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					Massive Resistance in Virginia

     William G. Thomas III
     HIST 604 The Civil Rights Movement
     in U.S. and Virginia History
Massive Resistance in Virginia
 The Problem of Implementation
 Initial Resistance
          Gray Commission
          Interposition
          Special Session
          Almond-Dalton
 Crisis in the Schools
          Closings in Virginia
          Perrow Commission
 Interpretations
          Sarah Patton Boyle, Benjamin Muse
          J. Harvie Wilkinson, James Ely
 Conclusion
Massive Resistance in Virginia
VS.9-The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth
century Virginia by

G) describing the economic and social transition from a rural,
agricultural society to a more urban, industrialized society,
including the reasons people came to Virginia from other
states and countries;
H) identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked
 to desegregation and Massive Resistance and their relationship
 to national history;
I) identifying the political, social, and/or economic
contributions made by Maggie Walker, Harry F. Byrd, Sr.,
 Arthur R. Ashe, Jr., and L. Douglas Wilder.
 Massive Resistance in Virginia
CE2- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations
of American constitutional government by
    A) explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the
     governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and
    representative government;
    B) explaining the significance of the charters of the Virginia
    Company of London, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the
    Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the
    Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and the Constitution of
    the United States, including the Bill of Rights;
    C) identifying the purposes for the Constitution of the United
    States as they are stated in its Preamble
Massive Resistance in Virginia
 CE6- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American
 constitutional government by

 A) explaining the relationship of state governments to the
    national government in the federal system;
 B) describing the structure and powers of local, state and
    national governments;
 C) explaining the principle of separation of powers and the
    operation of checks and balances;
 D) identifying the procedures for amending the Constitution of
    the United States.
Massive Resistance in Virginia
CE7- The student will demonstrate knowledge of how public policy
is made at local, state, and national levels of government by

         E) explaining the lawmaking process;
         F) describing the roles and powers of the executive
            branch
         G) examining the impact of the media on public opinion
            and public policy;
         H) describing how individuals and interest groups
            influence public policy.
Massive Resistance in Virginia
CE8- The student will demonstrate knowledge of judicial systems
established by the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of
the United States

        A) describing the organization and jurisdiction of federal
        and state courts
        B) describing the exercise of judicial review;
        C) explaining court proceedings in civil and criminal
            cases;
        D) explaining how due process protections seek to
            ensure justice.
Massive Resistance in Virginia
GOVT8- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the
organization and powers of the state and local governments
described in the Constitution of Virginia by

  D) examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  E) examining the structure and powers of local governments:
  county, city, and town;
  F) analyzing the relationship among state and local governments
Massive Resistance in Virginia
GOVT9- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process
by which public policy is made by


  I)    examining different perspectives on the role of government;
  J)    examining how local, state, and national governments
  formulate policy;
  K) describing the process by which policy is implemented by
  bureaucracy at each level;
  L) analyzing how individuals, interest groups, and the media
  influence public policy
   Massive Resistance in Virginia
 "Strike Against Jackie Spiked," 1947

The strike, instigated by a small bloc of St. Louis Cardinal players who had
fantastic visions of a general walkout later, was checked by League President Ford
Frick and Cardinal owner Sam Breadon. Both denied this, however. . . .

Whether Frick talked to the players in person or whether he sent them a written
 message, could not be confirmed when the Dodgers arrived here Friday to open a
four-game series with the Phillies. But it is a known fact that he told the St. Louis team:

"If you do this (strike) you will be suspended from the league. You will find that the friends
you think you have in the press box will not support you, that you will be outcasts. I do not
 care if half the league strikes. Those who do it will encounter quick retribution. All will be
 suspended and I don't care if it wrecks the National League for five years. This is the United
States of America and one citizen has as much right to play as another.

"The National League will go down the line with Robinson whatever the consequences.
You will find if you go through with your intention that you have been guilty
 of complete madness."

 From The Baltimore Afro-American, May 17, 1947.
   Massive Resistance in Virginia
  The Right of Interposition, 1955

... What we must ask ourselves as Virginians, as heirs to the philosophical inheritance
 of Jefferson and Madison, is whether any means exist by which this "process of judicial
legislation" may be brought to a pause. If the "most fundamental of the rights of the States
and of their citizens" are not to be swept away by judicial encroachment, and the States
 reduced to the status of mere counties, must we not exert every possible effort to halt the
 courts in their usurpation of our sovereign powers? . . .

And in such an emergency, these great men asserted, the States may declare their inherent
right--inherent in the nature of our Union--to judge for themselves not merely of the
 infractions but "of the mode and measure of redress."

This is the right of interposition.




