter included:
    1) Making increasing urban density an overarching urban planning priority for City of
         Vancouver.
    2) Increasing urban density should be aligned with ensuring the best land use and best urban
         design per site.
    3) Increasing urban density should be allocated to those sites that will confer the maximum
         possible reduction in environmental footprint.
    4) Strategically retaining and enhancing affordable housing options including affordable rental
         properties.
    5) Applying Green and ‘Liveable’ design principles to create ‘sense of place’ to developments.
    6) Timely delivery of public infrastructure including open space and sustainable energy
         systems as neighbourhoods grow and increase in density.
    7) Respecting and fostering the voice of neighbourhoods, their special values and aspirations.
    8) Using the Charter in all aspects of change management and built form planning.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 38
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The third phase involved developing sixteen specific action points under three work areas:


   1. New Policy


      Rezoning Policy for Greener Buildings: New developments requiring rezoning must
       meet a minimum of LEED (US Green Business Council Leadership in Energy and
       Environmental Design) Gold Standard in terms of energy water and stormwater use/reuse.
      Rezoning Policy for Larger Green Sites: Sites of two acres (0.8 hectares) or larger
       must meet additional environmental standards to the LEED minimum described above.
       These include:
          District energy/cogeneration provision;
          Urban agriculture provision;
          Transport demand management measures;
          Rainwater management;
          Solid Waste reduction/reuse; and
          Diversity of type, affordability and tenure of residential developments.


   2. Direction to Include in Existing Work


      Historic Precinct Height Study: An existing study by Council Officers to identify sites in
       several neighbourhoods that are suitable for increased building height and density will be
       used to determine densification sites.
      Community Gathering Places in Each Community: Opportunities to develop significant
       meeting places in each community will draw from work that is presently being done at a
       community level.
      Greener R S – 5 Character Design Guidelines: This is being completed as part of the
       city’s Green Building Strategy and allows for additional floor space above single use (not
       mixed use) zoned properties subject to neighbourhood character guidelines.


   3. Next Steps toward Action Implementation


      An Eco City Plan: A new city wide eco plan will be developed to provide the physical
       direction to manage change and implement the eco density commitments.
      Interim Eco density Rezoning Policy: Given that there will be differing levels of
       community support for high density and multi level developments, the Interim Eco density
       Rezoning Policy will identify mechanisms to ‘unlock’ sites and housing stock for
       redevelopment.
      Eco density Leadership on City Land: Council will explore ways to leverage city owned
       land for medium to high density living demonstration projects that can be replicated by the
       market. These developments will also enable Council to test the effectiveness of different
       eco density solutions for such issues as parking, by law and code requirements, open space
       and urban agriculture.
      New Types of Arterial Mid Rise Buildings: Council will determine a best practice model
       for delivering mid rise buildings along major road and transport arteries. This project will
       involve considering compatibility of new mid rise developments with existing land use,
       shading effects, green building performance and economic feasibility.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 39
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




        Issues and Options for Backyard (Laneway) Housing: Laneway Housing (Hidden
         density) provides options for increasing the provision of affordable housing in existing
         residential neighbourhoods. Laneway houses are typically smaller dwellings constructed in
         the backyard of existing residential dwellings where the backyard opens onto an access
         lane. The principle is similar to subdividing or cross leasing a residential property in
         Australia.
        More Options for Rental Secondary Suites: There are options to increase the zoning
         permission for basement residential tenancies (granny flats) within owner occupier
         dwellings.
        Public Amenity and Public Benefit Methods and Funding Tools: Council will develop
         alternative mechanisms for funding improvement public amenity and civic infrastructure.
         These mechanisms will include financing and taxation tools, incentives and requirements
         for developers to include public open space and civic amenities in their developments.
        Discretionary Density Increase for Public Benefits: Council will pass a bylaw allowing
         a 10% increase in dwelling density in the Downtown and Central Broadway area without
         the need for rezoning. The increased rates revenue would be used to specifically fund
         public amenities such as community centres, libraries, affordable housing, and other
         facilities.
        Removal of Barriers to Green Building Approaches: Requirements for Green Building
         Practices need to be matched with the removal of any barriers to green building in existing
         zoning and development controls.
        Priority to any Applications with Green Leadership (Green means Go): Projects that
         meet the sustainability goals of Eco-density will be afforded ‘front of line’ status for
         application review and decision, along with social housing and heritage projects.
        Accountability for Eco-density Follow through: Council will develop tools to measure
         progress in the calculation of Vancouver’s ecological and carbon footprint. An Eco-density
         think tank will be formed and tasked with publishing a regular Eco-density progress report
         card.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The Eco-density Project Aim and Charter principles demonstrate a broad definition of sustainable
aspirations. Sustainability is considered in economic terms: ‘best use’, energy efficiency, waste
reduction; in social terms: housing affordability, public infrastructure and liveability and in terms of
sustaining physical and biological systems. The Action Implementation Plan sets an agenda for
Council to prepare the necessary plans and policies to implement Eco-density.


One potential weakness of the Implementation Plan is that it does not allocate responsibilities to
other public agencies or to the private sector to implement the Project. For example, Council
accepts full responsibility for demonstrating different eco density solutions to the public and
marketplace via the demonstration projects. This is an initiative that is probably better delivered by
the private sector in partnership with Council.


In addition, while the Eco-density Charter calls for a prioritisation of sites for different forms of
densification so that the best land use and design are adopted on each lot so as to minimise




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 40
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




environmental footprint and maximise amenity outcomes, the Action Implementation Plan does not
suggest establishing mechanisms by which this can be achieved.


3.3.3            Case Study: City of Burnside Ageing Strategy

Overview


Burnside City Council is a local government area in Adelaide. It has a population of approximately
45,000 making it one of Adelaide’s smaller councils. It has a high percentage of its resident
population that are aged above 50, which presents a challenge for the delivery of services and
providing an accessible public domain. In 2005 Burnside developed a 15 year strategic plan which
established what the Burnside community valued and envisaged for the next 15 years. This plan
was updated in 2009, and established that an Ageing Strategy should be formulated40. Following
this, the Ageing Strategy for Burnside was developed in order to develop a council-wide approach
to managing issues relating to older residents.


The Ageing Strategy is aimed at delivering two concepts: “positively ageing” and “ageing-in-place”.
This correlated with an action plan that set in motion a map and implementation policy for council
to follow for the next three years, however many of the policies simply formalised an approached
that had already been undertaken by Burnside City Council. The work was put into practice by
aligning the Burnside Development Plan with the Ageing Strategy and adopting the principles into
other council strategies.


The key objectives of the strategy are for Burnside to:
            Embrace a regional leadership role;
            Maximise opportunities for older people;
            Deliver or facilitate appropriate support services;
            Maximise opportunities for residents to access external services; and
            Maximise opportunities for social connectedness for older people to participate in the
             community41.


I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The Burnside Strategic Plan, Vision 2020, outlined that an Ageing Strategy would be produced as
part of council’s vision to address the issue of an ageing population in Burnside and the impact on
service delivery. The Burnside Development plan specifically outlines ageing for key consideration
in development assessments. The Ageing Strategy integrated the outlined existing policies in the
Development Plan to create a coherent uniform policy for Burnside City Council.


The Burnside Ageing Strategy was implemented through the delivery of a parallel Action Plan,
which was produced as a tool to implement the policies outlined in the Strategy. There were 87


        40
             City of Burnside, 2009, Vision 2020, City of Burnside.
        41
          City of Burnside, 2009, The City of Burnside: Ageing Strategy 2009-2012, City of
        Burnside.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 41
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




actions; however this remained an internal working paper for council in the aim of remaining a
flexible and implementable document. The strategy was implemented through the local policy
instruments and the key planning assessment frameworks. The strategy implemented council’s
vision for a whole-of government approach in addressing an ageing population, from health service
delivery, urban design guidelines and the implementation of council services.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The Ageing Strategy reflects a relatively complete integration of strategic, statutory and council
policy to achieve positive outcomes. The policy itself is detailed, focusing on a coherent strategy
and framework as well as the justification behind the ageing strategy.


Its strengths lie in the coordinated approach that it utilises, as well as the broad support for the
strategy that has already been eventuated through the Vision 2020 and through most council
policies that already incorporate these key principles. The integration of a number of council
departments can achieve stronger out comes as areas can collectively contribute their expertise to
initiatives.


3.3.4          Implementation Options

D i s c u s si o n


Vancouver and Burnside have provided frameworks which enable a number of implementation
options, thereby allowing flexibility to deal with potential future scenarios. However, these guides
are also translated into policy regulations, particularly in Vancouver where new developments must
meet a minimum environmental standard, as well as encouraging greener development through
fast-tracked planning approval processes. This enables both a carrot-and-stick approach to
encouraging sustainable building development.


Critically, both Vancouver and Burnside adopted an inclusive approach involving all of Council. This
has allowed implementation across a range of service areas, with a view to achieving better
outcomes for residents.


Of particular note is that many objectives related to provision of services and facilities for older
persons are generally applicable to all members of the community. In particular, all residents in
Moreland seek access to support services and social connectedness. In this respect, a more general
policy and implementation program could be implemented to the benefit of the entire Moreland
community.


A more flexible approach is also a weakness. Vancouver’s plan is largely reliant on private sector
implementation or through council acting as a demonstrator for initiatives. In this regard more
stringent policy guidance may help to achieve stronger outcomes.


The approaches undertaken by Vancouver and Burnside also provide opportunities for innovative
responses. One aspect of this is the integration of development planning across all facets of




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 42
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Council, particularly to integrate responses and resources to achieve better outcomes. The
descriptive approach allows for guidelines to be potentially be met and exceeded.


However, is likely that market viability will still dictate the outcomes despite the presence of these
initiatives. In addition, internal political and budget issues may prohibit effective implementation
and co-ordination internally across council.


I m p l e m e n t a t i on O p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C u r r e nt V i c t or i a n P l a n ni n g P r ov i si o n s


Moreland’s MSS could incorporate a similar charter to that advocated by Vancouver. The Eco-
density Charter is consistent with the urban densification agenda of Melbourne 2030. Many of the
mechanisms that the City of Vancouver is exploring to facilitate densification have already been
enacted in Victoria. Some of the other inclusions of the Vancouver report are redundant in the
Victorian context because the land use change/activity that they promote is one for which
landowners have either as of right provisions (as in the case of tenancies within the same dwelling
as an owner occupier lives) or for which there are established planning processes (subdividing or
cross leasing existing residential properties to allow additional ‘backyard’ residential dwellings to be
built).


Schedules could be implemented to conditionally permit multi level development on strategic sites
such as transport (tram) corridors. These could also be implemented for affordable housing units
by setting a condition on development to ensure that low income households are not excluded from
high amenity medium and high density developments.


An ageing strategy can potentially be incorporated into the Moreland Planning Scheme. Through
the development of a council wide strategy (Moreland’s Council Plan), all policies and principles can
be incorporated into a local council’s MSS and LPPF, guiding principles for delivering services and
communities that appropriately service the needs of an ageing population. An ageing population is
an issue that is facing many Australian local government areas, particularly in middle ring suburbs
of major cities which are experiencing population ageing as residents age-in-place. On that basis
initiatives could be included in the State Planning Policy Framework. Other initiatives include
mandating effective structures to cope with an ageing population. Actions include revising building
and planning codes to encourage more universal and mobility building functions, such as ramps
and wider doorways, as well as encouraging flexible buildings that are able to be readily adapted.
Guiding principles on the location and accessibility of facilities and services specifically for older
adults could also be included in service provision strategies and Moreland’s planning scheme.


