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					             The Magna Carta
…presented their demands to him in written form as the
  Magna Carta (Great Charter).
                             •   Served as the major source
                                 of traditional English
                                 respect for individual
                                 rights & liberties…
                             •   served as a contract
                                 between the king & nobles
                                 of England
                             •   It implied the idea that
                                 monarchs had to govern
                                 according to common law
                                 not divine law
       England from 1603-1688
•   James I 1603-1625
•   Charles I 1625-1649
•   Civil War 1642-1649
•   Oliver Cromwell 1649-1658
•   Richard Cromwell 1658-1660
•   Charles II 1660-1685
•   James II 1685- 1688
•   William & Mary 1689
                 England
• Ultimate victory of Constitutionalism over
  Absolutism
James I 1603-1625
         • Also James VI of
           Scotland
         • Great Grandson of Henry
           VII
         • Divine Right of Kings
         • “King is from God and the
           Law is from the King”
         • England is the most
           prominent example of
           resistance to Absolute
           Monarchy and the
           development of
           Constitutional
           Monarchy
          James’ Problems
• Clashed with Puritans who wished to
  “purify” the Anglican Church
• Parliament resented James’ Divine Right
  philosophy
• Puritans were a powerful group in the
  Parliament
• Parliament controlled legitimate means to
  raise taxes
• Trew Law of Free Monarchy
               Charles I (1600-1649)
• Charles I becomes king after James dies in
  1625.
• Also believed in divine right monarchy and
  just as conservative on religious issues.
• Charles I was forced by Parliament to accept
  the Petition of Right passed by Parliament
  in 1628
• The Petition of Right stated that the King
  could not:
   – impose cruel and unusual punishments
      on prisoners
   – impose military rule during peacetime
   – require homeowners to shelter troops
      without consent
   – obtain taxes, gifts, or loans without the
      consent of Parliament.
                                                 6
     Charles I, son of James I
• Believed in Divine Right
• Still squabbled with Parliament and
  Puritans
• Had financial problems
  – Demanded forced loans from his subjects
  – Quartered troops in private homes at owners
    expense
  Ship Money Tax 1634
             Petition cont.
• Charles actually ruled without calling
  another parliament from 1629-1640
   CI’s religious policies were unpopular

• Forced Puritans to conform to the Church of
  England
• Charles I relaxed restrictions against Roman
  Catholics
• 1637 Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud,
  tried to force Anglicanism on Scotland
• Charles had to summon Parliament in 1640 to
  raise money for war preparation against the
  Scots.
  Short Parliament 1640-1640
• Led by John Pym, Parliament refused
  even to consider funds for war until the
  King agreed to address Parliament’s
  grievances.
• The King in response immediately
  dissolved the Parliament
• When the Scottish army defeated the
  English at the battle of Newburn, Charles
  reconvened Parliament.
          Long Parliament
• Laud tried and later executed
• No new taxes without consent of
  Parliament
• Parliament called at least every three
  years (triennial act)
• December 1641 Parliament presents
  Charles I with the Grand Remonstrance- a
  list of grievances against the crown
               Civil War
• Puritans vs. Roundheads

