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HB 327-2010 Communicating and consulting about risk (Companion to AS NZS ISO 31000-2009)

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HB
                                                                                                                        HB 327:2010
                                                                                                Communicating and
                                                                                                consulting about risk
                                                                                           2




                                                                                               HB 327:2010
                                                                                               Communicating and consulting about risk
This is a free 6 page sample. Access the full version at http://infostore.saiglobal.com.




                                                                                               First published as HB 327:2010.




                                                                                               Copyright © 2009 Standards Australia Limited.
                                                                                               All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means,
                                                                                               electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher.
                                                                                               Published by Standards Australia Limited, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
                                                                                               ISBN 978 0 7337 9346 2
                                                                                                                  PREFACE
                                                                                           This guide was prepared by a Joint Standards Australia/Standards New
                                                                                           Zealand Task Group, with guidance from Committee OB/007, Risk
                                                                                           Management.



                                                                                           The principal editors and contributors were:

                                                                                           Adrian Sparrow (Chair)

                                                                                           Dale Cooper

                                                                                           Roger Estall

                                                                                           Janet Gough

                                                                                           Loata Stewart
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                                                                                           The contribution of the following individuals is gratefully acknowledged:

                                                                                           Geraint Bermingham

                                                                                           Neil Britten

                                                                                           Pamela Finger

                                                                                           Carl Gibson

                                                                                           Kevin Knight

                                                                                           Grant Purdy

                                                                                           Neil Porter

                                                                                           Brian Small

                                                                                           Paul Stannard

                                                                                           Michael Tarrant

                                                                                           Grant Whitehorn




                                                                                           The authors appreciate that communication and consultation in risk
                                                                                           management is a fast developing area of expertise and would welcome
                                                                                           comments and suggestions for the next edition of this Handbook.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HB 327:2010
                                                                                                                                                                                   Communicating and consulting about risk


                                                                                                                                                    CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page

                                                                                           PART 1:           WHY DO IT? ........................................................................................................... 5
                                                                                            1        Communicating and consulting—The process ............................................................. 5
                                                                                                     1.1 A key risk management tool................................................................................. 5
                                                                                                     1.2 Communication as a process .............................................................................. 5
                                                                                                     1.3 Consultation as a process.................................................................................... 7
                                                                                                     1.4 Allowing for communication and consultation in the risk management
                                                                                                          framework............................................................................................................ 7
                                                                                                     1.5 Benefits from communication and consultation.................................................... 7
                                                                                                     1.6 It takes two to tango ............................................................................................ 8
                                                                                                     1.7 Medium................................................................................................................ 8
                                                                                                     1.8 Identifying stakeholders........................................................................................ 8
                                                                                                     1.9 Engagement ........................................................................................................ 9
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                                                                                                     1.10 Power ................................................................................................................ 10
                                                                                            2        Perception .................................................................................................................. 11
                                                                                                     2.1 What are risk perceptions? ................................................................................ 11
                                                                                                     2.2 How “rules of thumb” affect perceptions............................................................ 12
                                                                                                     2.3 Lay and specialist perceptions ........................................................................... 13
                                                                                                     2.4 “Tolerable risk” and “acceptable risk”................................................................. 14
                                                                                            3        Uncertainty ................................................................................................................. 15
                                                                                                     3.1 Risk and uncertainty .......................................................................................... 15
                                                                                                     3.2 Measurement uncertainty................................................................................... 16
                                                                                                     3.3 The Precautionary Principle................................................................................ 16
                                                                                                     3.4 Communicating uncertainties............................................................................. 17

                                                                                           PART 2:           HOW TO DO IT ...................................................................................................... 18
                                                                                            1        Introduction ................................................................................................................ 18
                                                                                            2        Managing communication and consultation................................................................ 20
                                                                                                     2.1 Participation ....................................................................................................... 20
                                                                                                     2.2 Participation of senior management ................................................................... 21
                                                                                                     2.3 Engagement and participation of staff................................................................ 21
                                                                                            3        Supporting the risk management process .................................................................. 22
                                                                                                     3.1 Establishing the context ..................................................................................... 22
                                                                                                     3.2 Identifying risks .................................................................................................. 23
                                                                                                     3.3 Analysing risks ................................................................................................... 23
                                                                                                     3.4 Evaluating risks .................................................................................................. 23
                                                                                                     3.5 Treating risks ..................................................................................................... 24
                                                                                                     3.6 Monitoring and review........................................................................................ 24
                                                                                            4        Case studies............................................................................................................... 24
                                                                                                     4.1 Oil spill ............................................................................................................... 24
                                                                                                     4.2 Foot and mouth disease .................................................................................... 26
                                                                                                     4.3 Deaths from fire ................................................................................................. 26
                                                                                                     4.4 Traffic congestion .............................................................................................. 27




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3
                                                                                               HB 327:2010
                                                                                               Communicating and consulting about risk


                                                                                                                      INTRODUCTION

                                                                                                                      This Handbook is a companion to the Australia/New Zealand Risk
                                                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                                                                      Management Standard (AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009)               and the Risk
                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                      Management Guidelines (HB 436:2004) . It uses academic research and
                                                                                                                      practical experience to flesh out the “Communicate and Consult” part of the
                                                                                                                      risk management process. It was written to help people who manage risk.