Moreland has prepared a strategic document for ageing in the Later Years Strategy 2007-2011. The
strategy establishes a framework for a council approach for older residents. The strategy notes that
a document that addresses planning’s impact on aged services issues would be prepared in 2009.
The strategy is similarly a whole of council approach.


The Moreland Planning Scheme contains references to the significance of the ageing population of
Moreland, however there are minimal policies that refer to the facilities and services that Council
should plan for. The Later Years Strategy is not listed as an incorporated document. Moreland




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 43
                                                                  Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




should incorporate the locally significant policies outlined in the Later Years Strategy 2007-2011 to
the planning scheme to comprehensively address the issues surrounding ageing.


S u m m a r y of F u t u r e O p t i o n s f or M o r e l a n d


Based on the case studies, the following initiatives have been drawn out as potential future options
for Moreland:
        Implement local policies that encourage specific green building measures or strategic sites
         for intensification.
        Implement specific design measures such as wide doorways, ramps and accessibility
         provisions in new developments to aid mobility for an ageing population.
        Advocate for increased recognition of an ageing population in the State Planning Policy
         Framework.
        Include the Moreland Later Years Strategy or similar in the planning scheme as an
         incorporated document.
        Consider adding a charter to Moreland’s MSS which addresses urban densification and
         other sustainability objectives such as that implemented in Vancouver. Initiatives
         suggested in the Eco-density Project that could be introduced in Moreland include:
         o   Prioritisation to increase dwelling density on those sites where it will confer the greatest
             reduction in environmental footprint. Adopting a prioritisation and site ranking system
             based on demonstrable benefit will make the site selection process more transparent
             and less disputable.
         o   Provision of district energy cogeneration plants.
         o   Mandatory solid waste reduction/reuse provisions for developers, occupiers and
             tenants.
         o   Rainwater management harvesting systems that could potentially be integrated to a
             trunk harvesting and reuse system.
        Investigate a rezoning policy for green buildings and larger sites, where new developments
         requiring rezoning must meet minimum energy and water standards. Larger sites could
         also meet co-generation and urban agriculture standards.
        Ensure that Moreland and other bodies continue to provide adequate spaces and services to
         meet community needs into the future.
        Ensure that sense of place is retained in the face of change.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc             P. 44
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.4         Urban Regeneration

3.4.1       Overview

Over time, parts of cities become degraded, either from neglect or redundancy. These areas are
often left for years before either the public or private sector step in to regenerate these areas to
restore their liveability. Urban regeneration is the process of re-using existing urban areas to meet
current community needs and aspirations.


Decline of former uses is a significant issue facing post-industrial cities, and is one particularly
relevant to the Moreland context. Often former industrial sites, many have contamination or other
environmental issues which need to be resolved before new development can occur. Where land
values are high enough, this is done by the private sector, however often the public sector will step
in to remediate land and prepare it for development. This could include consolidation of sites and
re-packaging land or the private sector, with two examples including the development of Melbourne
Docklands and the proposed regeneration of Dandenong.


Regeneration of land can also occur on sites which have become redundant for other reasons. Sites
include business zoned areas where economically they are no longer viable, or in other degraded
areas in cities. In the 1960s, urban regeneration was widespread in residential areas of
Melbourne’s inner city, however the success of this initiative continues to be debated. Recent
developments have encouraged the recycling of existing buildings and structures for environmental
reasons, as well as to preserve the heritage and social character of an area42. This is most evident
in the conversion of former industrial buildings into warehouse style apartments.


Transit oriented development has also been used to regenerate areas, particularly through the
utilisation of land which is seen to be used inefficiently. There are large tracts of land above and
along areas currently used for public transport, particularly around railway stations, that could be
used for residential or employment uses. Public transport use would be encouraged by immediate
users due to the proximity to services, but also by surrounding users who may become attracted to
the transport hub due to its improved amenity. This type of development has been advocated for a
number of areas around Melbourne, and practiced in cities around the world, particularly in Asia in
areas such as Hong Kong and Japan.


Urban regeneration, particularly through TOD, provides numerous benefits including improved land
efficiency, increased land values and thereby rates collections, as well as social, environmental and
economic benefits from increased public transport use and amenity. The following case studies
illustrate how Oakland and New York City have attempted to encourage regeneration of redundant
land through rezoning and remediation programs. The potential for Moreland to adopt these
measures is also discussed.




      42
        Karssenberg, H, 2007, ‘The Twelve Principles for Cautious Urban Renewal’. Inspiring Cities,
      http://www.inspiringcities.org/index.php?id=1&page_type=Article&id_article=18109



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 45
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.4.2         Case Study: Transit Oriented Regeneration – Oakland,
              California

Overview


Oakland is located on the central coast of the state of California, on the far west coast of USA.
Oakland’s resident population is estimated at 395,000 people, with the city experiencing fluctuating
population patterns. Statistics indicate that Oakland tends to be more disadvantaged than the
remainder of the state of California43. Oakland’s public transport system includes bus transit, car
share and heavy rail. Oakland also has access to San Francisco’s Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) rail
system.


Figure 12 Central Oakland44




Oakland is implementing strategies focused on transit oriented development (TOD) as a planning
and design tool with which to provide compact mixed use, pedestrian oriented communities,
primarily located around public transit stations.


Originally, Oakland was developed around the Central Pacific Railroad and later further designed its
                                                                                        45
modes of public transport in light of the Key System, an electric streetcar system           . The stops for
the electric streetcar served a dual purpose, with a range of services and shops within walking



      43
           IDcide, 2008, ‘Oakland California’
      44
           http://www.business2oakland.com/main/centraldistrict.htm
      45
        City of Oakland 2008 Agenda Report, Community and Economic Development Agency,
      http://clerkwebsvr1.oaklandnet.com/attachments/19338.pdf



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 46
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




distance of these stops, which in turn created an anchor for neighbourhood centres and transport
gateways to the downtown district.


However, since the 1950s many people have moved away from urban areas to suburbs which are
not adequately serviced by public transport, nor have essential services within walking distance of
the home46. This movement of people has created an automobile dependence, and sprawling
development patterns which has resulted in lengthy commutes and many low-income communities
being isolated from jobs, transit and essential services. Regeneration projects that are designed in
favor of achieving TOD objectives can contribute to reducing sprawl and providing equitable access
to services within an urban setting.


I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The TOD plans are integrated into the local planning framework by serving as a companion activity
to the citywide commercial and residential rezoning update which is currently being undertaken by
the Oakland Planning Department’s Strategic Planning Division47


The alignment of TOD with long-range strategic plans is an important aspect of achieving
sustainable economic development, creating safe communities, and generating housing and job
opportunities. Oakland City Council sees TOD as a planning mechanism with which to aid the city
rezoning update by:
            Facilitating community involvement in the rezoning process;
            Supporting the City’s current land use framework of encouraging higher density residential
             density near transit hubs;
            Improving neighbourhood urban design and streetscape conditions; and
            Encouraging economic development within the targeted neighbourhoods.48


Several elements of a successful TOD can be considered in the following forms which would assist
in site selection:
            Transit system design;
            Community partnerships;
            Understanding real-estate;
            Appropriate planning; and
            Providing the right mix of incentives to make TOD work.


Furthermore, those communities that have successfully implemented TOD strategies are those that
have supportive planning frameworks and financial incentives. As this overview indicates,
ultimately, the primary proponents of successful TOD implementation have been local jurisdictions.


        46
          City of Oakland 2008 Agenda Report, Community and Economic Development Agency,
        http://clerkwebsvr1.oaklandnet.com/attachments/19338.pdf
        47
          City of Oakland 2010 Preparation of the International Boulevard Transit-Oriented
        Development (TOD) Plan,
        http://www.oaklandnet.com/government/ceda/revised/planningzoning/StrategicPlanningSect
        ion/pdf/InternationalBoulevardTransit-OrientedDevPlanRFP.pdf
        48
          City of Oakland 2010 Preparation of the International Boulevard Transit-Oriented
        Development (TOD) Plan



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 47
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The Central District Redevelopment Area was highlighted as one of the development opportunity
sites. This area had previously experienced urban decay, and experienced poor conditions. In
response the former Mayor proposed the development area to encourage approximately 10,000
new residents to the area through apartment and condominium developments. The area selected
was central area of Oakland and contained three BART stations and rapid bus transit connections;
which allowed the accommodation of new residents. New infrastructure was planned not for the
development pressures that new residents would bring but rather to assist to end ‘urban blight’,
this was identified in the         Five-Year   Implementation Plan 2009-2014. Key infrastructure
improvements included:


           (The) installation of utilities, traffic capacity projects, mass-transit improvements, parking
           facilities, new streets, under grounding overhead distribution and communication lines,
           storm drainage and sanitary sewers, bridges and under- or over-crossings, flood control
           improvements, pedestrian and bicycle friendly areas, traffic calming, and freeway noise
           walls (Five-Year Implementation Plan).


The financing for this was also undertaken by the Government Redevelopment Agency to offset the
cost that would have been undertaken by the development community49.


Public parks however were identified as needing upgrade due to the potential population increase.
Capital improvement grants were provided by the Development Agency, USD$2 million was
allocated for the 2007-09 period to allocate to specific parks outlined as requiring upgrades and
capital improvements. Further funding was provided by the agency to contribute to projects that
improved the urban amenity of the area50.


3.4.3          Case Study: New York City Remediation Programs

Overview


New York State is located on the north east coast of USA. New York State has an extensive history
including use of land for industry which is now being remediated to encourage urban renewal.


Brownfields are ‘abandoned or underused properties, including but not limited to industrial and
commercial facilities, where redevelopment or expansion may be complicated by possible
environmental contamination (real or perceived)’.51 Within an urban planning typology, Brownfield
sites are considered to be idle and contaminated properties that pose environmental health risks to
local residents, and are also a financial and burden on communities. Brownfield sites are commonly


      49
        http://www.business2oakland.com/main/documents/CD5-YearImplementationPlan2009-
      14for12.2009.pdf
      50
        http://www.business2oakland.com/main/documents/CD5-YearImplementationPlan2009-
      14for12.2009.pdf
      51
        New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Brownfield Redevelopment
      Toolbox, A Guide to Assist Communities in Redeveloping New York State’s Brownfields, p.3
      http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/brownfields.html



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc         P. 48
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




abandoned industrial or commercial properties, which diminish the property values of the
surrounding areas, and potentially threaten the economic viability of surrounding areas.                             The
purpose of Brownfield programs is to ensure these sites can regain economic vitality, create
employment opportunities, and contribute to a sense of place for the local community.


The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation has developed a Brownfield
program that delivers education material to local government on how to clean up Brownfield sites,
and offers financial assistance for municipalities who seek to undertake renewal of Brownfield
areas. The programs offer the opportunity for investigation, remediation and redevelopment of
brownfield sites. New York State’s Brownfield program is implemented across municipal councils as
a strategic effort to assist local communities to revitalize their urban areas. These programs offer
tools such as financial assistance, technical assistance and liability protection in order to that the
community can instigate sustainable future growth.


