Austria

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					Austria
     Politics


• Part of HRE
• Dominated HRE
• Catholic
  – supported by Pope
• Did not use war to gain land
                  Golden Bull
•       HRE - 300 autonomous entities
•       7 member electoral college
    –    Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Saxony,
         Brandenburg, Palatine, Bohemia
•       Administrative body
•       Elected emperor of HRE
              Hapsburg Family


•   Dominated the HRE
•   Hapsburg family controlled the Holy
    Roman Emperor from 1438 to 1806
•   “Other nations may war, but you, Austria,
    marry.
•   Maria Theresa (r.1740-1780)
     •   Charles VI’s daughter
     •   Pragmatic Sanction – European nations recognize
         her rule
                 Joseph II
•   (r. 1765 to 1790)
•   Son of Maria Theresa
•   Enlightened absolutism
•   Not ruled by Catholicism alone
     Prince Klemens Wenzel von
             Metternich
•   (1773 –1859)
•   Statesman
•   Diplomat
•   Congress of Vienna
    – Reshape Europe after
      Napoleonic wars
    – Most rulers
    – Unsuccessful
 Marie Antoinette (1755 – 1793)
• Married Louis XVII of
  France
• Alliance with Austria –
  Hapsburg Empire
• Very into lavish items
• Very social person – liked
  wealth
• Executed by guillotine at the
  height of the French
  Revolution in 1793
   – Treason
                Land Holdings
• Kingdom of Bohemia
   – Czech Republic, Slovakia
• Moravia
• Silesia
• Spanish Netherlands
• Naples (Italy)
• Crown of Saint Stephen
   – Hungary
   – Croatia
   – Transylvania
• Most of this land is obtained through marriage, not war.
               30 Years War
• 1618-1848
• Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, Swedish-French
• Conflict between Lutheranism and Catholicism
  (Augsburg)
• Maximilian- Catholic League
  – Against Protestantism (Basically an army)
• Huge death toll
• First World War?
• Treaty of Westphalia ended hostilities
  – Swiss Con., Holland
                              Religion
•       Strongly Catholic
•       Peace if Augsburg
        1555
    –     Cuius region, eius
          religio – the ruler of the
          land would determine
          the religion.
•       Treaty of Westphalia
        1648
    –     Threatened
          Catholicism – allowed
          Lutheranism
                     Relgion
• The reformation broke out in Germany
  – Martin Luther 1525
    • Justification by faith alone
    • No indulgences
                  Social
• Feudal system
• Nobility had control over serfdom
               Artisitic
• Music was a big part of Austrian art
  –Johann Sebastian Bach
    • Fugue, cantata, keyboard
  –Franz Joseph Haydn
    • Father of the Symphony" and
      "Father of the String Quartet".
  –Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Symphony, opera, concerto

				
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