• In January 1642, the King invaded
  Parliament with his soldiers
• Pym and the other leaders had been
  warned and they escaped
      Parliament vs. the King
• Two factors led to Parliaments victory over
  the King:
  – Parliaments alliance with Scotland, John Pym
    persuaded Parliament to accept the terms of
    the Solemn League and Covenant. This
    agreement committed Parliament to a
    Presbyterian system of Church government.
  – The reorganization of the Parliamentary army
    under Oliver Cromwell-Independent
        Victory over the King
• Cromwell’s New Model Army won a
  decisive victory over the King at the battle
  of Naesby 1645.
             2nd Civil War
• In December 1648, Colonel Thomas Pride
  of the New Model Army barred the
  Presbyterians from the Parliament.
• After Pride’s Purge only a rump of 50
  Independents remained in Parliament
• After a trial by a special court, the Rump
  Parliament executed Charles-and
  abolished the Monarchy, the House of
  Lords and the Anglican Church
Interregnum
• 1649 Charles and his Cavaliers
  are defeated by Puritan forces
  led by Oliver Cromwell
• Beginning of period known as
  the Interregnum.
   – Charles is beheaded,
     monarchy is abolished,
     House of Lords is abolished
     and England is proclaimed to
     be a republic ruled by
     Parliament.
                                16
        Republic 1649-1653
• Cromwell ruled a Puritan Republic
• During this time Cromwell’s army
  conquered Ireland and Scotland
• During this time OC also passed the first
  Navigation Acts
      Protectorate 1653-1660
• In 1653 the HOC considered disbanding
  Cromwell’s expensive army, Cromwell
  responded by marching in and disbanding
  Parliament. He ruled thereafter as Lord
  Protector.
• Cromwell was as intolerant of Anglicans as
  Charles had been of Puritans. The English
  people resented his puritanical laws.
• By 1658 the English were ready to end their
  Puritan/republican experiment and bring back
  the monarchy
     Cromwell and the Republic

 Cromwell soon finds Parliament inconvenient,
  dispersed it, and created a military dictatorship
• He instituted puritan social policies in England
– censored the press, closed the theaters and
  outlawed sports. Dancing and drinking were
  considered socially unacceptable.
• When Cromwell dies in 1658, a majority in
  England are ready to end the Puritan experiment
• Charles II, son of the slain Charles I, is invited in
  1660 to take the throne and return England to
  monarchy.
                                                      19
Restoration
  • The restoration of Charles II
    did not immediately solve
    problems that had caused
    the civil war.
    – Still had to work out state
      attitude toward religion and
      role of Monarch.
  • MAP
  • Monarchy, Anglican
    Church, Parliament
                                     20
    Declaration of Breda 1660
• Declaration from Charles II of England in which
  he promised a general pardon for crimes
  committed during the English Civil War and the
  Interregnum for all those who recognized
  Charles II as the rightful King.
• Also promised religious toleration
• The Declaration was written in response to a
  secret message sent by George Monck who was
  effectively in control of England in 1660.
• The Parliament passed a resolution that “gov’t
  ought to be by King, Lords and Commons”
          Clarendon Code
• The name given to a series of laws passed
  by the restored Parliament that persecuted
  dissenters.
• Anglicans dominated the restored Cavalier
  Parliament.
• Out of a fear of social revolution, The
  Anglicans passed four acts that created
  the two worlds Anglicansim and non-
  conformity.
            Clarendon Code
• Corporation Act 1661- limited municipal office to
  Anglican Royalists
• The Act of Uniformity 1662- reinforced the
  prayerbook of Elizabeth I.
• The Conventicle Act 1664 penalized anyone
  who attended a dissenters congregation.
• The Five mile Act 1665 attempted to force
  dissenters out of towns where they ministered.
  The act forbade them to teach.
       Treaty of Dover 1670
• In 165 England became involved in a war
  with the Dutch. The war did not go well,
  and in 1667 the Dutch fleet defeated the
  English Navy. Charles II feared the
  weakened England was now likely to be
  invaded by the French.
• Charles II, afraid of a French invasion,
  sent his sister Henrietta to talk to Louis
  XIV.
            Treaty of Dover
• Henrietta told Louis XIV that Charles II
  wanted England and France to become
  allies.
• Louis XIV indicated that he was willing to
  help Charles II but he demanded that
  Charles become a Catholic.
             Treaty of Dover
• In 1670 Charles II and Louis XIV signed the
  treaty of Dover.
• In the treaty, Louis XIV agreed to pay Charles II
  an annual pension.
• Charles would get more money when he
  announced to the English people he had
  become Catholic.
• Louis also promised 6,000 troops to protect
  Charles II if the English rose against him.
          Treaty of Dover
• Charles II agreed to help the French in
  there war with the Dutch. (L XIV’s War
  against the Dutch 1672-1678 ended by the
  treaty of Nimwegen).
Declaration of Indulgence 1672
• Charles II’s attempt to extend religious
  liberty to Protestant non-conformists and
  Roman Catholics
              Test Act 1673
• A series of English penal laws that served as a
  religious test for public office and imposed
  various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and
  non-conformists
• I do declare that I do believe there is not any
  transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord’s
  Supper, or in the elements of the bread and
  wine, at or after the consecration thereof by any
  person whatever.
                 Popish Plot
• The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy
  concocted by Titus Oates that gripped England,
  Wales and Scotland in Anti-Catholic hysteria
  between 1678 and 1681.[1] Oates alleged that
  there existed an extensive Catholic conspiracy
  to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to
  the execution of at least 15 men and precipitated
  the Exclusion Bill Crisis. Eventually Oates'
  intricate web of accusations fell apart, leading to
  his arrest and conviction for perjury.
            Exclusion Crisis
• The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1678 through
  1681 in the reign of Charles II of England. The
  Exclusion Bill sought to exclude the king's
  brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of
  York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and
  Ireland because he was Roman Catholic. The
  Tories were opposed to this exclusion while the
  "Country Party", who were soon to become
  known as the Whigs, supported it.
                        James II
• 1685 Charles II dies without an
  heir and the crown passes to
  brother, James II,
   – He is Catholic. Parliament is
     strongly Protestant.
• James II passes Declaration
  of Indulgence 1687
   – Suspended all laws excluding
     Catholics and Puritans from
     office.
• Parliament does nothing.
• Why does James’ second
  marriage and birth of a son
  change things?