Figure 13 NYC Brownfield Program52




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The ability to fund and invest in Brownfield remediation was strengthened in October 2003 with the
enactment of the Brownfield law. This law in turn established the Brownfield Cleanup Program
(BCP). This legislation has assisted the refinancing and reforming of New York State’s programs to
clean up contaminated properties. Such legislative amendments have contributed to the following
programs administered by the NYSDEC’s Division of Environmental Remediation: 53


Environmental Restoration Program (ERP)
The ERP provides financial incentives for municipalities to clean-up contaminated brownfield sites.
In addition, the program offers liability protection, and defence by New York State for ‘claims and
defence by New York State for claims made against the funding recipient and future site owners’



       52
         Department of Environmental Conservation NY
       http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/8450.html
       53
         Brownfield Redevelopment Toolbox, A Guide to Assist Communities in Redeveloping New
       York State’s Brownfields http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/brownfields.html



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 49
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Brownfield Opportunity Areas (BOA) Program
This program has been implemented within the planning arm of the Brownfield Law. The program
financial and technical assistance to municipalities and community-based organizations to complete
revitalization projects for areas that are afflicted with multiple brownfield sites.


Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Site Remedial Program (State Superfund Program)
The goal of this program is to identify and characterize particular sites that pose a threat to the
public due to consequential amounts of hazardous waste. There is a clear distinction between the
hazardous waste program and the brownfield programs in that this is an enforcement program, the
ultimate outcome of which is to push costs and undertakings of remedial activities onto the parties
responsible for the contamination.


Figure 14 Brownfield Sites in New York State54




C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


There are numerous benefits to establishing brownfield programs within the planning agenda. The
Brownfield Cleanup Program (BCP) for example not only enhances the potential for profitable
ventures on a once contaminated site, but also reduces development pressures on Greenfields.
Furthermore, the make-up of the program encourages cooperation between the state, the private
sector, and the public. The program offers incentives to private investors for the redevelopment of
contaminated properties, such as business and personal tax credits. Thus, the program aims to
address the barriers and risks associated with brownfield remediation which are often epitomized
through environmental, legal liability, and financial disincentives.


The clean up and redevelopment of brownfield sites is also a future cost reduction mechanism for
councils. Future developers on these areas are able to use the infrastructure that is already in place
so that investments for streets, water lines, and sewage systems are minimized.                 However, the
cost of meeting environmental standards and carrying out EIA’s is a significant initial cost for local

       54
         New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
       http://www.dec.ny.gov/25.html



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 50
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




councils. In the context of an Australian system, these brownfield redevelopment may benefit from
being subsidised from state or federal government.


However, land values in Moreland may be high enough that developers are happy to pay the extra
premium to rehabilitate the land to prepare it for redevelopment. In addition, it raises issues about
the responsibility of government to cover the cost of prior land use activities undertaken.


3.4.4          Implementation Options

D i s c u s si o n



In USA, regeneration initiatives are being prompted through rezoning mechanisms and government
led land rehabilitation programs. These both make land attractive for development and may hasten
the development process. In Oakland, public open space was used as a way to improve the
amenity of area. Councils can benefit from the development of land, particularly in close proximity
to transport, due to the potential for betterment capture and increased rate revenues.


However, a key issue is whether governments have a role in the remediation of contaminated
lands. In particular, in areas such as Moreland, land values may be high enough that the private
market may chose to remediate land regardless. In some cases rezoning a parcel of land may not
make it attractive enough for private development.


Rezoning and rehabilitation of land presents an opportunity to hasten development on a site. It is
possible that a Mixed Use or other appropriate zone or Design and Development Overlay could
work to the same effect, particularly for areas promoted for redevelopment. There is also potential
where land is particularly unattractive to the private sector that the state and Moreland could
prepare it for the market, or in partnership with the private sector. Development of this land could
also be encouraged through non-traditional mechanisms such as tax incentives. Fast tracking or
conditional planning permits on that land may also provide an incentive to the market.


Threats to the success of such options include the willingness of the market to take up rezoned or
rehabilitated land, and also the resources and appropriate risk sharing that may need to be picked
up by government.


I m p l e m e n t a t i on O p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C u r r e nt V i c t or i a n P l a n ni n g P r o v i si o n s


Moreland could include a local policy relating to transit oriented development on appropriate sites
in its MSS. However, such development would also require a combination of financial or other
incentives. Similarly, appropriate overlays could also stimulate development. However, certain
barriers to the successful implementation of TOD are considerable and should be recognized within
any future TOD planning agendas. For instance, there is often a disparity between achieving the
ideal of higher-density, mixed-use and walkable communities and the reality of what is allowed and
built in local plans.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 51
                                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The use of traditional zoning controls such as Mixed Use Zone and Design and Development
Overlays could be sufficient to ensure that contaminated lands get remediated. However there is
also potential for government to prepare sites for private sector investment through land
remediation and parcelling. There is also potential for incentives such as reduced taxes or rates.
Such initiatives may be outside of the planning scheme.


The strengths of such programs being applied in Moreland is that urban density, and mixed use
areas can be facilitated in areas that were once industrial, and/or contaminated sites. This is an
important factor for Melbourne, due to the increasing population and subsequent strain on existing
housing stock and services, and may result in the hastening of development of such land. This
could include opportunities for additional housing stock.


The redevelopment of brownfield sites within Moreland would also impact positively upon economic
growth. Productively reusing brownfield sites can contribute to the reduction of urban sprawl,
promotes urban revitalization, cleans up a degraded area, and can increase the tax base by
creating employment and encouraging greater urban residency. The advantages then for Moreland
City Council to establish a brownfield revitalization plan can be discussed primarily in terms of
environmental sustainability and economic growth scenarios. Moreland could also lobby the state
government for funding for remediation on strategic sites to hasten development opportunities.


The applicability of selected initiatives in the current Victorian Planning Provisions is detailed below.


F a c i l i t a t i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e m e di a t i o n of b r o wnf i e l d si t e s


It is appropriate to include in a Municipal Strategic Statement (at Clause 21) ambitions / objectives
and accompanying strategies relating to remediation of brown field sites.


P r o v i d i n g c o u n c i l a n d / o r d e v e l o pe r s wi t h c o m p ul s o r y a c q ui si t i on p o we r s
t o p a r c e l / c o n s o l i d a t e si t e s


In relation to the Victorian Planning System, the Public Acquisition Overlay (Clause 45.01 of the
VPPs) has as its purposes:


          To identify land which is proposed to be acquired by an authority.
          To reserve land for a public purpose and to ensure that changes to the use or development of the land
          do not prejudice the purpose for which the land is to be acquired.


Having noted this Clause 45.01-6 (Reservation for public purpose) states:


          Any land included in a Public Acquisition Overlay is reserved for a public purpose within the meaning of
          the Planning and Environment Act 1987, the Land Acquisition and Compensation Act 1986 or any other
          act. (Emphasis added)


Therefore while Council can apply the POA and acquire land accordingly, the use of such land must
be for a “public purpose”.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 52
                                                                  Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




S u m m a r y of F u t u r e O p t i o n s f or M o r e l a n d


Based on the case studies, the following initiatives have been drawn out as potential future options
for Moreland:
        Ensure appropriate zoning controls for sites that are promoted for redevelopment as a way
         to encourage market investment.
        Investigate the potential for joint remediation and planning (Moreland and the Victorian
         Government or private sector) to prepare land for redevelopment.
        Investigate the potential for tax or rate concessions to promote development on un-
         remediated sites.
        Consider developing educational material and providing technical expertise to encourage
         the remediation of brownfield sites.
        Investigate the potential to undertake an audit and characterisation of sites by
         contamination and remediation to generate more information on site contamination issues
         and potential remediation responses. This could be facilitated by Council, and paid for by
         participating land holders.
        Develop strategies and policies to ensure that urban regeneration improves the amenity
         and liveability of existing areas, as well as social and economic outcomes for residents.
        Investigate how Moreland can assist in land consolidation and parcelling to facilitate
         development.
        Investigate the potential need for infrastructure upgrades and the potential funding of
         these in regeneration areas of Moreland.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc             P. 53
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




3.5        Housing

3.5.1      Overview

Housing should be accessible to all, and housing should respond to the community need for varying
types of household sizes and locations. Providing the circumstances for an affordable housing
system is often identified as providing an important service and enabler for community
participation and economic growth.


Increasingly major cities are facing pressures from increasing population, changing trends in
housing choices and increase in house and land prices. The challenge is to locate adequate and
quality housing in a good urban environment that is cost efficient, has access to a wide variety of
jobs as well as social services and physical infrastructure. There is also a challenge in providing
new housing in existing urban areas without diminishing existing neighbourhood character and
providing new housing in new urban areas without causing long-term detrimental environmental
impacts.


Presently there is a varied approach in delivering affordable and appropriate housing. In many
jurisdictions the approach has been to mandate inclusionary zoning requirements, in the aim of
providing a wide variety of affordable housing for the general public, other jurisdictions have
focused on state owned housing as a means of reducing rents for socially disadvantaged residents.
Housing has also seen a change in its design an operation in terms of its distribution in the
environment and the physical design. Universal design principles have been incorporated to design
housing to be utilised by persons of any ability, through wider doorways, elimination of stairs and
high surfaces.


For public housing recent policies and trends have included the transfer of ownership from the
state of local government to non-profit regulated housing associations. This has been achieved in
the aim of increasing operating efficiencies and improving the physical condition of the residences.
With a transfer of ownership there has been a push to involve community in decision relating to
use and funding.


The two cases that are discussed are London and the development of a Greater London Housing
Strategy, which established housing requirements for dwelling diversity and affordability, and
Glasgow and the stock transfer of council owned and operated housing. London presents a regional
based approach to housing strategy, whilst Glasgow shows a more local approach for housing.


Inclusionary Zoning


In simple terms inclusionary zoning can be defined as the process of “taxing” development to
provide for a particular public purpose, usually social housing, during the development process.
Development approval is granted on a condition that a certain percentage of housing units, for
example, or a certain sum of money equivalent to a certain number of housing units, is provided to
the development approvals authority or another public organisation, for social housing purposes. If




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 54
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




money is provided in lieu of housing units, the authority would use the money to provide social
housing elsewhere.


The objective of inclusionary zoning is to ensure that a proportion of housing in an area is available
to low income households so as to facilitate social mix and ensure a diverse range of people can
access housing, especially in areas that have good access to jobs and services.


Inclusionary zoning has limited application across Australia, and there is no mandated inclusionary
zoning provision in Victoria’s planning system. Authorities and developers can however enter in
voluntary agreements to deliver social housing outcomes.


There are arguments against the use of inclusionary zoning for provision of social housing, these
being:
        The responsibility of social housing provision should fall on society as a whole, and as such
         should be paid for via the general tax base and not individual developers;
        On–site provision of social housing is not appropriate where developers seek to deliver an
         ‘up-market’ project; and
        The requirement to provide for social housing in development is a tax and can render
         projects unviable, especially where demand and price points are insufficient to cover costs
         and an acceptable allowance for profit and risk.


This latter point has meant that application of inclusionary zoning typically occurs in relatively high
cost and well serviced city locations. An example is City West in Sydney.




3.5.2        Case Study: Greater London Authority Housing
             Strategy

Overview


London is a globally significant city with key functions in finance, politics and tourism. It has a
metropolitan population of 7.5 million and faces key population and affordability pressures. In 2007
the Mayor’s office of the Greater London Authority (GLA) was granted greater powers to
encompass a housing strategy in London. Following this in 2010 the Mayor, Boris Johnson, released
a Housing Strategy for Greater London.


The housing strategy was focused around the need to provide more affordable housing for
Londoners. The key strategic vision included the following points:
            Providing more homes (including a greater mix of housing);
            Helping homeowners and first time buyers;
            Improving the social rented sector;
            Improving the private rented sector;
            Designing better homes;
            Producing greener homes;
            Revitalising homes and communities;
            Delivering housing across London; and



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 55
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




               Delivering housing locally55.


