The War Continues
How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
Directions: As you read, complete a graphic organizer like the one below to list why France and Spain chose
to support the Patriot cause and what support those countries offered.
Gaining Allies (pages 161-164)
Identifying Central The Patriot victory in the Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the war.
France and other European nations realized that the Americans might win
Issues the war.
At Benjamin Franklin's urging, France secretly gave money to the
Why was the Battle of Americans. After the Patriot victory, France announced its support for the
Saratoga a turning point in United States and declared war on Britain. France sent money, supplies,
the war? and troops to help the Patriots.
Spain also declared war on Britain. Bernardo de Gálvez (GAHL•vez) was
the Spanish governor of Louisiana. He led troops against Britain in the
South. Gálvez's campaign kept some British troops away from other
battles in the war. This indirectly helped the Patriots.
During the winter of 1777-1778, Howe's troops wintered in Philadelphia
and Washington's troops wintered in Valley Forge, about 20 miles (32 km)
away. The Continental Army did not have enough food, clothing, shelter, or
medicine. It was a winter of terrible suffering. Many men deserted, or left
the Continental Army without permission and some officers resigned.
Defining The Continental Army managed to survive the horrible winter. New soldiers
joined in the spring. France's support of the Patriot cause boosted morale.
Use each vocabulary word Several Europeans arrived in the United States to help the Patriots. The
in this section in a Marquis de Lafayette (LAH•fee•EHT), a French noble, became a trusted
sentence: aide to Washington. Friedrich von Steuben (STOO•buhn), a former army
officer from Prussia, also helped. He made the Patriot troops at Valley
Forge better fighters. Juan de Miralles (mee•RAH•yays) from Spain helped
raise money from Spain, Cuba, and Mexico.
Paying for the war continued to be a major problem. The Continental
Congress could not raise money through taxes. The Congress printed
hundreds of millions of dollars worth of paper money, but they did not have
enough gold and silver to back up the money. This led to inflation, which
meant that more and more paper money was needed to buy the same
amount of goods. People quit using the paper money, but there was no
other way to pay for the war.
Life on the Home Front (pages 164-165)
Paraphrasing The ideas of liberty and freedom inspired by the American Revolution gave
some groups in American society hope that they, too, would win equality.
In your own words, describe Some women fought for women's rights. Judith Sargeant Murray argued
why some people began to that girls should get as good an education as boys. Abigail Adams
question slavery and the protested to her husband, John Adams, about the power of husbands over
inequality of women. wives.
Ideas of freedom also made some Americans question slavery. A few
Northern states attempted to abolish slavery within their borders. Some
African Americans fought on the Patriot side, hoping the Revolution would
end slavery. However, slavery would continue for many years.
Many Loyalists left the colonies. Some Loyalists fought on the British side,
or served as spies for the British. Those who remained after the war faced
difficulties. Sometimes Loyalists were attacked by mobs. Loyalists who
were suspected of helping the British could be arrested and tried as
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section.
1. Making Inferences Why do you think France only gave the Patriots money and supplies in secret
before the Battle of Saratoga?
2. Drawing Conclusions How did views of slavery change as a result of the American Revolution? What
In the space below, write a short description of the winter at Valley Forge from the point of view of a
soldier in Washington's army.