                                     32
        Glorious Revolution
• James II Protestant
  Daughter Mary is married
  to William of Orange
  (Dutch).
• 1688 Group of prominent
  English noblemen invited
  them to invade England
  and take the throne.
  – James flees and England
    has another revolution
    with almost no bloodshed.
  – “Glorious Revolution”

                                33
                 Bill of Rights
• 1689 Parliament offered the throne to William
  and Mary as joint Monarchs on the condition that
  they accept the Bill of Rights.
• Terms of Bill of Rights
  – affirmed Parliament’s right to make laws and levy
    taxes
  – standing armies could be raised only with the consent
    of parliament
  – citizens have right to petition government, keep arms,
    have a jury trial and not be subject to excessive bail.

                                                         34
        Act of Settlement 1701
• The Act of Settlement provided that the throne would
  pass to the Electress Sophia of Hanover – a
  granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England,
  niece of Charles I of Scotland and England – and her
  Protestant descendants who had not married a Roman
  Catholic; those who were Roman Catholic, and those
  who married a Roman Catholic, were barred from
  ascending the throne "for ever". Eight further provisions
  of the act would only come into effect upon the death of
  both William and Anne:
• The monarch "shall join in communion with the Church
  of England." This was another provision to avoid a
  Roman Catholic monarch. Along with James II's
  perceived despotism, his religion was the main cause of
  the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the previous linked
  religious and succession problems solved by the joint
  monarchy of William and Mary.
           Act of Union 1707
• The Acts of Union were two Parliamentary Acts
  - the Union with Scotland Act passed in 1706
  by the Parliament of England, and the Union
  with England Act passed in 1707 by the
  Parliament of Scotland - which put into effect the
  terms of the Treaty of Union that had been
  agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation
  between commissioners representing the
  parliaments of the two countries. The Acts joined
  the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of
  Scotland (previously separate states, with
  separate legislatures but with the same
  monarch) into a single, united kingdom named
  "Great Britain".
The Birth of Modern Political
           Theory
          1651-1789
 Some basic questions of political
          philosophy
• What is the origin of government?
• What is the purpose of government?
• What legitimates the power and authority
  of government?
• What is the best form of government?
     Overview & Background: the
    Experience of England in the 17th
                Century
• English political tradition
   – The Magna Carta (1215)
   – Parliament
   – Common Law
• The English Civil War (1642-49)
   – Charles I vs. Parliament
   – Influence on Thomas Hobbes
   – Leviathan (1651)
• The Glorious Revolution (1688)
   – James II vs. Parliament
   – Influence on John Locke
   – Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
     Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
             (1651)
• Wanted to construct a “science
  of politics” based on an
  indisputable principle
• This principle must be based
  on the strongest element in
  human nature
• The strongest element was
  passion, not reason
• The strongest passion is fear
  of violent death
• This fear gives rise to the
  natural right of self-
  preservation
• The natural right of self-
  preservation is the basis of
  Hobbes’ thought                  Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
     Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
             (1651)
• In a state of nature there is a
  war of every man against
  every man
• “No arts, no letters, and which
  is worst of all, continual fear
  and danger of violent death,
  and the life of man solitary,
  poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
• To secure peace men make
  contracts establishing a
  sovereign power who is not