The strategy was developed through an extensive consultation and draft process. The incorporation
strategy focused on the adoption of the policy by the GLA through the Greater London Plan, the
spatial strategy for London. This also had implications at local councils and boroughs of London
who were obligated to include the Housing Strategy in local policy and achieve the aims established
by the Mayor of London. These projects were also highlighted as good examples of policy
implementation by delivering housing with a mix of affordable housing, as well as developments
that regenerated key regions of London, all linked by policy to the Greater London Plan.


Figure 15 London Housing Development With Affordable Housing Mix 56




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


The Housing Strategy is integrated into the broader context of the Greater London Plan, which
established the development and strategic directions for London. Legislation requires that local
London Boroughs and the Homes and Communities Association implement the policies of the
strategy. The Housing Strategy was delivered in parallel with the London Housing Strategy Delivery
Plan. Though the Housing Strategy itself was a legally binding statutory document under the GLA
Act 2007 the delivery plan establishes the key policies established in the strategy, the actions
required, key partners for the delivery and timescale.


Each local Borough was required to assist in delivering the key outcomes of the strategy; as such
this requires the integration of such policies into locally specific planning framework. Councils are
then required to assist in delivering strategic planning assessments and decisions based on the key
strategy outlined by the GLA.




       55
            Greater London Authority, 2010, ‘The London Housing Strategy’, GLA.
       56
            GLA Housing Strategy



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 56
                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Notably affordable housing targets, or inclusionary zoning, which was previously set at 50
households was abolished and instead a London region target was set of 50,000 affordable homes
to be constructed between 2008 and 2011. The responsibility was delegated to the HCA to deliver
this target. Local Boroughs are required to prioritise investment in affordable home in areas with
low provision.


For example the policies have included:


Figure 16 GLA Policies and Actions




C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The new housing strategy has many focal points to encourage affordable housing, however it
repeals the previous mandatory requirement set by former London Mayor Ken Livingston that
required 50% of all new dwellings to be affordable. The abandonment of this target has been
criticised by social services and some housing agencies and central government, who have argued
this reduces affordability and housing in London for low income earners57. However there is a
target of 13,200 homes to be built that would be deemed affordable, which according to current
London Mayor Boris Johnson is the single largest increase in affordable housing stock in a mayoral
term58. Central government rejected this, arguing this target is not significant enough to address
the capital’s needs. The government also raised concern over the move to increase the minimum
household income base which people are eligible for housing support, from £60,000 to £74,000
and the net loss of 2,755 affordable homes a year59.




       57
         Healy, J 2010, ‘Government’s response to Mayor’s London Housing Strategy’,
       http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/corporate/1487202
       58
            Greater London Authority, 2010.
       59
            Healy, J 2010.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 57
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The strengths of the strategy lie in that it is enforceable and ratified on a regional scale through the
GLA; this requires local boroughs and councils to incorporate this strategy. There is also bi-partisan
support for supporting affordable housing aims, as is seen through the previous administration
affordable housing policies.


Its weakness is through the repeal of the previous 50% target which has caused some concern.
There are both opportunities and threats through the role of the market to deliver affordable
housing through differing economic circumstances.


Figure 17 London Housing Conversion from Car Park to Housing60




3.5.3        Case Study: Housing Glasgow

Overview


Glasgow City Council, an administrative region within the metropolitan area was previously
responsible for most of socially rented units, provided for socially disadvantaged residents. In 2003
after a vote from council housing tenants the Glasgow City Council owned housing stock was
transferred from council ownership to the Glasgow Housing Association (GHA), a non-profit
company created by the Scottish Parliament. A process was established for the transfer of
ownership to local Community Housing Organisations (CHOs).


This was undertaken with the strategic aims of improving social housing conditions; writing off
Glasgow’s housing debt and improving community involvement. The transfer of stock overseen by
the GHA totalled approximately £2 billion worth of assets and resulted in a significant increase of
CHOs61.



      60
           GLA Housing Strategy
      61
        McKee, K, 2007, ‘Community Ownership in Glasgow: The Devolution of Ownership and
      Control, or a Centralizing Process?’, in European Journal of Housing Policy, vol. 7, No. 3, pp.
      319-336.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 58
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Figure 18 Glasgow, with High Rise Community Housing 62




I n t e g r a t i o n i n L o c a l P l a n n i n g F r a m e wo r k


Most of the direction for housing stock transfer was identified through the Scottish Parliament,
which assisted in the transfer process. Glasgow City Council itself integrated the vision of the
transfer in strategic and local specific policies. This process was followed with strict legislative
guidelines that in particular outlined the roles and responsibilities of the GHA. This stipulated that
the GHA acting as a landlord was required by law to transfer ownership to local housing
organisations. Similarly the funding mechanisms for these local organisations are legislated
through Housing (Scotland) 2001 Act; which also established the GHA as a landlord.


The Glasgow City Council has developed the Glasgow Housing Strategy. Though no longer owning
housing this strategy recognises the role of the council in continuing involved in providing
development funding, as well as providing housing service advice. The council has also
incorporated a funding strategy to assist residents and repair and improvement grants.


C r i t i q u e of t h e W o r k


The programs strengths lie in the transfer in ownership which has involved the local community in
decisions which they were not previously involved with, thereby resulting in community
empowerment. This has included the allocation of funding, maintenance and priorities for the local
CHO. Previously community engagement was limited to discussion about locally ‘unimportant’
issues, however with the transfer of ownership residents were increasingly involved on boards and
committees discussing redevelopment and funding63.


There were also identified weaknesses through the transfer being viewed as transference of blame
and control from the Glasgow City Council to the GHA which implemented strict control limiting
some decision making. Funding for redevelopments also did not account for the variability in house
sizes and dimensions across the city, so funding for a kitchen for example was allocated £3000
regardless of the size and condition64. There remains significant scope to expand the role and


       62
            GHA
       63
            McKee, K 2007.
       64
            McKee, K 2007.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 59
                                                                         Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




decision-making by the CHOs and increase community participation; this would lead to significantly
better outcomes compared to current practices. A significant threat to this scheme is the level of
interaction and responsibility of the CHO and its method of communicating with local residents as
well as funding arrangements from the government and GHA.


3.5.4          Implementation Options

D i s c u s si o n


Providing communities with greater control over their housing provision can result in a number of
benefits including better quality housing and community empowerment. It also alleviates some of
the administrative responsibilities from the public sector. A strength of London’s housing targets is
that more weight may be given to decisions on housing provision in an area to encourage
provision, thereby resulting in increased supply and affordability.


A weakness with housing strategies is that they are often out of the jurisdiction of local
governments. In particular, the setting of targets still largely relies on the private sector to
construct supply. On that basis, there is limited scope for local government involvement.
Accountability for management of housing may also become an issue in time without proper
agreements. The importance of such agreements was highlighted in Glasgow where funding and
communication became issues.


There are opportunities to implement targets relating to housing across Victoria, however this may
prove contentious with some local government areas. An affordable housing target could help to
encourage a greater diversity of housing and social mix. Management of housing provision by the
community could also result in a more innovative and appropriate mix of housing stock.


Threats to these schemes include the willingness of the state to relinquish control over existing
public housing stock, particularly where there may be risks in agreements and management. In
addition, over time community enthusiasm and involvement may wane. Housing targets may also
result in less housing being provided when quotas have been reached.


I m p l e m e n t a t i on O p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C u r r e nt V i c t or i a n P l a n ni n g P r ov i si o n s


Housing targets may be difficult to implement through the Moreland Planning Scheme however
may be included in a Housing Strategy or at a regional level. While the London Housing Strategy
was designed to operate at a regional level, there are still applicable elements within the Victorian
Planning context. The previous London Plan recognised inclusionary zoning, which is presently not
supported in the Victorian Planning System. Alternatively there are opportunities to adopt similar
targets in terms of the number of affordable households that should be delivered within a given
region. The Housing Strategy requires local London Boroughs to form links with housing
associations to deliver more appropriate affordable housing.


Within zoning and local MSSs and LPPFs councils can include aims and a vision that seeks to deliver
a greater mix of tenancies through providing opportunities for residents who are underrepresented




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 60
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




in particular areas. This can also be achieved through establishing an affordable housing target that
recognises establishing affordable housing in particular areas.


There is also an advocacy role for local councils in advocating for social housing in targeted areas,
as well as for tenancy mix. There is also an advocacy role for the implementation of a Housing
Strategy that is incorporated into a spatial plan for Melbourne and enforceable by local
government.


Moreland can adopt an affordable housing target. Moreland can advocate for a mandatory target or
developer contributions for new housing to contribute to local housing affordability schemes as well
as encouraging council land that is sold for residential subdivision to meet affordability targets.
Having such targets in an incorporated document or local planning policy would give strength to
encouraging housing development. However in a regional context this may disadvantage Moreland,
as such encouraging a regional framework and coordinated strategy for the Northern Regional
could address this.


In terms of housing associations, Moreland can continue to advocate to the State Government and
provide assistance to organisations who wish to pursue such objectives. Agreements outside of the
planning scheme would need to be arranged. In Victoria, State Housing is mostly controlled by the
Victorian State Government, therefore in this context the transfer of ownership operates on a
different scale and appropriateness of such a scheme. At the Council of Australian Governments
Meeting in 2009, the state governments, including the Victorian Government, agreed in principle to
transfer ownership of houses constructed under the Nation Building and Jobs Plan Social Housing
Initiative to housing associations65. This follows a similar model to Glasgow in realigning
responsibility for day to day management with CHOs. The Victorian and UK system shares some
organisational similarities; this is particularly evident in Victoria and enables the consideration of
housing stock transfer66.


Therefore, there is an advocacy role for Moreland to campaign for the transfer of ownership to
community organisations and committee as well as an increase in funding arrangements to
improve social housing conditions. Potential inclusions into the planning scheme could include a
local policy on management of social housing, or greater use of Section 173 agreements to
implement these mechanisms.


Moreland could advocate the strict transfer of ownership of social housing to community ownership
to achieve significant benefits through increased community satisfaction and a increased level of
amenity and citizen opportunity. This in particular is an opportunity for Moreland due to the high
number of social and low rent housing and the value that CHOs can add to existing housing
through renovations and providing the service at a lower cost. There are however risks involved
through community oppositions and dissatisfaction with this process. The cost, resources and
accountability of Moreland would also need to be considered.

      65
        Australian Government, 2009, Social Housing Initiative,
      http://www.housing.qld.gov.au/programs/pdf/initiative_guidelines.pdf
      66
         Nygaard, C, Berry, M & Gibb, K 2008, ‘The political economy of social housing reform – a
      framework for considering decentralised ownership, management and service delivery in
      Australia’, in Urban Policy and Research, vol. 26. No. 1, pp. 5-21.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 61
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




More detail on the applicability of selected initiatives in the current Victorian Planning Provisions is
detailed below.


M a n d a t i n g m i n i m u m h o u si n g t a r ge t s i n t e r m s of m i x o r de n si t y of d we l l i n g
types


Clause 56 of the VPP’s addresses Subdivision. Clause 56.04 contains lot diversity and distribution
Objectives and Standards which are relevant to the consideration of dwelling mix and types.
Various other provisions of the scheme can also be utilised to specify dwelling type and yield.


