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The Korean Struggle The issue of Korean Reunification stems from

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					                                                                     Republic of Korea (Alexander Lee)
                                                                    Special Political and Decolonization
                                                                   Reunification of the Korean Peninsula

                                                The Korean Struggle

        The issue of Korean Reunification stems from the problems of the division of Korea.

These originate from the Korean War, an after effect of World War II and the Japanese

occupation of Korea. The history of the Dynasties in Korea dates as far back as 2333 BC, when

Korea was a unified kingdom.1 However, in 1910 the rule of the dynasties ended after the

Japanese invaded Korean and took control until August 1945. Near the end of World War II,

Japanese troops north of the 38th Parallel surrendered to the Soviets; Japanese troops south of the

38th surrendered to the Americans.2 In 1947, the American government presented a Resolution to

the General Assembly of the United Nations, calling for the Soviet Union and the United States

to hold elections in their respective post-WWII occupation zones of Korea. This would allow

Korea to have its own national government.3 This resulted in two nations in 1948 – the Republic

of Korea (South Korea), established in the area previously occupied by the United States, and the

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), formed by Communists in the area

formerly occupied by the Soviet Union. The Republic of Korea’s government, under Syngman

Rhee, was set up in Seoul, Korea’s traditional capital. The Democratic People’s Republic of

Korea’s government was led by Kim Il Sung and based in Pyongyang. These new nations were




1
  "History of Korea: Korean Dynasties." KoreaOrbit. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.koreaorbit.com/history-of-
korea/history-of-knorea-dynasties.html>.
2
  Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'Koreans go to War' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans. Evanston, IL
McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 775.
3
  Clauss, E. M. "United Nations and the Korean War." In Moore, John Allphin Jr., and Jerry Pubantz, eds.
Encyclopedia of the United Nations. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. Modern World History Online. Facts On
File, Inc. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE53&iPin=EUN199&SingleRecord=True>.




                                                   1 of 14
left at odds after 1949 when both the United States and the Soviet Union had withdrawn their

troops. Each government claimed their sole right to rule all of Korea, a once united kingdom.4

        On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began after North Korean troops invaded South

Korea. In response to the invasion, President Harry S. Truman of the United States ordered naval

and air support for South Korea. The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution two

days later that called for member nations to help the Republic of South Korea. Sixteen nations

sent around 520,000 troops to assist South Korea. These troops, in addition to the South Korean

troops numbering about 590,000, were placed under the command of American General Douglas

MacArthur.5 At first, the North Koreans appeared unstoppable, capturing Seoul and pushing the

UN and South Korean troops into a small defensive zone around Pusan, a city in the southeastern

corner of the peninsula. General MacArthur then launched a counterattack, landing troops behind

enemy lines at Inchon and trapping the North Korean troops between two attacking forces from

Inchon and Pusan. The North Korean troops either surrendered or fled, resulting in a successful

victory.6 The UN offensive, approved by the Security Council on October 7, 1950, called for the

United Nations Command (UNC) to pursue the North Korean forces fleeing across the 38th

Parallel. MacArthur’s forces pushed forward, despite Chinese warnings that it would not tolerate

an advance toward its borders.7




4
  Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'Koreans go to War' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans. Evanston, IL
McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 775.
5
  Ibid.
6
  Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'The United States Fights in Korea' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans.
Evanston, IL McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 776.
7
  Clauss, E. M. "United Nations and the Korean War." In Moore, John Allphin Jr., and Jerry Pubantz, eds.
Encyclopedia of the United Nations. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. Modern World History Online. Facts On
File, Inc. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE53&iPin=EUN199&SingleRecord=True>.


                                                   2 of 14
        On November 25, 1950, Chinese forces attacked a division of the UNC. By November

28, UN positions in North Korea were collapsing as Chinese troops numbering 300,000 entered

North Korea. The Chinese entry forced UN forces to withdraw all the way to the 38th parallel and

form a defensive line across the peninsula.8 By December, the Chinese troops had forced the UN

and South Korean troops about 100 miles below the 38th Parallel, capturing Seoul along the way.

For two years, neither side was able to make important advances. MacArthur then sought

permission to extend the war into China in order to end the stalemate.9

        President Truman disagreed with MacArthur, not wanting a major United States

involvement in Asia. An all out war against China could be “the wrong war, at the wrong place,

at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy”, according to General Omar N. Bradley, the then-

current chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.10 While MacArthur and Truman argued, the U.S.