  subject to civil law since by its
  will it creates the law
• Of the three forms of
  sovereignty (monarchy,
  aristocracy, and democracy),
  monarchy is the most effective
  in securing peace
                                      Leviathan (1651)
 Thomas Hobbes (1588 –1679)
• English philosopher
• Wrote Leviathan – life
  began in a state of
  nature
• Man is inherently
  selfish and
  aggressive
• Left on own, chaos
  and conflict would
  rule
• Citizens need law and
  to follow a sovereign
   John Locke, Second Treatise of
      Civil Government (1690)
• The state of nature is not
  a state of perpetual war;
• All men are free and
  equal; no man by nature
  is sovereign over another
  man
• The law of nature,
  revealed by reason,
  governs the state of
  nature
• Natural rights include the
  right to Life, Liberty, and
                                John Locke (1632-1704)
  Estate (property)
    John Locke (1632 – 1704)
• English philosopher
• Believed that over
  time people would
  join together to
  benefit from
  cooperation
• Through a Social
  Contract, sovereignty
  would remain with the
  people
    John Locke, Second Treatise of
       Civil Government (1690)
• No one ought to harm another
  in his life, liberty, or property; if
  anyone does harm another,
  the one he harms has the right
  to punish him
• Through a social contract,
  people create a government to
  protect their natural rights of
  life, liberty, and property
• The best form of government
  to protect natural rights is a
  government of limited powers
  (constitutionalism)
• If a government breaks the
  social contract, the people
  have the right to dissolve it

                                          Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690)
  New Government in England
• Constitutional monarchy-
  – where laws limited the ruler’s power
  – King ruling with Parliament
• In 1689 Parliament drafted the Bill of Rights
  – No suspending of Parliament’s laws
  – No levying of taxes without a specific grant from
    Parliament
  – No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
  – No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about
    grievances
    Challenges in             17th    Century
• 17th Century an age of many conflicts and crises
• Many causes:
  – religious and state-centered warfare
  – social unrest and widespread peasant revolts.
• Challenge to European governments:
  – How to maintain order and give the nation sufficient
    power to compete internationally?




                                                           47
                       Absolutism
• Most common response of European governments:
   – seek more power to deal with the problems
   – strengthen the king.
• European Rulers tried to attain absolute power and build
  absolutist states.
   – Monarchs regulated religious sects
   – Abolished many liberties long held by certain areas, groups or
     provinces.
   – Created new state bureaucracies.
   – Tried to eliminate control by nobles and traditional representative
     bodies, such as parliaments.
• Absolutism meant that monarchs were claiming
  absolute power; Divine Right of Kings.

                                                                      48
Road to Louis XIV
    • Louis XIV’s consolidation of
      absolute power was a process
      that started with grandfather,
      Henry IV-(ruled 1593-1610)
    • Issued Edict of Nantes- granted
      religious liberties to Catholics
      and Protestants.
    • Protestant king who became
      Catholic -“Paris is worth a
      mass.”
    • Ended religious wars in France.
                                    49
            Cardinal Richelieu
• First, punished Huguenots
  – Tear down fortified walls in their
    cities.
• Second, weaken nobles power
• Goal: Make France strongest
  state in Europe
  – Hapsburgs would be in his way
    (Thirty Years War)
  – Three Musketeers
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642
              )
• Until Louis XIII comes of age his
  mother led the government.
• In 1624 she appoints Armand
  Jean du Plessis (Cardinal
  Richelieu) to the council of
  ministers.
• As first minister, Richelieu
  strengthened the power of the
  monarch.