M a n d a t i n g m i n i m u m h o u si n g t a r ge t s i n t e r m s of h o u si n g p r i c e t o p r ov i d e
a f f o r d a b l e h o u si n g a n d o r M a n da t i n g p r ov i si o n of i nc l u si o n a r y z o ni ng


While the VPP’s do not provide the opportunity to mandate minimum housing price targets or
inclusionary zoning to provide affordable housing, Council’s can seek to articulate their aspirational
goals and targets in the LPPF.


Provide additional                  d e v e l o p m e nt c a p a c i t y i f v ol u n t a r y        pr ov i si o n of
a f f o r d a b l e h o u si n g o r a n o t h e r n o n m a n da t o r y o bj e c t i v e ( s ) i s / a r e of f e r e d


From a strategic planning perspective, care would need to be exercised in advancing this approach
to ensure that the resultant form of any development on a site meets minimum design and
functionally standards.


Having noted this, from a statutory planning perspective, possible mechanisms to advance
“incentives” based outcomes would be the Schedule to the Design and Development Overlay. As
noted previously, strategic justification for the proposed approach would need to be documented
and ultimately tested via a Planning Scheme Amendment process.


S u m m a r y of F u t u r e O p t i o n s f or M o r e l a n d


Based on the case studies, the following initiatives have been drawn out as potential future options
for Moreland:
        Investigate the benefits of defining a housing target for Moreland. It should consider
         whether this should be a target of number of dwellings, or population numbers, and
         whether the target should be set by Moreland or the State Government as a lead body.
        Continue to advocate for inclusionary zoning mechanisms as part of the Victorian Planning
         Provisions.
        Advocate that the state government allocate resources (including resources for legal
         advice) into brokering partnerships between housing associations, the private sector and
         local government. This could also allow Moreland to act as a facilitator for parties interested
         in establishing Housing Associations
        Consider including the Moreland Affordable Housing Strategy as an incorporated document
         in the Moreland Planning Scheme.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 62
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




      Investigate the potential for facilitating desired housing outcomes, including approaching
       developers that are delivering the desired housing form elsewhere to view options in the
       municipality and showcasing desired design examples.
      Consider allowing fast track planning approval processes for buildings that exceed housing
       affordability standards.
      Develop a strategy to ensure that greater housing diversity is achieved and maintained in
       Moreland by providing a range of dwellings of varying sizes, densities and locations. This is
       particularly to meet the needs of the changing population, including increased numbers of
       older persons who may be seeking smaller and more appropriate accommodation.
      Ensure that housing is well designed and appropriately located near services and facilities.
      Encourage increased housing densities in appropriate areas.
      Ensure that new housing contributes to the vitality of Moreland.
      Consider a minimum lot size, minimum setbacks and minimum private open space
       standards to minimise change in areas where development is discouraged.
      Advocate for a better Residential 1 Zone template to implement changes such as energy
       efficiency.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 63
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




4            CONCLUSIONS
The topics that have been reviewed in this report are broad and diverse. Each topic has raised
numerous issues and questions, with each requiring a dedicated research exercise for an adequate
response. This report has provided a general scan of issues to help trigger thought with a view to
raise matters for consideration in the next version of the Moreland Planning Scheme. Following are
some conclusions from the research.


Conclusion 1 – Governance Scope


It is important to have a sound understanding of who should or can address matters raised in this
report, and the role of Moreland City Council in this context.


Some issues can be addressed at the local level but many also require responses at a metropolitan
or State level, and perhaps some at a national level. Where a metropolitan or State response is
the best solution, Council’s role is to influence policy direction and tailor a local response. Issues
such as regional transport solutions are arguably best addressed at metropolitan or state levels.
On this basis, it will be important for Moreland to be clear about its policy aspirations and structure
its planning scheme accordingly, in at least policy terms, and where possible statutory terms.


Conclusion 2 – Transport Management


Transport management, and specifically management of increasing traffic volumes and car parking
demand and the related issue of public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure provision is a
key issue.   Car related demands and impacts warrant attention in the planning scheme and via
other policy tools (see below for more on that point).           Moreover, further investment in and
development of sustainable transport options is required as part of the traffic and parking
management response, and on this matter the state government has an important role to play
(alongside Council) via its road and public transport departments.


The challenge for the planning scheme is to demonstrate how local and regional transport will be
managed having regard to the need for better public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure,
potentially via appropriate polices, strategies, controls and development contribution schemes.


Conclusion 3 – Self Sufficiency


Self sufficiency relates to retaining and where possible boosting the provision of jobs and services
in the local area (to the extent possible) to keep pace with a growing and changing population.
Where jobs and services are best provided in other regional locations and in the central city, the
task is to ensure accessibility is maintained or improved.


A major strength of Moreland is its diverse land use structure, which helps provide a wide range of
jobs and services for the population.    This situation enables the community to access work and
services locally and to minimise the need for commuting. There are some concerns that rezonings,
if not carefully managed, and closure of State services, such as schools, could diminish the capacity
of the population to access services locally. Furthermore, concepts such as food security and home



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 64
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




and community based food production may also require planning scheme responses to ensure such
considerations are included in land use and development decisions.


The challenge for the planning scheme in this regard is to maintain and where possible enhance
land use diversity to provide jobs and services for a growing and changing population. To this end,
possible tasks include:
       Measuring the extent to which the planning scheme can deliver jobs and services, via an
        audit of land use zones and development capacity; and
       Setting forward strategies to ensure job and service delivery capacity keeps pace with
        potential population change.


Conclusion 4 – Policy Tools


The issues that have been considered in this report may require a number of different
implementation strategies to be adopted for effective implementation, with the local planning
scheme being perhaps one element in this regard. As noted above, the scope of the issue needs to
be considered in terms of whether a local, metropolitan, State or national or joint response is
required. Furthermore, the nature of the policy tools available to each level of government should
be explored, such as:
       Regulation – such as provided by the planning scheme, building regulations and other
        similar options;
       Pricing policies – such as provided by taxation and charging regimes, which can have a
        significant impact on influencing behaviour if structured correctly (eg. toll roads, parking
        fee charges);
       Community education – such as media and promotion strategies designed to educate the
        community and influence behaviour to achieve desired outcomes (eg. road accident
        campaigns, water use saving campaigns); and
       Technological advancements – which can be used to deliver sustainability outcomes, such
        as innovative generation devices and new building and construction methods.


The challenge for the planning scheme is to clearly establish the vision and consider use of a range
of planning and non-planning tools to give effect to desired outcomes. The planning scheme can
clearly establish direction and regulation but can also be used to influence behaviour via pricing
policies (such as via developer contributions, open space levies and parking precinct plan cash in
lieu schemes). The planning scheme could also be used to encourage technological advancement.


Another way of affecting ‘price’ of land for development is structuring a planning scheme that
minimises uncertainty for the development community.           Providing direction and minimising
uncertainty regarding desired development outcomes can help minimise development risks and this
can act to facilitate development.     The planning scheme has an important role to play in this
regard, in terms of being clear on desired uses, acceptable building envelopes and heights, and
required conditions and contributions.      The planning scheme could be put to a ‘developer
perspective’ risk and uncertainty evaluation to tease out issues.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc      P. 65
                                                           Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Conclusion 5 – Specific Initiatives


This report also provides a number of potential options that Moreland can take up in the future
based on practices elsewhere. These options are noted throughout the report.


The above conclusions provide a high level overview of the findings of this report. Refer to the
detailed case studies and related analysis for more information.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 66
                                                            Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




5             APPENDICES

Appendix 1 - Workshop and Council Considerations
A workshop was held on Thursday 1 April 2010 with members of the client and consulting groups
to discuss the case studies and implementation options. Furthermore, Moreland City Councillors
provided feedback on the information (that was circulated in draft form) on Monday 12 April 2010.


The following is a synthesis of the key themes that emerged from those discussion processes.


E n c ou r a g i n g D e v e l o p m e n t


Development facilitation, consistent with planning scheme objectives, is an important objective.
Options include minimising the risk with development approvals by structuring the planning
scheme in a way that minimises uncertainty.


Regeneration of surplus industrial land can be difficult due to site contamination risks. A possible
way of minimising these risks and thereby facilitating development is to undertake a city-wide
audit of land that is earmarked for regeneration, in collaboration with participating land holders. A
municipal wide study could be facilitated by Council, and paid for by participating land holders, to
generate more information on site contamination issues and potential remediation responses.


Other questions and points that were raised included:
        How can land be unlocked to encourage development? While many permits are issued,
         many are never developed.
        How can councils assist in land consolidation and parcelling, for example, such as VicUrban
         are doing in places like Dandenong?
        How can lot consolidation be encouraged? For example, is it possible to develop designs to
         illustrate the possibilities on amalgamated lots thereby encouraging their development?
        Can local government be a land banker?
        Given Melbourne’s increasing population, is there potential for a new node or activity centre
         that could stimulate development in its hinterland?
        Timely implementation of initiatives is important. This is particularly relevant where
         developer contributions are intended to make improvements to the public realm.


Car Parking


Car parking and traffic management are key issues and likely to require additional council attention
and response in the future. Discussion points included:
        Car parking requirements could be waived in favour of improved public transport. Cash for
         off-site parking could be provided instead of parking spots. However, developers still
         provide on-site parking as a response to the market.
        Is there a need for council to provide public parking? If the preferred approach is to not,
         then on-street parking needs to be managed.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 67
                                                                Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




         Where parking is provided, the City of Melbourne advocate that parking spaces be built to
          room height to enable retrofitting.


S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a n d H o u si n g


Sustainability has evolved from taking a site or building specific scope to take a broader precinct
based approach in some jurisdictions.            This includes consideration of land use, transport and
shared energy generation and waste disposal responses.


The concept of local area self-sufficiency remains important. Activity centres have been nominated
to provide for diverse community needs however consideration needs to be given as to whether
additional activity centres need to be added to the city to cater for a larger population in the future.
The conversion of surplus industrial land also needs careful management to ensure future job and
service needs are able to be provided across the municipality.


Another issue is the provision of State services, such as schools, and whether spaces and services
are being provided to meet community needs.


A way of facilitating desired housing outcomes include approaching developers that are delivering
the desire housing form elsewhere to view options in the municipality and showcasing desired
design examples.


There are questions over whether the municipality has an up-to-date housing strategy, and
whether locations remote from public transport and services are appropriate for higher densities of
development.


Other questions and points that were raised included:
         How are sustainability initiatives applying in planning frameworks and dealing with
          governance issues? (SGS clarified that Bill O’Neil with provide advice on planning
          framework improvements.)
         Moreland are already undertaking a number of environmentally sustainable development
          and other sustainability initiatives. The approach taken by Moreland needs to be less
          conservative and include more precinct level initiatives.
         The approach by developers depends on their own context. For example, smaller
          developers have different requirements and lower risk tolerances and are therefore more
          sensitive to increasing sustainability regulation.
         City West in Sydney have inclusionary zoning as part of their better cities program.
         Underdevelopment of sites could be actively discouraged through setting maximum private
          open space or setback standards. Underdevelopment of land could be directed to strategic
          locations to keep future opportunities available.
         In areas where development is discouraged, a minimum lot size, minimum setbacks and
          minimum private open space standards could stop change in these areas.
         Moreland can advocate for a better Residential 1 Zone template to implement changes such
          as increased energy efficiency.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 68
                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Appendix 2 - Implementation of Specific Objectives
This section provides an overview of how the Victorian Planning Provisions and how particular
mechanisms can be implemented in the context of the existing Victorian Planning Provisions. These
are addressed through the following areas:
         Energy and sustainability;
         Building standards;
         Transport;
         Housing;
         Redevelopment; and
         Incentives.