Eight Army, under Matthew B. Ridgway, retook control of Seoul in March 1951 and had

regained all of the lost ground south of the 38th Parallel.11

        Even after the recapture of South Korea, MacArthur continued to fight for a full-scale

war against China.12 After MacArthur wrote to the Congressional Record, stating the need for




8
  Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Korean War." Encyclopedia of Wars. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005.
American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. 6. Nov. 2008.
<http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE52&iPin=EWAR0845&SingleRecord=True>.
9
  Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'The United States Fights in Korea' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans.
Evanston, IL McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 777.
10
   Ibid.
11
   Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Korean War." Encyclopedia of Wars. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005.
American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. 6. Nov. 2008.
<http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE52&iPin=EWAR0845&SingleRecord=True>.
12
   Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'The United States Fights in Korea' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans.
Evanston, IL McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 777.


                                                    3 of 14
opening up a second front against China, President Truman relieved him of his command on

April 11th for insubordination.13

        Unexpectedly, the Soviet Union suggested a cease-fire on June 23, 1951. Truce talks

began in July.14 By the spring of 1952, North Korea and China had agreed on two points – the

location of the cease-fire line at the existing battle line and the establishment of a demilitarized

zone between opposing sides. In July 1953, an armistice was signed, ending the Korean War.15

        Ever since the end of the Korean War, the Koreas have remained divided as two different

nations. The nature of the war and the subsequent Cold War results in the tense split between the

two nations. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea remains controlled by a totalitarian

regime, modeled after the pre-1990 Communist Soviet Union. The Republic of Korea is a

capitalistic democracy, similar to the system of government of the United States. The political

difference between the two Koreas is one of the main factors in the division of Korea.16

According to Shairf M. Shuja, “once the country was divided into two parts, Korean citizens on

both sides were practically forced to accept for themselves an alien political system; i.e. a

capitalistic system in the South and a communist system in the North.”17 The North Korean elite

fears the consequences, namely the possible collapse of the totalitarian regime and the loss of




13
   Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Korean War." Encyclopedia of Wars. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005.
American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. 6. Nov. 2008.
<http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE52&iPin=EWAR0845&SingleRecord=True>.
14
   Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'The United States Fights in Korea' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans.
Evanston, IL McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 778.
15
   Ibid.
16
   Sharif M. Shuja. "Korean reunification." Contemporary Review 283.1651 (2003): 65. History Study Center.
ProQuest. Moorestown HS Lib. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://proquest.umi.com/login>.
17
   Ibid.


                                                    4 of 14
nuclear potential.18 However, the difference in political ideologies is not the only impediment in

Korean reunification.

        In addition to political differences between the two Koreas, both have different economic

systems. As Shuja stated, South Korea has a capitalist system, and thus promotes free market,

while North Korea has a communist system.19 These economic differences result in the vast

difference in their wealth. South Korea’s GDP is approximately 40 times larger than that of

North Korea.20 According to Han Seung-Soo, the North has trapped itself in a vicious cycle of

suffering, varying from unstable food supplies to low or negative economic growth. This is due

to its persistence in adhering to a planned economy and an obsolete ideology (Communism).

Even with the negative indicators, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has made no

attempt at reform.21 South Korea, on the other hand, has become one of the richest nations in the

world, with the 13th largest GDP of $969,795 million USD in 2007.22 The Republic of Korea is

also part of the G20, a group representing 19 of the world’s largest economies plus the European

Union.23 This vast difference in economic wealth separates the two nations further, resulting in

potential problems during reunification. How will the two immensely different economies

integrate into one strong economy? What system will result? However, the unification would

bring prosperity to both Koreas, South Korea would benefit from the resources of labor of the



18
   "Cultural Dimensions of Korean Reunification: Building a Unified Society." International Journal on World Peace
(Sept. 2001). Goliath. The Gale Group. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4229227/Cultural-
dimensions-of-Korean-reunification.html>.
19
   Sharif M. Shuja. "Korean reunification." Contemporary Review 283.1651 (2003): 65. History Study Center.
ProQuest. Moorestown HS Lib. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://proquest.umi.com/login>.
20
   Han Seung-Soo. "North Korea's Choice." Guardian 19 Oct. 2008. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/oct/19/korea>.
21
   Ibid.
22
   "Gross Domestic Product 2007." Chart. World Bank. 10 Sept. 2008. World Development Indicators Database. 6
Nov. 2008 <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf>.
23
   G-20. 2008. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.g20.org/G20/>


                                                    5 of 14
North, and North Korea would benefit from the technology and the capital of the South.