                                      51
        Richelieu’s Policies
• Oppressive policy toward Huguenots
• Moved to reduce the power of the French
  nobility.
  – Large network of spies.
  – Installed royal commissioners in each district.
  – Richelieu wanted to destroy the fence of
    Hapsburg territories that surrounded France.
  – Thus, in the thirty Years War Richelieu
    supported the Hapsburg’s enemies even
    though they were largely Protestant.

                                                  52
         Richilieu’s Legacy
• Laid the foundation for expanded royal
  authority
• Created strong resentment for the
  monarchy by the nobility
        The Practice of Absolutism:
          France Under Louis XIV
• The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
  most complete fulfillment of the idea of
  absolute monarchy in 17th Century
  Europe.
• French policies and wars dominated
  Europe
• Monarchs elsewhere used Louis as a
  model.
• Louis proclaimed himself the “Sun
  King”
• Refused to call Estates General
• He built magnificent palaces and courts
  as symbols of his power and
  magnificence-Ex.:Versailles.
• Reigned for 72 years (55 in his own right)

                                               54
      The Fronde 1649-1652
• Series of widespread Noble rebellions
• Begun by the Parlement of Paris in 1649
• The chaos of the Fronde convinced most
  French people that the rule of a strong
  King was preferred
       Jean Baptiste Colbert
• Was Louis XIV’s Minister of Finance
• He wanted to make France self-sufficient
  – Did not want to rely on imports
    • High tariffs on imports to discourage.
• Helped make France wealthiest state in
  Europe.
     Colbert Louis XIV finance minister

• Created the economic
  base that Louis
  needed to fight his
  wars
• Mercantilism
• Limit imports,
  maximize exports
• Accumulate gold and
  silver
   Louis’ personal rule 1661-1715
• Louis did not replace Mazarin after he died in
  1661
• Strategies used by Louis to insure his power:
  – Use of Propaganda “sun King”
  – Ensured French Nobles would benefit from the growth
    of his own authority
  – Claim Divine Right of Kings
  – Crush Religious Dissent
  – Domesticated the Nobility at Versailles
         Louis XIV (1643-1713)
• Louis’ legacy;
  • "Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have
    often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.
    Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply
    yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your
    subjects".

                      Allegedly these were Louis’ last words to his
    heirs.

  • France emerged from Louis’ reign as the most powerful country
    in Europe. It was a military and imperial power. It’s economy
    was based upon manufacturing and trade. France had a rich
    cultural society in which Louis had patronized art and music.
  • However, she was also in debt, had suppressed the rights of
                   Versailles
• Versailles served
  three functions
  – Home
  – Seat of machinery of
    government
  – Palace/court.
  – Meant that all noble
    society was under
    his roof.



                                60
          Palace at Versailles
•   Cost over $2 billion in modern dollars
•   36000 laborers
•   6000 horses
•   15000 acres of gardens, lawns and woods
•   1400 fountains
•   Palace itself was 500 yards long
•   Small royal city
    Louis Consolidates Power
• 1685 Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes.
• Forbids Huguenots to leave France, but 200,000
  flee to other places in Europe and to America.
• This is why we have Huguenot Road and
  Huguenot Bridge in the Richmond area. They
  came here.
• Closes schools, destroys churches.