Overview of the Victorian Planning Provisions

The Victoria Planning Provisions are a comprehensive set of planning provisions which provide a
standard format for all planning schemes in the State (see Figure 19).


Figure 19 Structure of the Municipal Planning Scheme 67




67
     VPP’s Online – www.dpcd.vic.gov.au



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 69
                                                                Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




As highlighted in Figure 19, some elements of the VPP’s apply State Wide and are ‘fixed’ (such as
the State Planning Policy Framework (Clauses 10 – 19), Particular Provisions, General Provisions
and Definitions) while other elements have the capacity to in whole or part be drafted by local
municipalities (eg LPPF, Schedules to zones and overlays). The structure of the VPP’s therefore has
a strong bearing on the flexibility or otherwise afforded to councils.


S t a t e P l a n n i n g P ol i c y F r a m e w or k


Clauses 10 – 19 of the VPP’s articulate the State Planning Policy Framework. The SPPF policies
must be taken into account when preparing amendments to planning schemes or in making
decisions under the provisions of the planning scheme.


The SPPF is currently structured under the following headings:
             Introduction, Goal and Principles;
             Metropolitan Development
             Settlement
             Environment
             Housing
             Economic Development
             Infrastructure; and
             Particular Uses and Development


It is noted that the State Government is currently facilitating a formal review of the SPPF.                  The
draft new version is structured as follows:
              Settlement
              Environmental Values
              Environmental Risk
              Housing
              Economic Activity
              Resource Management
              Built Form
              Transport
              Infrastructure


L oc a l P l a n n i n g P ol i c y F r a m e w or k


The Local Planning Policy Framework, which comprises Clause 21 (Municipal Strategic Statement)
and Clause 22 (Local Policies) is specific to individual municipalities. The LPPF provides the
opportunity for councils to give local expression to the content of the State Planning Policy
Framework and clearly articulate the planning and land use vision, objectives, and strategies for
the municipality.      The content of the LPPF is informed by Council’s Corporate Plan and strategic
planning studies undertaken and adopted by the municipality.


It is important to highlight that Local Planning Policies at Clause 22 cannot trigger a requirement
for a planning permit, nor can they include specification of ‘mandatory’ controls. Therefore, while
local policies are useful in articulating intent or a desired outcome, they are not ‘prescriptive’ tools.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                P. 70
                                                                Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Zones


Each land use zone contained in the VPP’s includes a purpose, table of uses which specifies
discretionary,   permit   required   and   prohibited   uses,    permit    triggers     for   subdivision     and
development, decision guidelines. The zone determines “land use”.


The zones have a limited capacity to reflect local ambition – via the schedule to the zone. Each
schedule has different variations however as an overarching observation, the opportunities for
variation are very limited.


It is highlighted that zones trigger planning permits for either use or buildings and works (or both).


Overlays


As opposed to zones which relate to “land use”, overlays relate to and focus on “building and
works”. They are applied by Council’s according to built form considerations and outcomes sought
for a particular area.


Overlays are a very effective tool for Council’s to specify environmental, design and infrastructure
matters to be achieved in the building and works authorised by the zone provisions. It is noted
however that the application of the overlays is generally applied to specific areas within a
municipality (as opposed to municipality wide).


In respect to the matters considered in this report, the Development Plan Overlay (DPO) and the
Design and Development Overlay (DDO) are particularly relevant tools.


The purpose of the DPO is to:


        Identify areas which require the form and conditions of future use and development to be
        shown on a development plan before a permit can be granted to use or develop the land.


The purpose of the DDO is to:


        Identify areas which are affected by specific requirements relating to the design and built
        form of new development. Where land is affected by a DDO, buildings and works must be
        constructed in accordance with any requirements articulated in the schedule.                     A DDO
        schedule may include requirements relating to:


           Building setbacks.
           Building height.
           Plot ratio.
           Landscaping.
           Any other requirements relating to the design or built form of new development.


It is noted that Moreland City Council has utilised the DPO and DDO extensively and effectively. As
highlighted later in this review, these two overlays have been and can continue to be used
effectively by Council to advance outcomes and opportunities identified in this review.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 71
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




P a r t i c u l a r P r ov i si o n s


Particular provisions apply to specified categories of use and development and must be considered
in addition to other provisions of the planning schemes.


At Clause 52 there are 41 specific use and development items listed. Of relevance to this study are
the following:
          52.06 – Car Parking
          52.34 - Bicycle Facilities
          52.36 – Integrated Public Transport Planning
          52.41 - Government Funded Social Housing


Clause 54 outlines objectives, standards and decision guidelines relating to the construction of ‘one
dwelling on a lot’. Clause 55 provides similar guidelines for two or more dwellings on a lot and
residential buildings and Clause 56 relates to residential subdivision.


It is highlighted that some (but not many) of the particular provisions have schedules in which
Local Council’s can insert local requirements (eg Clause 52.06 – Car Parking).


Energy and Sustainability

M a n d a t o r y e n e r g y t a r g e t s f o r b ui l di ng s a n d / or p r e c i n c t s


Clause 11.03 of the SPPF states that:


          Planning is to contribute to the protection of air, land and water quality and the
          conservation of natural ecosystems, resources, energy and cultural heritage. In particular,
          planning should:
                         Adopt a best practice environmental management and risk management
                          approach which aims to avoid or minimise environmental degradation and
                          hazards. (Emphasis Added)


Clause 19.03 of the current SPPF, under the heading Energy and Resource Efficiency, states:
              All building, subdivision and engineering works should promote more efficient use of
               resources and energy efficiency.


The above State Policy is retained in the Draft SPPF review document (repositioned under the
proposed Clause 17). It is noted that neither the existing or proposed modified draft of the SPPF
specify energy “targets” to be attained, but rather promotes ‘best practice’.


It is also noted that the VPP’s were modified in 2002 to remove a Clause (and the accompanying
Energy Efficiency Practice Note) which required the achievement of a 4 star energy rating for multi
unit developments. The objectives and standards relating to Energy Efficiency in building design
are now regulated via the Building code of Australia (BCA).                  The BCA includes energy efficiency
measures for residential and commercial building classifications. The BCA provisions require a 5
star rating to be achieved for new buildings as well as for renovations and extensions to homes.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 72
                                                                  Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




The LPPF (Clause 21 or 22) could be utilised to articulate more detailed aspirational goals and
targets pertaining to energy efficiencies and other environmental sustainable development
outcomes sought in order to advance the ‘best practice’ objectives articulated in the SPPF.                      As
highlighted earlier however, Clause 21 and 22 do not trigger requirements for planning permits and
cannot contain mandated requirements.


The Design and Development Overlay (DDO) and or the Development Plan Overlay potentially
could also be utilitised to outline specific targets for geographic areas or precincts (Refer discussion
below).


It is also highlighted that any energy target sought to be incorporated into the Scheme would
require sound strategic justification, be subject of Ministerial Authorisation and tested via a
planning scheme amendment process.


I n c r e a se m i n i m u m e n v i r on m e n t a l s t a n da r d s, s uc h     as    t he    star     r a t i ng
sy st e m , f o r p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g a n d / or pr e c i nc t s


As highlighted previously, the Design and Development Overlay and the Development Plan Overlay
can be utilised to specify form and conditions of future development, including design
requirements.


It is noted that the existing Moreland Planning Scheme effectively utilises these tools to advance
environmentally sustainable outcomes.           Where there is supporting strategic justification, more
specific standards or outcomes could be incorporated into such planning frameworks.


                 DDO, Schedule 11, Moreland Planning Scheme
                 (Applies to a number of corner gateway sites of the Brunswick Activity Centre)




                 1.0 Design objectives


                         …
                         …
                         To ensure that development incorporates environmentally sustainable design
                          measures.
                         …


                 2.0 Application requirements




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 73
                                                                    Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




               An application for development should include, as appropriate, the following information to
               the satisfaction of the responsible authority:
                            ….
                            An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) prepared by a suitably qualified person
                             that demonstrates how the development provides for environmentally sustainable
                             design measures.
                            A Green Travel Plan (GTP) outlining site-specific initiatives and actions to encourage
                             the use of sustainable transport options.
                            …


               3.0 Buildings and works


               …


               Environmental sustainable design
                            Development should incorporate, where appropriate environmental sustainable
                             design measures in the areas of energy and water efficiency, passive solar design,
                             natural ventilation, stormwater reduction and management, solar access, orientation
                             and layout of the development, building materials and waste minimisation.
               …


               6.0 Decision guidelines


               Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider, as appropriate:
                       The design objectives of this schedule.
                       ….
                       The overall environmental sustainable performance of the development.
                
                       Whether the proposed development achieves the design objectives set out in the
                        Design Guidelines for Higher Density Residential Development published by the
                        Department of Sustainability and Environment (2004)


               DPO, Schedule 10, Moreland Planning Scheme
               (Applies to the Former Kodak Site)




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc             P. 74
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




               2.0 - Conditions and requirements for permits:


                       Any permit for a development must include a condition requiring the preparation of a
                       Sustainable Design Statement (SDS) to the satisfaction of the Responsible Authority.
                       The Sustainable Design Statement must be in accordance with the whole-of-site
                       Environmental Management Plan forming part of the approved Development Plan.
                       Where in the opinion of the Responsible Authority the EMP provides satisfactory
                       detail in relation to a particular development, the Responsible Authority may waive
                       the requirement for a SDS.


               3.0     Requirements for development plan


                       A development plan must have regard to the adopted Objectives for the
                       Redevelopment of the former Kodak Site (Sept 2006) and may consist of plans or
                       other documents and must show or include the following:


                       …
                       …


                       Environmentally Sustainable Development
                          Provision of an overall road layout that maximises the opportunity for solar
                           efficient lot layouts within the site and that does not compromise the existing
                           passive solar access of existing dwellings surrounding the site.
                          Provision of a whole-of-site Stormwater Drainage Master Plan that addresses the
                           following:
                           o   Water Sensitive Urban Design principles and protection of the environmental
                               values of Edgars Creek;
                           o   On-site retention, treatment and/or reuse of stormwater to reduce run-off
                               from the site and improve the quality of stormwater entering Moreland’s
                               stormwater drainage system.
                          A comprehensive, whole-of-site Environmental Management Plan demonstrating
                           best practice and addressing, amongst other things, the following:




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 75
                                                                    Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




                                o   Energy Efficiency;
                                o   Water Sensitive Urban Design/ integrated water management;
                                o   Public realm design for access and mobility;
                                o   Measures to reduce or manage car parking demand and encourage
                                    sustainable alternative transport modes including public transport and
                                    cycling.
                                The Environmental Management Plan must:
                                o   identify strategic or other documented sustainability targets or performance
                                    standards that the site is aiming to meet; (Emphasis Added)
                                o   document the means by which the appropriate target or performance will be
                                    achieved; (Emphasis Added)
                                o   identify responsibilities and a schedule for implementation, and ongoing
                                    management, maintenance and monitoring where relevant;
                                o   demonstrate that the design element, technologies and operational practices
                                    that comprise the Environmental Management Plan can be maintained over
                                    time.



Building Standards

R e q u i r e m e n t s a n d / or g u i d e l i ne s f o r pr ov i si on of gr e e n r o o f s


Upon completion of the necessary detailed technical and strategic work regarding green roof design
and application, Moreland City Council could encourage (but not mandate) the incorporation of
green roofs in developments via the inserting of relevant objectives and strategy in the MSS
(possibility as one element of a broader ESD theme).               This could be supported by including the
background research as a reference document in the scheme.