Unification would create a powerful economy in northeast Asia.

        Despite the potential impediments on the road to “peace, security, and reunification”, the

eventual reunification of the Korean Peninsula is beneficial to many nations. According to Shuja,

“the most dramatic implications of a successful Korean reunification would be military.”24

Unification would release personnel from the ranks of the nearly two million Korean troops that

confront each other across the DMZ.25

        In addition to military changes, relations among nations in Asia would change. Many

regional sources of tension would vanish with a single democratic government on the Korean

Peninsula, assuming the reunification results in a capitalistic democracy. No matter which

alliances and alignments the United Korea chooses, they would “probably not constitute a casus

belli, [an event or action that justifies or allegedly justifies a war or conflict]”.26,27 Shuja even

goes further to suggest that a united Korea would likely be “moderate and pragmatic – as the

ROK’s foreign policy beyond the peninsula is today”.28 This moderate and pragmatic foreign

policy (in conjunction with the same form of economic rules) would have a spillover benefit. The

countries of the region would be able to integrate in a set of cooperative commercial

relationships.29 The benefits of Korean unification make peace and reunification the ultimate goal

of all parties.




24
   Sharif M. Shuja. "Korean reunification." Contemporary Review 283.1651 (2003): 65. History Study Center.
ProQuest. Moorestown HS Lib. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://proquest.umi.com/login>.
25
   Ibid.
26
   Ibid.
27
   "casus belli." Merriam-Webster. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/casus>.
28
   Sharif M. Shuja. "Korean reunification." Contemporary Review 283.1651 (2003): 65. History Study
Center. ProQuest. Moorestown HS Lib. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://proquest.umi.com/login>.
29
   Ibid.


                                                    6 of 14
        However, there is a danger. Korean reunification must occur somewhat quickly,

otherwise it may prove to be difficult to achieve peace. According to Shuja,

        “Various studies, furthermore, indicate that intensive efforts have been made by
        the leaders of each political system to compel ordinary Koreans to accept and
        integrate a disjointed personality system, mainly for the purpose of furthering
        political values and goals. If this situation continues to exist for a very long
        period, the possibility of reunifying and reintegrating Korean society could cease.
        Clearly, the longer the division exists, the more difficult it becomes to integrate
        the two Koreas.”30

Evidently, as the two political and economic systems differ, the differences could lead the

two Koreas further apart and thus make unification impossible.

        Korean unification has always been the Republic of Korea’s ultimate goal. Since

the founding of its Ministry of Unification in March 1969, South Korea has worked

towards a unified Korea.31 Then-President Park Chung-Hee stated that “an effort should

be made to collect public opinion and allow a nationwide bipartisan discussion on the

issue of unification” at the opening ceremony of the ministry.32 The ministry was the first

step the government took towards preparing for unification. Without government action,

unification would be impossible.33

        In addition to the creation of the Ministry of Unification by the ROK, efforts have been

made to unify the two Koreas. In June 2000, during the Millennium Summit of the General

Assembly, the chairpersons welcomed the inter-Korean summit.34 The inter-Korean summit was

held in Pyongyang between the leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the

Republic of Korea. At the summit, the leaders created their Joint Declaration, in which they
30
   Ibid.
31
   Ministry of Unification. "Goals." Ministry of Unification. 1996. Ministry of Unification. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.unikorea.go.kr/eng/default.jsp?pgname=ENGhome>.
32
   Ibid.
33
   Ibid.
34
   "General Assembly Session 55 Meeting 4." United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Meeting 4.
UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.undemocracy.com/generalassembly_55/meeting_4#pg001-bk02>.


                                                 7 of 14
agreed to “resolve the question of reunification independently and through joint efforts of the

Korean people, who are the masters of the country”.35 In October, the United Nations General

Assembly passed a resolution to the same effect as the Joint Declaration.36 The issue returned to

the General Assembly in October 2007 after a second inter-Korean summit was held in

Pyongyang.37 At the second summit at Pyongyang, the leaders of North and South Korea signed

a peace pledge, finally ending the Korean War, which was only stopped by a cease-fire, never a

final treaty.38 Roh stated that these north-south summits confirmed what is happening in the six-

party talks, the discussions between the United States, North Korea, China, Japan, Russia, and

South Korea, regarding nuclear agreements.39

        In addition to working with North Korea, the Republic of Korea has made many attempts

to incite unification. At first, South Korea rejected all proposals for unification by the North.40