                                               62
          French Expansion
• Louis wanted to expand the boundaries
• 1667 - Invaded the Netherlands
  – They gained several towns, but nothing else
  – Many lesser countries joined together to
    defeat the French
            France at War
• Louis was almost constantly at war.
  Waged four wars between 1667-1713.
• France most powerful country in Europe.
  This led other countries to gang up against
  France to keep France from dominating
  Europe.
• France had a standing army of 100,000
  that expanded to 400,000 in times of war.
• Compare to U.S. Army today.
                                            64
   The Wars of Louis XIV
• The long-range objective of French foreign policy
  during the reign of Louis XIV was to achieve what he
  called the “natural frontiers” of France:the Pyrenees,
  the alps, and the Rhine river.
• To extend French power to the Rhine involved
  acquiring territories ruled by German Princes plus the
  conquest of the Spanish Netherlands and the United
  Provinces.
• French Foreign Policy from 1648 to 1715
• The French attempt to conquer the territories west of
  the Rhine involved France in four wars. France was
  opposed by a different coalition of European states in
  each war. These coalitions were trying to preserve
  the Balance of Power in Europe.
   The War of Devolution 1667-1668

The war of Devolution 1667-1668
Louis XIV contended that the Spanish Netherlands
  belonged to his wife by the custom of Devolution.
  French armies invaded Flanders and Franche-
  Comte.
England, the United Provinces, and Sweden formed the
  triple alliance to counterbalance France
Louis, wishing to avoid a prolonged war against a
  coalition, arranged a compromise treaty, the Peace
  of Aix La Chapelle
France received eleven border towns from the Spanish
  Netherlands but abandoned Franche-Comte
     The Dutch war 1672-1678
    Followed Dutch boasting that they had defeated and
    humbled Louis.
•   Louis first isolated the Dutch diplomatically by bribing
    the English to leave the triple alliance (Treaty of
    Dover 1670) and arranging Swedish neutrality by
    similar means.
•   The Dutch were divided internally by the debate over
    whether the United Provinces should be a
    decentralized republic or a centralized hereditary
    monarchy ruled by William of Orange.
•   As the Dutch were debating, Louis invaded. The
    Dutch murdered the proponent of a Republic and
    entrusted the defense of the country to William of
    Orange.
•   Again the French invaded Flanders and Franche-
    Comte and again the European powers formed an
    alliance to check the French.
              Dutch war, cont.
• The new alliance included: The Holy Roman Empire,
  Denmark, Spain, and the Electorate of Brandenburg
• In 1677 William of Orange married Mary, the daughter of
  King James II of England.
• Louis thought this marriage would draw England into the
  war against France so peace negotiations were begun.
•     Treaty of Nimwegen
• France received all of Franche-Comte and more border
  towns in the Spanish Netherlands.
 The War of the League of Augsburg
             1688-1697
• The inexact terminology of earlier peace treaties left
  the control of various territories in the vicinity of the
  Rhine in doubt.
• Louis took possession of Alsace and Luxemburg.
• This spurred yet another alliance to protect the
  European Balance of Power-the League of Augsburg
• Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden and several of
  the German States. When the English Glorious
  revolution of 1688 placed William of Orange as the
  King of England, England and the United Provinces
  joined the League.
• The French were initially successful, but the French
  could not match the combined English and Dutch
  fleets. The league could not muster the strength
  necessary to invade France. The Peace of Ryswick
  (1697) resulted from this stalemate.
 The war of Spanish Succession 1702-
                1713
• War fought to determine who would inherit the throne of
  Spain.
• Charles II would die without an heir
• The leading contenders were the Austrian Habsburgs
  and the French Bourbons.
• When Charles II died in 1700 he left a will giving his
  throne to the grandson of Louis XIV who was to become
  Phillip V of Spain.
• Louis knew that war would follow if his grandson became
  the King of Spain. If he refused the Crown, however
  France would be surrounded again by Habsburg power.
  Louis accepted the will.
• The Pyrenees exist no longer.
    Spanish succession, cont.
• In this war France had only the slender aid provided
  by Spain and Bavaria against the Grand Alliance-put
  together by William of Orange.
• England, the United Provinces, the Holy roman
  Empire, the Electorate of Brandenburg, and Portugal
• From 1702-1709 the French suffered one defeat after
  another, but when Louis asked for peace terms, the
  allies provisions were so harsh that the French and
  Spanish carried on. In 1711, Archduke Charles
  became the Holy roman Emperor Charles VI and the
  English and French did not want one man to occupy
  both the imperil and the Spanish thrones as Charles
  V had done.
• Allied disunity allowed Louis XIV to negotiate an
  acceptable peace settlement.
     The Treaty of Utrecht 1713
• The English gained the most:
  – Gibraltar, Minorca, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson
    Bay territory and the Asiento
• Austria received the Spanish Netherlands,
  the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan
  and the island of Sardinia.
• The elector of Brandenburg was recognized
  as the King in Prussia
• The Duke of Savoy was recognized as the
  King of Savoy and given the island of Sicily
  which was exchanged for Sardinia in 1720
                Treaty of Utrecht
• Louis is forced to sue for peace.
  Treaty of Utrecht.
    – France gives up Nova Scotia,
      Newfoundland and area around
      Hudson bay to English.
    – Louis agrees that Spanish and
      French crown will never be united.
    – Austria gets Spanish Netherlands
    – Spain gives England control of slave
      trade from Africa.
• Completes the decline of Spain as a
  major power in Europe.
• Expands the British Empire.
• Marks the end of French
  Expansionist policy.