More prescriptive outcomes sought could be included on a site or precinct basis in conjunction with
the application of the DDO or DPO.


It is again highlighted that any change to the Planning Scheme would require strategic justification
to be documented, Ministerial Authorisation to be obtained and testing via the Planning Scheme
Amendment Process.


A m e n d i n g b u i l d i n g a n d p l a n n i n g c o de s t o c a t e r f or a n a g e i n g p o pul a t i o n,
s u c h a s m a n d a t i n g w i d e r d o or w a y s, r a m p s , g r a b r a i l s


The current VPP’s at Clause 55 (two or more dwellings on a lot and residential buildings) contains
the following applicable objective and Standard.


                  55.05-1 Accessibility objective


                  To encourage the consideration of the needs of people with limited mobility in the design of
                  developments.


                  Standard B25



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc            P. 76
                                                                       Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




                      The dwelling entries of the ground floor of dwellings and residential buildings should be
                      accessible or able to be easily made accessible to people with limited mobility.


Requirements relating to internal building design are addressed via Building Codes.


Changes to              ResCode        f or   m or e    e ne r gy     efficient     i ni t i a t e s   su c h   as   lot
or i e n t a t i on


Rescode has been incorporated into the VPP’s via particular provisions at Clauses 54, 55 and 56
including the articulation of design objectives, standards and decision guidelines.


Clause 55 addresses construction of 2 or more dwellings on a lot and residential buildings includes
the following requirements in relation to Energy Efficiency


                      55.03-5 Energy efficiency objectives


                      To achieve and protect energy efficient dwellings and residential buildings.
                      To ensure the orientation and layout of development reduce fossil fuel energy use and make
                      appropriate use of daylight and solar energy.


                      Standard B10
                      Buildings should be:
                          Oriented to make appropriate use of solar energy.
                          Sited and designed to ensure that the energy efficiency of existing dwellings on adjoining
                           lots is not unreasonably reduced.
                          Living areas and private open space should be located on the north side of the
                           development, if practicable.
                          Developments should be designed so that solar access to north-facing windows is
                           maximised.


                      Decision guidelines
                      Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider:
                          The design response.
                          The size, orientation and slope of the lot.
                          The existing amount of solar access to abutting properties.
                          The availability of solar access to north-facing windows on the site.


Similarly Clause 56 (subdivision) includes the following Solar orientation objectives and standards,
and decision guidelines.

                      56.04-3 Solar orientation of lots objective
                         To provide good solar orientation of lots and solar access for future dwellings.

                      Standard C9
                         Unless the site is constrained by topography or other site conditions, at least 70 percent
                          of lots should have appropriate solar orientation.
                         Lots have appropriate solar orientation when:
                          o The long axis of lots are within the range north 20 degrees west to north 30 degrees
                              east, or east 20 degrees north to east 30 degrees south.
                          o Lots between 300 square metres and 500 square metres are proposed to contain
                              dwellings that are built to the boundary, the long axis of the lots should be within 30
                              degrees east and 20 degrees west of north.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 77
                                                                 Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




                    o   Dimensions of lots are adequate to protect solar access to the lot, taking into account
                        likely dwelling size and the relationship of each lot to the street.


Any application to subdivide land must meet the design objective and should meet the standards.


The above provisions apply State-Wide. As per the discussion above regarding ‘green roofs’, upon
completion of the necessary detailed technical and strategic work regarding future energy efficient
initiatives, Moreland City Council could encourage (but not mandate) the incorporation of same via
the inserting of relevant objectives and strategy(ies) in the MSS, possibility as one element of a
broader ESD theme. This could be supported by including the background research as a reference
document in the scheme.


Transport

Reduced or         maximum         car    p a r k i ng   p r ov i si o n   rates      f or   bui l di n g    and
precincts


The VPP’s contain car parking standards for a range of uses. Clause 52.06 states that a new use
must not commence or the floor area of an existing use must not be increased until the required
car spaces have been provided on the land.


The table at Clause 52.06-5 sets out the number of car spaces required for uses not covered by a
parking precinct plan or another clause.


Clause 55 (two or more dwellings on a lot) contains the following parking objectives, standards and
guidelines.


               55.03-11 Parking provision objectives
                  To ensure that car and bicycle parking for residents and visitors is appropriate to the
                   needs of residents.
                  To ensure that the design of parking and access areas is practical and attractive and that
                   these areas can be easily maintained.


               Standard B16
               Car parking for residents should be provided as follows:
                  One space for each one or two bedroom dwelling.
                  Two spaces for each three or more bedroom dwelling, with one space under cover.
               Studies or studios that are separate rooms must be counted as bedrooms.
               Developments of five or more dwellings should provide visitor car parking of one space for
               every five dwellings. The spaces should be clearly marked as visitor parking.                     In
               developments of five or more dwellings, bicycle parking spaces should be provided.


               Decision guidelines
               Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider:
                  The reduction in the demand for on-site parking in rental housing, managed by not for
                   profit organisations, intended for residents likely to have a low level of car ownership.
                  The number, type and size of dwellings.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc        P. 78
                                                                   Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




                     The availability of public transport and on-street parking
                     The practicality of providing car parking on the site, particularly for lots of less than 300
                      square metres.
                     The reduction of on-street car parking spaces associated with the provision of car parking
                      on the site, particularly for lots of less than 300 square metres.
                     Local traffic and parking management plans and safety considerations.
                     Any relevant local planning policy or parking precinct plan.


It is also highlighted that Clause 56 (Subdivision) contains the following integrated mobility
objective:


                To contribute to reduced car dependence, improved energy efficiency, reduced greenhouse
                gas emissions and reduced air pollution


The standard car parking provisions outlined in Clause 52.06 can be reduced or waived via a
planning permit application. Clause 52.06-6 also enables Parking Precinct Plans to be prepared. In
relation to this, the Parking Precinct Plan VPP Practice Note, July 2002 notes:



                These are locally prepared strategic plans that contain parking provisions for an area or
                ‘precinct’. They allow all the parking issues arising in a precinct to be considered and a
                strategy to be implemented to address them. They can replace the rates in the table and
                reduce or remove the need for potentially complex parking investigations to support individual
                permit applications.    Parking Precinct Plans can be prepared for any precinct where local
                parking issues can be identified, and a common strategy can be adopted to respond to them.
                Once prepared, they become part of the planning scheme and can only be changed by a
                planning scheme amendment.


                Any Parking Precinct plan must meet the requirements of Clause 52.06-6 and should respond
                to the content and structure guidance in the VPP practice note


                The Parking Precinct Plan’s primary function is to manage parking in a precinct, rather than
                on a site-by-site basis. Plans measure the parking characteristics of their precinct and provide
                procedures for evaluating the number of car spaces required, based on those characteristics
                and   the desired change. Within the precinct, they can:
                     set out how car spaces can be provided
                     regulate the demand for, and supply of, parking
                     specify car parking rates derived from local research, where the rates specified in the
                      Clause 52.06-5 Car parking table are found to be inapplicable
                     specify car parking rates that incorporate efficiencies achievable with a precinct-wide
                      approach (such as requiring shared provision)
                     simplify the information required to support individual planning permit applications.


                The responsible authority must also consider a plan when examining an application for a
                planning permit to reduce or waive a parking requirement; to vary access, driveway or car
                space dimensions; or to approve a car parking plan within the precinct.


The Practice Note also makes the following observation in relation to Parking Precinct Plans
contribution to supporting sustainable development.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 79
                                                              Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




               Supporting sustainable development
               Parking Precinct Plans can support the achievement of sustainable development. They can:
                  help to facilitate the use of public transport
                  support measures such as car reduction schemes or the development of alternative
                   modes of transport, including walking and cycling
                  support the efficient use of urban land through the integration of car parking with other
                   forms of development
                  promote the better environmental performance of car parking areas.


The following graphic outlines the relationship between Parking Precinct Plans, Studies and the
State and Local Planning Policy Framework.


Figure 20 Parking Precinct Plans and Parking Studies and Strategies




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc       P. 80
                                                                        Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




R e q u i r e m e n t f or p r ov i si on f o r s ha r e d c a r p a r k i ng f a c i l i t i e s i n hi g h de n si t y
areas


As discussed above, Council can undertake (or require proponents to prepare) a car parking study /
strategy and resultant Parking Precinct Plan (for inclusion as an Incorporated Document at Clause
81). Such a Plan can specify parking rates.


M a n d a t i n g p r ov i si o n of b i k e p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s a n d a m e ni t i e s ( e g s h o we r s ,
l oc k e r s) i n b u i l d i n g s


The Particular Provision at Clause 52.34 relate to the provision of Bicycle Facilities.                               The
requirements apply in addition to any other provisions of the scheme. Key extracts of 52.34 are
reproduced below.


                   52.34 BICYCLE FACILITIES


                   Purpose
                   To encourage cycling as a mode of transport.
                   To provide secure, accessible and convenient bicycle parking spaces and associated shower
                   and change facilities.


                   52.34-1 Provision of bicycle facilities
                   A new use must not commence or the floor area of an existing use must not be increased
                   until the required bicycle facilities and associated signage has been provided on the land.
                   Where the floor area occupied by an existing use is increased, the requirement for bicycle
                   facilities only applies to the increased floor area of the use.


                   52.34-2 Permit requirement
                   A permit may be granted to vary, reduce or waive any requirement of Clause 52.34-3 and
                   Clause 52.34-4.


                   52.34-3 Required bicycle facilities
                   Tables 1, 2 and 3 to this clause set out the number and type of bicycle facilities required.
                   Bicycle facilities are required if the use is listed in column 1 of the table. The number of
                   bicycle facilities required for a use is the sum of columns 2 and 3 of the tables.
                   If in calculating the number of bicycle facilities the result is not a whole number, the required
                   number of bicycle facilities is the nearest whole number. If the fraction is one-half, the
                   requirement is the next whole number.
                   A bicycle space for an employee or resident must be provided either in a bicycle locker or at a
                   bicycle rail in a lockable compound.
                   A bicycle space for a visitor, shopper or student must be provided at a bicycle rail.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 81
                                                                        Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




(Note the above is only an extract from table 1)




Clause 52.34 also provides guidelines for the design of bicycle spaces, bicycle rails, bicycle
compounds and lockers and bicycle signage.


C o n t r i b u t i o n s f or b e t t e r c y c l i n g pa t h s a n d f a c i l i t i e s i n p u bl i c s pa c e s a n d
s u s t a i n a b l e t r a n sp o r t o p t i o n s


The development of cycle paths / facilities and land for public transport (such as a rail station) are
item for potential inclusion in a Development Contributions Plan.                       It is noted however that a



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc               P. 82
                                                                    Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Development Contribution can only be obtained from new development in accordance with an
approved DCP.


Council can also require the provision of a cycle path / facilities and advance sustainable transport
options as conditions on new development via provision in a DPO of DDO. Schedule 10 the City of
Moreland DPO is a good example (Refer extract below)


                  DPO, Schedule 10, Moreland Planning Scheme
                  (Applies to the Former Kodak Site)


                  3.0      Requirements for development plan


                           A development plan must have regard to the adopted Objectives for the
                           Redevelopment of the former Kodak Site (Sept 2006) and may consist of plans or
                           other documents and must show or include the following:


                           …


                           Traffic and Transport
                               The designation of a possible bus route through the site and provision for
                                appropriate road pavement widths along this potential route to facilitate the
                                future needs for a bus along these roads that considers the views of the DoT
                                Public Transport Division.
                               The provision of pedestrian and cycle links through the site which provide
                                convenient and safe access from / to bus stops, Edgars Creek, the Newlands
                                Primary School and the neighbourhood hub.
                               The formalisation of open space links, including provision of a shared pedestrian
                                and cycle path along the Edgars Creek corridor in the immediate vicinity of the
                                site.
                               The retention of the former Kodak bridge for pedestrian and cycling purposes
                                only.