However, after the early 1970s, South Korea became open to unification.41 The Sunshine Policy

developed during the early 1990s. In an effort to promote economic growth which would lead to

a lessened gap between the two Korean states, the South Korean government would aid North

Korea with large amounts of aid.42 The Sunshine Policy also called for the South Korean

government to largely ignore the human-rights abuses and police terror in the North in order to

35
   The Republic of Korea & The Democratic People's Republic of Korea. South-North Joint Declaration. By Dae-
Jung Kim and Jong-Il Kim. Pyongyang, 2000. Peace Agreements Digital Collection. 15 June 2000. United States
Institute of Peace. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.usip.org/library/pa/n_skorea/n_skorea06152000.html>.
36
   "General Assembly Session 55 Meeting 45." United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Meeting 45.
UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.undemocracy.com/generalassembly_55/meeting_45#pg014-bk02>.
37
    "General Assembly Session 62 Meeting 41." United Nations General Assembly Session 62 Meeting 41.
UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.undemocracy.com/generalassembly_62/meeting_41#pg001-bk06-
pa04>.
38
   Jie-Ae, Sohn. "Korean Leaders Sign Peace Pledge." Cable News Network 5 Oct. 2007. 8 Nov. 2008
<http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/10/04/koreas.summit/index.html>.
39
   Ibid.
40
   Hart-Landsberg, Martin. "Chapter 8: The Challenge and Promise of Reunification." Korea: Division,
Reunification, and U.S. Foreign Policy. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.monthlyreview.org/koreac8.htm>.
41
   Ibid.
42
   Lankov, Andrei. "No Sunshine Yet over North Korea." Asia Times 13 May 2005. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/GE13Dg01.html>.


                                                  8 of 14
prevent the collapse of the DPRK.43 The Sunshine Policy is based on the hope that “the North

and the South will establish peaceful relations through reconciliation and mutual exchange”.44

This would lead to the eventual Korean unification.

          Another policy implemented toward unification is economic cooperation between the

two Korean states. Hong Soon-Jik, Chief Economist at Hyundai Research Institute, believes that

a Korean Economic Community based upon inter-Korean economic cooperation in order to

mutually prosper.45 An economic community can act as a catalyst for economic growth and for

achieving South Korea’s goal of becoming the economic center for Northeast Asia. Also,

economic cooperation will serve to build trust between the North and the South.46 To this end,

now-President Lee Myung-Bak revealed his policies for inter-Korean economic cooperation

while running his election campaign.47 “In a speech before the J-Global Forum 2007, Lee vowed

to put investment rather than unilateral aid at the heart of inter-Korean economic cooperation.

Policies include substantial measures to boost economic cooperation across the border and in

Northeast Asia”.48 As long as Pyongyang disables its nuclear facilities and scraps its nuclear

programs, Lee would establish a consultative body with the North in order to build an inter-

Korean economic community. The consultative body would serve as “a channel to discuss his




43
   Ibid.
44
   "Sunshine Policy in a Nutshell." Federation of American Scientiests. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://www.fas.org/news/skorea/1999/reunification22.html>.
45
   Soon-Jik, Hong. "Toward Reunification Via Inter-Korean Economic Community." Opinion. Korea.net 26 Aug.
2007. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.korea.net/news/News/newsView.asp?serial_no=20070824029>.
46
   Ibid.
47
   "Lee Myung-Bak Unveils Inter-Korean Cooperation Plans." Chosun.com 11 Sept. 2007. 6 Nov. 2008
<http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200709/200709110015.html>.
48
   Ibid.


                                                  9 of 14
North Korea plan, which would seek to help the North achieve a per-capita national income of

US$ 3,000”.49 President Lee Myung-Bak hopes that an economic cooperation would eventually

lead to a peaceful unification of the Korean peninsula.

        However, all of these attempts at a peaceful unification put South Korea at odds with its

most powerful ally, the United States of America. The United States feels strongly that the

existence of nuclear weapons in North Korea is “provocative behavior” despite the fact that

missile launches pose no immediate threat.50 However, due to ROK’s desire to unify with a

potentially dangerous nation, US-ROK relations have been strained. However, recent

developments have helped US-ROK relations and have furthered possibilities of a successful and

peaceful reunification. In mid-2007, the US and South Korea signed a free trade agreement that

phases out tariffs in almost all consumer and industrial goods.51 This trade agreement benefits

both the US and ROK, propagating friendly relations between the two nations. Furthering the

chances of success of reunification, the US removed North Korea from the terrorism blacklist.52

On October 11, 2008, the United States removed North Korea from the list of nations that

support terrorism in hope that the DPRK would decrease its nuclear ambitions. In an effort to

further North Korea’s lessening of nuclear power, the US, in addition to China, South Korea, and

Russia, gives aid to North Korea.53 All of this done to further the reunification of the Korean

peninsula.




