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					India
 Role of Geography
The Earliest Indus River
     Civilizations
Harappan India
 Centered along the Indus River in
  NW India
 Similar to Mesopotamia and Nile
  cultures
 Agricultural economy
Aryan arrival
 Came from Central Asia
 Arrived ca 1500-1000 BCE
 Vedic Age, 1200-600 BCE:\
 Epic stories of Varuna, the mighty
  god, and Indra, the warrior god
 Connected with veneration of the
  god Shiva
 Invasion of Alexander, 326 BCE
Hinduism
 Vedic Age gave rise to
  Hinduism
 Upanishads—philosophical
  speculations
 Maya
 Transmigration of Souls
 Karma
 Caste System
        Hindu Castes
    Brahmins: Profs and priests

  Kshatriyas: Military leaders and
            politicians


   Vaishyas: Farmers, landlords,
          businessmen


Sudras: Peasants, servants, laborers



  Untouchables (Dalit): Workers in
          polluting jobs
    (Officially outlawed in 1949)
Buddhism
 Gautama Buddha (563 BCE-483 BCE)
 “middle way”
 Restored the ethical content to Karma
 The Four Noble Truths: that suffering is an
  inherent part of existence; that the origin of
  suffering is ignorance and the main symptoms
  of that ignorance are attachment and craving;
  that attachment and craving can be ceased;
  and that following the Noble Eightfold Path will
  lead to the cessation of attachment and craving
  and therefore suffering.
 The Noble Eightfold Path: right understanding,
  right thought, right speech, right action, right
  livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and
  right concentration.
 Spread under King Asoka (ca. 250 BCE);
  virtually unknown in India by 1200.
 Theravada (South East Asia) and Mahayana
  Buddhism (China and Japan)
Mauryan Empire
 First Indian dynasty to control India
 Chandragupta Maurya drove out
  Greeks
 Grandson, Ashoka, consolidated
  control (r. 269-232)
 Buddhist convert
 Edicts of Ashoka
 India fell into disunity and
  regionalism
Ashoka India (3C BC)
Gupta India
 320-550 CE in northern India
 Less militaristic than Mauryan state
 Golden Age
 Helped spread a uniform law code
 Hinduism crystalized during this
  time
 Aryabhata—Archimedes of India
Indian Government
 Did not develop the traditions of
  China,or the inquiry of Greece and
  Rome
 Altered between regional and
  national unity
 Not particularly elaborate systems
 Local villages the key to social
  cohesion
Coming of Muslim
Rulers
 Babur the Tiger (1526)—subordinated
  Hindu chieftains to his rule.
 Mughal Dynasty controlled India until
  British Imperialists seize power.
 Mughal Dynasty under Akbar (1556-
  1605) brings order and stability to Hindu
  Country
 Din Ilahi
 Akbar’s successors squander wealth and
  attempt to impose Sharia on Hindu
  population.
 Akbar the the Moghul
Conqueror of India (1556-
         1605)
The Spread of the
 Mughal Empire
Contemporary India
The Taj Mahal built by
Shah Jahan in the 17C
Brahma: The Creator
Lord Krishna or Vishnu: The
         Preserver
Lord Shiva: The Destroyer
“Twining of the Creeper”
  from the Kamasutra
Image of Buddha from 13C

				
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posted:8/23/2012
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