T a x e s on c a r ow n e r sh i p / s p a c e s      to     di sc o ur a g e   u se    of   cars      in    p u bl i c
t r a n s p or t r i c h a r e a s


The VPP’s do not contain a mechanism to advance this outcome.


Housing

M a n d a t i n g m i n i m u m h o u si n g t a r ge t s i n t e r m s of m i x o r d e n si t y of d we l l i n g
types


Clause 56 of the VPP’s addresses Subdivision. Clause 56.04 contains the following lot diversity and
distribution Objectives and Standard which are relevant to the consideration of dwelling mix and
types.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc            P. 83
                                                                   Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




               56.04-1 Lot diversity and distribution objectives
                  To achieve housing densities that support compact and walkable neighbourhoods and the
                   efficient provision of public transport services.
                  To provide higher housing densities within walking distance of activity centres.
                  To achieve increased housing densities in designated growth areas.
                  To provide a range of lot sizes to suit a variety of dwelling and household types.


               Standard C7
                  A subdivision should implement any relevant housing strategy, plan or policy for the area
                   set out in this scheme.
                  Lot sizes and mix should achieve the average net residential density specified in any zone
                   or overlay that applies to the land or in any relevant policy for the area set out in this
                   scheme.
                  A range and mix of lot sizes should be provided including lots suitable for the development
                   of:
                   o     Single dwellings.
                   o     Two dwellings or more.
                   o     Higher density housing.
                   o     Residential buildings and Retirement villages.
                  Unless the site is constrained by topography or other site conditions, lot distribution should
                   provide for 95 per cent of dwellings to be located no more than 400 metre street walking
                   distance from the nearest existing or proposed bus stop, 600 metres street walking
                   distance from the nearest existing or proposed tram stop and 800 metres street walking
                   distance from the nearest existing or proposed railway station.
                  Lots of 300 square metres or less in area, lots suitable for the development of two
                   dwellings or more, lots suitable for higher density housing and lots suitable for Residential
                   buildings and Retirement villages should be located in and within 400 metres street
                   walking distance of an activity centre.


As highlighted above (refer underline) various other provisions of the scheme can be utilised to
specify dwelling type and yield. Again the DPO applied to the former Kodak site provides a good
example (Refer following).

               DPO, Schedule 10, Moreland Planning Scheme
               (Applies to the Former Kodak Site)



               3.0         Requirements for development plan


                           A development plan must have regard to the adopted Objectives for the
                           Redevelopment of the former Kodak Site (Sept 2006) and may consist of plans or
                           other documents and must show or include the following:


                           …


                           Housing
                               A minimum lot yield of 380 dwellings.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 84
                                                                      Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




                              Provision of a variety of dwelling sizes and household types including, but not
                               limited to, dwellings in the form of single detached houses, townhouses and
                               flats/apartments.
                              Provision   of   medium      density   housing   and    taller   buildings   around   the
                               neighbourhood hub and / or central to the site.


                          Affordable Housing
                              A written report describing how affordable housing will be distributed through
                               the site and how the proposed mix and type of housing responds to local
                               housing need.


                          Accessible and Adaptable Development
                              Details showing how the development will incorporate adaptable, accessible and
                               visitable design features.


M a n d a t i n g m i n i m u m h ou si n g t a r ge t s i n t e r m s of h o u si n g p r i c e t o p r ov i de
a f f o r d a b l e h ou si n g a n d or M a n da t i n g p r ov i si on of i nc l u si on a r y z o ni ng


The State Planning Policy relating to affordable housing is articulated at Clause 16.05.                             The
objective is to:
                          To deliver more affordable housing closer to jobs, transport and services


Strategies listed at 16.05-2 of the VPP’s include:


                          Improve housing affordability by:
                              Ensuring land supply continues to be sufficient to meet demand.
                              Increasing choice in housing type, tenure and cost to meet the needs of
                               households as they move through life cycle changes and to support diverse
                               communities.
                              Promoting good housing and urban design to minimise negative environmental
                               impacts and keep down costs for residents and the wider community.


                          Increase the supply of well-located affordable housing by:
                              Encouraging a significant proportion of new development, including development
                               at activity centres and strategic redevelopment sites, to be affordable for
                               households on low to moderate incomes.
                              Facilitating a mix of private, affordable and social housing in activity centres,
                               strategic redevelopment sites and Transit Cities projects.
                              Ensuring the redevelopment and renewal of public housing stock better meets
                               community needs.


While the VPP’s do not provide the opportunity to mandating minimum housing price targets or
inclusionary zoning to provide affordable housing, Council’s can seek to articulate their aspirational
goals and targets in the LPPF. The current Moreland MSS addresses this issue at Clause 21.05 – 1
in Objective 6 and accompanying strategies. It also identifies other actions such as the “allocation
of funding towards housing programs that promote and retain affordable housing in the
municipality.” This combined approach is considered appropriate.



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc           P. 85
                                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Redevelopment

F a c i l i t a t i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e m e di a t i o n of br o w nf i e l d si t e s


It is highly appropriate to include in a Municipal Strategic Statement (at Clause 21) ambitions /
objectives and accompanying strategies to relating to remediation of brown field sites.


Council’s existing MSS at Clause 21.05-2 - Industry and Commerce contains an extensive suite of
objectives, strategies and implementation measures (including further strategic work) which in part
implements the recommendations of its comprehensive 2004 Industrial Land Strategy.


In respect of brownfield sites Council’s MSS seeks to:
          facilitate a diverse industrial and business sector as old industrial sites are considered for renewal and
          support the conversion of former industrial land to viable employment generating uses.


Council also acknowledges that:
          Some former industrial sites have been identified for redevelopment for residential uses. These sites
          will provide for residential developments at increased densities.


The raft of strategies Council has articulated in the MSS are considered to collectively represent a robust
strategic approach to the development and redevelopment of its industrial land resource. It is noted that the
following project is identified as piece of further Strategic Work:


          Prepare structure plans to instigate and manage improvements to the amenity and functioning of the
          Core Industry and Employment areas of Newlands, Coburg North and Brunswick so as to attract new
          industries and business and to reinforce employment generating opportunities in the city.


The preparation of such plans provides an opportunity to further explore remediation actions.


P r ov i d i n g c o u n c i l a n d / or d e v e l o pe r s wi t h c o m p ul s o r y a c q ui si t i on p o we r s
t o p a r c e l / c o n sol i d a t e si t e s


In relation to the Victorian Planning System, the Public Acquisition Overlay (Clause 45.01 of the
VPPs) has as its purposes:


          To identify land which is proposed to be acquired by an authority.
          To reserve land for a public purpose and to ensure that changes to the use or development of the land
          do not prejudice the purpose for which the land is to be acquired.


Having noted this Clause 45.01-6 (Reservation for public purpose) states:


          Any land included in a Public Acquisition Overlay is reserved for a public purpose within the meaning of
          the Planning and Environment Act 1987, the Land Acquisition and Compensation Act 1986 or any other
          act. (Emphasis added)




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 86
                                                                      Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




Therefore while Council can apply the POA and acquire land accordingly, the use of such land must
be for a “public purpose”.


F a s t t r a c k i n g p l a n n i n g a p p r ov a l pr o c e s se s f o r r e m e di a t i o n of i n du s t r i a l
land


Moreland City Council like many Council’s in Victoria seek to provide a “fast track” planning permit
approval process. The type and form of permits that can be “fast tracked” are listed on Council’s
web site as follows:


         Fast Track Categories


                      a small dwelling extension or garage in a Heritage Overlay where the lot is over 300
                       square metres and the works can’t be seen from the street or other public space.
                      a new dwelling or dwelling extensions in the Gowanbrae Estate provided that the
                       requirements of any restrictive covenant on the Title of the land have been met.
                      minor works to an existing shop or commercial premises that is exempt from the
                       requirement to give public notice.
                      a new building or works to an existing building in an industrial area that does not require
                       additional car parking and is exempt from the requirement to give public notice.
                      some types of signs in commercial areas.
                      works in a Special Building Overlay (see the ‘Express Lane’ guide for more information),
                       or
                      minor changes to existing permits.


Moreland seeks to process such applications within 15 days.                   The categories are more broadly
described as:

                      buildings or works that are minor, like small dwelling extensions or building a fence,
                       garage or carport, and
                      works within some business or industrial zones, that are exempt from the requirement to
                       give public notice of an application.


The advancement of fast tracking remediation of old industrial sites will generally require the
completion of site specific environmental audit processes, structure planing and the like.
Implementation of Council’s existing MSS commitment to prepare structure plans for “the Core
Industry and Employment areas of Newlands, Coburg North and Brunswick” will greatly assist in
subsequent permit application considerations.


Incentives

P r ov i d e a d d i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e nt c a p a c i t y i f v ol u nt a r y p r ov i si o n o f
a f f o r d a b l e h ou si n g or a n o t h e r n o n m a n da t or y o bj e c t i v e ( s) i s / a r e of f e r e d


From a strategic planning perspective, care would need to be exercised in advancing this approach
to ensure that the resultant form of any development on a site meets minimum design and
functionally standards.


Having noted this, from a statutory planning perspective, possible mechanisms to advance
“incentives” based outcomes would be the Schedule to the Design and Development Overlay. As



1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc              P. 87
                                                                          Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




noted previously strategic justification for the proposed approach would need to be documented
and ultimately tested via a Planning Scheme Amendment process.


F a s t t r a c k i n g p l a n n i n g a p p r ov a l p r o c e s se s f or           bui l di n g s   that     exceed
s u s t a i n a b i l i t y or h o u si n g a f f o r da bi l i t y s t a nd a r d s


Refer previous discussion on ‘Fast Tracking’.




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc                 P. 88
                                                             Moreland City Council / Strategic Directions Report




BRISBANE                             CANBERRA                                     HOBART


Level 9 269 Wickham St               Level 1 55 Woolley St                        Unit 2 5 King Street
FORTITUDE VALLEY QLD 4006            DICKSON ACT 2602                             BELLERIVE TAS 7018
P: +61 7 3124 9026                   P: + 61 2 6262 7603                          P: + 61 3 6223 6006
F: +61 7 3124 9031                   F: + 61 2 6262 7564                          F: + 61 3 6224 9009
sgsqld@sgsep.com.au                  E: sgsact@sgsep.com.au                       E: sgstas@sgsep.com.au


MELBOURNE                            PERTH                                        SYDNEY


Level 5 171 Latrobe Street           Suite 4 1327 Hay St                          Suite 12 50 Reservoir St
MELBOURNE VIC 3000                   WEST PERTH WA 6005                           SURRY HILLS NSW 2010
P: + 61 3 8616 0331                  P: + 61 8 9254 9962                          P: + 61 2 8307 0121
F: + 61 3 8616 0332                  F: + 61 8 9254 9965                          F: + 61 2 8307 0126
E: sgsvic@sgsep.com.au               E: sgswa@sgsep.com.au                        E: sgsnsw@sgsep.com.au




1c9556ec-fbce-4257-8777-a140f9eba8a8.doc     P. 1

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:8/24/2012
language:English
pages:91