                                                                                                                      Risk management takes place in a social context. This means that
                                                                                                                      information needs to be shared by people who are affected differently by a
                                                                                                                      set of risks, who know different things about those risks, and who have
                                                                                                                      different views about them

                                                                                                                      Communication and consultation are continual and iterative processes that
                                                                                                                      an organization conducts to provide, share or obtain information and to
                                                                                                                      engage in dialogue with stakeholders regarding the management of risk.
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                                                                                                                      The information can relate to the existence, nature, form, likelihood,
                                                                                                                      significance, evaluation, acceptability and treatment of the risk.

                                                                                                                      Consultation is a two-way process of informed communication between an
                                                                                                                      organization and its stakeholders on an issue prior to making a decision or
                                                                                                                      determining a direction on that issue. Consultation is a process which
                                                                                                                      impacts on a decision through influence rather than power and is a n input to
                                                                                                                      decision making, but not joint decision making.

                                                                                                                      Communication and consultation should facilitate truthful, relevant,
                                                                                                                      accurate and understandable exchanges of information, taking into account
                                                                                                                      confidential and personal integrity aspects.

                                                                                                                      This Handbook explains why communication and consultation are essential
                                                                                                                      for good risk management and provides advice as to how to do this
                                                                                                                      effectively. The concepts are consistent with each of the 11 principles of
                                                                                                                      effective risk management described in Section 3 of AS/NZS ISO
                                                                                                                      31000:2009 including the first principle which is that risk management
                                                                                                                      creates and protects value.

                                                                                                                      The Handbook also shows how to take account of the mix of facts,
                                                                                                                      uncertainties, perceptions, complexities, beliefs and values when taking
                                                                                                                      decisions about risk.

                                                                                                                      AUDIENCE

                                                                                                                      This guide is intended to help individuals, organisations and specialists to
                                                                                                                      understand the role and techniques of communication and consultation
                                                                                                                      when managing risk -, especially when using the generic risk management
                                                                                                                      process set out in AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009.

                                                                                                                      USING THE GUIDE

                                                                                                                      This Handbook is designed as an “owner’s handbook” rather than a
                                                                                                                      “workshop manual”. It gives basic guidance for understanding and
                                                                                                                      operating relevant aspects of communicating and consulting about risks. It
                                                                                                                      is not an exhaustive compendium of the subjects, nor is it a report on
                                                                                                                      academic research.

                                                                                               1
                                                                                                 AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 , Risk Management – Principles and Guidelines. Standards Australia and Standards New
                                                                                               Zealand, , ISBN ISBN 0 7337 9289 8.
                                                                                               2
                                                                                                 HB 436:2004, Risk Management Guidelines—Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004. Standards Australia and
                                                                                               Standards New Zealand, ISBN 0 7337 5960 2.[Under review]

                                                                                           4
                                                                                                                                                                  HB 327:2010
                                                                                                                                        Communicating and consulting about risk




                                                                                           PART 1: WHY DO IT?

                                                                                              1 Communicating and consulting—
                                                                                                The process
                                                                                              1.1      A key risk management tool
                                                                                              Those responsible for assessing risks, or choosing or implementing risk
                                                                                              treatments, need to involve other people—

                                                                                              •     to access knowledge;
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                                                                                              •     to fulfil obligations of transparency (for example, public bodies are
                                                                                                    generally expected to act in a transparent way; staff who are involved
                                                                                                    in decisions that affect them tend to perform better); or

                                                                                              •     to explain what is required of others involved in implementation.

                                                                                              1.2      Communication as a process
                                                                                              Effective communication has three elements. The messages must be put into
                                                                                              a form that enables them to be transmitted. Secondly, the communication
                                                                                              process should transmit the messages, and thirdly, the messages should be
                                                                                              able to be “restored”, i.e. received in a form that is consistent with that
                                                                                              transmitted, and comprehensible to the receiver. Distortions that interfere
                                                                                              with this process can cause errors in what the receivers understand from the
                                                                                              message. Stakeholders are likely to make judgments about risk based on
                                                                                              their perceptions, which if left uninformed or unacknowledged can have a
                                                                                              significant impact on the management of risk.

                                                                                              The message itself is less important than how the message is interpreted,
                                                                                              because people will react to what they understand from a message. This
                                                                                              means that, when a party wants to send messages to others, the sender
                                                                                              should take account of the—

                                                                                              •     audience attributes;

                                                                                              •     audience engagement;

                                                                                              •     audience participation;

                                                                                              •     characteristics of the medium being used;

                                                                                              •     perceptions and values of the individual parties involved; and

                                                                                              •     information quality.




                                                                                                                                                                                  5
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                                                                                                             HB 327:2010, Communicating and consulting
                                                                                                             about risk (Companion to AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009)
This is a free 6 page sample. Access the full version at http://infostore.saiglobal.com.




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