                                             78
• HOP to RAP
• Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman empire,
  Poland
• Russia, Austria, Prussia
• Sharks and Jelly Fish
• Poland gets “pac manned” 1772-1795
Prussia
                      Prussia
• Ruling Family: Hohenzollern family
• Late 1600s: Hohenzollern family
  ambitious
• In 1640, Frederick William inherited the
  titled of elector of Brandenburg
       – Brandenburg (northern Prussian territory)

• Nickname: “Great Elector”
• Lead his family towards absolute
  monarchy
         The Hohenzollerns
• 1640- 1688: Frederick William, the Great
  Elector (Holy Roman Empire)
King’s of Prussia:
• 1688-1713: Frederick I
• 1713-1740: Frederick William I
• 1740-1768: Frederick II (the Great)
           Frederick William
• Raised a great army
  – Frederick would build it to one of the most
    powerful in Eastern Europe
  – Guides Prussia through the 30 years War
                  Frederick I
• First King of Prussia
     • Tried to imitate Louis XIV lavish ways
          Frederick William I
• Despised French ways
• Got rid of the luxury of his father.
• Doubled the Prussian Army
  – Men 6ft-8ft tall – “regiment of giants”
Frederick William I and Frederick II
• Frederick William I worried that his son
  was not military enough to rule
• Frederick II was a lover of music and
  poetry
  – He was once beaten in public and tried to
    escape his father with his “friend” Han
     • Frederick II was imprisoned and forced to watch
       his “friend’s” execution
     • These were attempts to toughen him up.
                Frederick II
• Eventually he would follow in his father’s
  footsteps and become a good military
  leader
• War of Austrian Succession
  – Frederick wanted the land of Silesia due to its
    natural resources (Silesia east of Saxony)
  – He felt he could easily defeat Maria Theresa,
    Queen of Austria and Bohemia
  – Austria loses war and ceded Silesia to
    Prussia
Expansion of Prussia