From The Richmond News Leader, November 22, 1955, and November 29, 1955.
  Massive Resistance in Virginia
     Interposition, Now! Responsibility Lies Upon the Legislature



... We know these things, but others do not know. And the second advantage of the
 proposed resolution is that Virginia, by the adoption of such a resolution, might succeed
in elevating this controversy from the regional field of segregation to the transcendent,
 national field of State sovereignty. There is a tactical advantage in higher ground, and we
 would do well to seek it. . . .

The doctrine of interposition. . . rests not on expediency but on fundamental principles.




From The Richmond News Leader, November 22, 1955, and November 29, 1955.
  Massive Resistance in Virginia
  Southern Manifesto, 1956


. . . . The unwarranted decision of the Supreme Court in the public school cases is now
 bearing the fruit always produced when men substitute naked power for established law.

We regard the decisions of the Supreme Court in the school cases as a clear abuse of judicial
power. It climaxes a trend in the Federal Judiciary undertaking to legislate, in derogation of
the authority of Congress, and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the States and the people.

We pledge ourselves to use all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which
is contrary to the Constitution and to prevent the use of force in its implementation.

In this trying period, as we all seek to right this wrong, we appeal to our people not to be
provoked by the agitators and troublemakers invading our States and to scrupulously refrain
from disorder and lawless acts.




From Congressional Record, 84th Congress Second Session. Vol. 102, part 4
(March 12, 1956). Washington, D.C.: Governmental Printing Office, 1956. 4459-
4460.
Massive Resistance in Virginia
Senate Resolution No. 14, by direction of which this report is being prepared,
instructed the committee to include in its report "such statistical, and narrative
 material, dealing with the public schools of Virginia and the problems attendant
upon compulsory integration of the races therein, as shall, in the committee's
opinion, be calculated best to inform sister States and the public generally of the
nature of the
school problem before us." It is with no wish to offend Virginia's Negro people,
who include among their number many valuable citizens, that the committee submit
data to support their profound conviction that the two races ought not to be mingled
in the intimacy of the public schools of this Commonwealth. The schools offer an
experience that is not educative alone, but social also; they bring together young
 people in the formative years of their adolescence, before they have had an
opportunity to fashion a bridle of maturity by which the passions and impulses of
 inexperience may be governed. . . .


The Doctrine of Interposition, Its History and Application: A report on Senate
Joint Resolution 3, General Assembly of Virginia 1956, Commonwealth of Virginia
Massive Resistance in Virginia
. . .The palpable differences between white and Negro children in
intellectual aptitudes have been demonstrated repeatedly by careful
examinations conducted by responsible educational authorities. A summary
of recent findings in this regard appears in the Appendix. To bring together
such disparate groups in a massive integration of classrooms (and in the
smaller, rural counties, having only two or three high schools, massive
integration could not be avoided by any devices of gerrymandering), would
be to create an educational choas, impossible of satisfactory administration,
which would lower the educational level for white children and inevitably
create race consciousness and racial tensions. A more cruel imposition
upon the children of both races, and upon the tranquility of their
communities, could not be imagined.




 The Doctrine of Interposition, Its History and Application: A report on Senate
 Joint Resolution 3, General Assembly of Virginia 1956, Commonwealth of Virginia
Massive Resistance in Virginia
  . . . In the teeth of history and in contempt of long-established
  constitutionally sanctioned law, the Southern States are advised that an
  amendment of 1868 really was intended to prohibit to them the power
  to operate racially separate schools. This was discovered 86 years after
  the amendment was ratified.
             With the soothing assurance that this is all for our own
  good, our judicial surgeons have prescribed a massive political blood-
  letting; and it is not the South only that is being leeched: it is the whole
  body of the Republic.Weakened by this cynical phlebotomy, enervated
  by sweet anesthetic, the States gradually are declining to the
  insignificant role of dependent Federal satellites-mere municipal
  provinces of Washington, suburbs of the Capital. They are being
  drained of the vitality that has contributed so greatly to the Nation's
  strength, and the pity is that an apathetic people lie indifferent to the
  enveloping evil.. . .


Inaugural Address of J.Lindsay Almond, Jr. Governor to the General Assembly and the
People of Virginia Saturday, January 11, 1958
Massive Resistance in Virginia
  . . . I do not think the people of Virginia are indifferent! They have not
  exhibited indifference these past three years. They have exhibited, on
  the contrary, by their own expression at the polls and through their
  representatives in the

  Assembly and in Constitutional Convention, not a willingness to
  surrender to usurped authority, but a determination to resist. That
  determination must not falter now.



Inaugural Address of J.Lindsay Almond, Jr. Governor to the General Assembly and the
People of Virginia Saturday, January 11, 1958

				
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