49
   Ibid.
50
   Ensor, David. "U.S. Officials: North Korea Tests Long-Range Missile." Cable News Network 5 July 2006. 8 Nov.
2008 <http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/07/04/korea.missile/>.
51
   "US-South Korea Trade Pact Signed." British Broadcasting Corporation 1 July 2007. 8 Nov. 2008
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6257420.stm>.
52
   "Terror Off Track." The Economist 16 Oct. 2008. Economist.com. 8 Nov. 2008
<http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12437699&fsrc=rss>.
53
   Ibid.


                                                  10 of 14
         In conclusion, the Republic of Korea, despite the ideological and economic differences

with its neighbor to the north, wishes to achieve reunification of the Korean peninsula to benefit

all of the Korean people. Although the route to reunification has been bumpy, there have been

attempts made to reunify the peninsula. Both North and South Korea have worked together to

attempt reunification, as well as working with other nations to promote a peaceful unification.

Ultimately, the Republic of Korea wishes for a unified Korea with a system of capitalistic

democracy for economic growth and prosperity. However, if peace is not achieved soon, it may

never be achieved, causing everyone to suffer.




                                             11 of 14
       Works Cited
"casus belli." Merriam-Webster. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.merriam-
       webster.com/dictionary/casus>.
Clauss, E. M. "United Nations and the Korean War." In Moore, John Allphin Jr., and Jerry
       Pubantz, eds. Encyclopedia of the United Nations. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002.
       Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE53&iPin=EUN199&SingleRecord
       =True>.
"Cultural Dimensions of Korean Reunification: Building a Unified Society." International
       Journal on World Peace (Sept. 2001). Goliath. The Gale Group. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4229227/Cultural-dimensions-of-Korean-
       reunification.html>.
Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'Koreans go to War' in The Cold War Heats Up." The Americans.
       Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 775.
Danzer, Gerald A, et al. "'The United States Fights in Korea' in The Cold War Heats Up." The
       Americans. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell Inc., 2000. 776 - 778.
Ensor, David. "U.S. Officials: North Korea Tests Long-Range Missile." Cable News Network 5
       July 2006. 8 Nov. 2008
       <http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/07/04/korea.missile/>.
G-20. 2008. 6 Nov. 2008 <http://www.g20.org/G20/>.
"General Assembly Session 55 Meeting 4." United Nations General Assembly Session 55
       Meeting 4. UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://www.undemocracy.com/generalassembly_55/meeting_4#pg001-bk02>.
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       Meeting 45. UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008
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       Meeting 41. UNDemocracy.com. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://www.undemocracy.com/generalassembly_62/meeting_41#pg001-bk06-pa04>.



                                           12 of 14
"Gross Domestic Product 2007." Chart. World Bank. 10 Sept. 2008.World Development
       Indicators Database. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf>.
Hart-Landsberg, Martin. "Chapter 8: The Challenge and Promise of Reunification." Korea:
      Division, Reunification, and U.S. Foreign Policy. 6 Nov. 2008
      <http://www.monthlyreview.org/koreac8.htm>.
"History of Korea: Korean Dynasties." KoreaOrbit. 6 Nov. 2008
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Jie-Ae, Sohn. "Korean Leaders Sign Peace Pledge." Cable News Network 5 Oct. 2007. 8 Nov.
       2008 <http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/10/04/koreas.summit/index.html>.
Lankov, Andrei. "No Sunshine Yet over North Korea." Asia Times 13 May 2005. 6 Nov. 2008
       <http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/GE13Dg01.html>.
"Lee Myung-Bak Unveils Inter-Korean Cooperation Plans." Chosun.com 11 Sept. 2007. 6 Nov.
       2008 <http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200709/200709110015.html>.
Ministry of Unification. "Goals." Ministry of Unification. 1996. Ministry of Unification. 6 Nov.
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Shuja, Sharif M. "Korean reunification." Contemporary Review 283.1651 (2003): 65. History
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                                            13 of 14
"Terror Off Track." The Economist 16 Oct. 2008. Economist.com. 8 Nov. 2008
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"US-South Korea Trade Pact Signed." British Broadcasting Corporation 1 July 2007. 8 Nov.
       2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6257420.stm>.




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