                       88
Russia
                  Russia
• Ivan III helped to free Russia from the
  Mongols
• Setup a centralized government
                    Ivan IV
• He became known as “Ivan the Terrible”
  – He came to the throne at the age of 3
    • nobles (known as boyars) would fight over who
      had control of him
  At the age of 16 he seized power and became
    czar (Caesar)
           First Russian ruler to use that term
                Ivan the Terrible
• He would marry Anastasia, a member of the Romanov
  family
• Early rule: Known as the “good period”
• Later Rule after Anastasia dies in 1560: “bad period”
  – Accused the boyars of poisoning his wife
• Secret police (Oprichniks): hunted traitors to Russia
  – They dressed in black and rode black horses
  – They executed many of them and seized their land
      Ivan the Terrible
• In 1581 during a argument
  with his eldest son Ivan killed
  him
   – This left his second son to rule
   – Russia would experience
     “times of trouble”
             Ivan the Terrible
• Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible; 1533-
  1584) continued this process.
• Defeated the remnants of
  Mongol power and declared
  himself Tsar
• Added vast new territories to
  Russia in the east
• All nobles had to serve the tsar
  and thus were under his
  control.
• Oppressed peasants, tying
  them to the land as serfs,
  perpetually bound to the
  nobles.                             94
          Times of Trouble
• Many noble families fought for control
• Romanov Family takes control: 1613
  – Michael Romanov was chosen (he was the
    grand-nephew of Ivan IV)
  – They would rule Russia until the Russian
    Revolution in 1917
       Rise of the Romanovs
• After Ivan’s death in 1598 was a period of
  chaos.
• Nobles were able to regain some power.
• 1613 Russian assembly of nobles realized
  that the chaos was putting them all at risk
  from Cossacks
• Appoint Michael Romanov as Tsar, and
  the Romanov family rules Russia until
  1917 when the Communists take over.


                                            96
          Peter the Great
•   Wanted reform Russian society
•   Wanted a warm water port
•   He stood more then 6 ft
•   By the age of 25 he ventured on a long
    visit to Western Europe
    – He wanted to keep his identity secret
       • At one time he worked as a ship carpenter for 4
         months in the Netherlands
    Peter the Great (1672-1725)
• Peter the Great takes the throne in 1682
  and transforms Russia, determined to
  westernize it. Why?
   – He wanted to import modern military
     methods and technology and modern
     governmental administration in order
     to make his country more powerful.
   – He wanted to adopt mercantilist
     economic policies in order to
     strengthen the tax base to support his
     military,
   – This required modernizing
     manufacturing and production.
   – Attempting to catch up with the power
     and strength of Europe.

                                              98
          Window on the West
• In war with Sweden, Peter captures modern Estonia and
  Latvia from the Swedes,
• Gave Russia a port on the Baltic making it the dominant
  power in the Baltic.
   – “window on the west”
   – Also eases travel between Russia and the rest of
     Europe.
   – Builds St. Petersburg in NW Russia as a symbolic
     window on the West, which remains the Russian
     capital until 1917.
• Peter gained state control of the Russian Orthodox
  Church in 1721 by abolishing the position of patriarch
  and placing administration of the church under state
  control
                                                        99
                 Westernization
• Peter wanted Russia to act more like its
  counterparts in Western Europe
  – Took control of the Russian Orthodox Church
  – Hired European officers to train his soldiers
  – Beard Tax: “Beards are a ridiculous ornament”
  – Ordered the nobles to wear Western fashions
     • Introduced potatoes to Russia
             St. Petersburg
• Would be the seaport Peter wanted
• “window to the west”
• Originally was a swamp:
  – Along the Neva River (Baltic coast)
• Somewhere from 25,000 to 100,000
  people died in the building of the city
      Effect of Peter’s Policies
• As a result of Peter’s Policies:
   – Western ideas and technology flowed into Russia and
     Russians were exposed to Western culture.
   – New class of Russian educated nobility emerged.
   – Split between the nobility and the average citizen
     widened and deepened.
   – Russia became a major power, moved much closer to
     Europe and was much more a factor in European
     affairs.



                                                      102
          Catherine the Great
• Ascended to throne in
  1762
  – Husband Peter III
    murdered.
     • Ruthless and strong
       ruler
     • Gained land in the
       Baltic
     • Partitioned Poland:
        – Broken up between
          Russia, Prussia and
          Austria
       5

Expansion of Russia, 1689 – 1796
                 Austria
• After 30 years war, Habsburgs began to
  focus on Austrian Empire rather than Holy
  Roman Empire.
• Defeated Ottoman Empire in 1697 at the
  battle of Zenta, gaining Hungary.
• Charles VI –Pragmatic Sanction
• Maria Theresa becomes empress in 1740
• War of Austrian Succession

				
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