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introduction_to_anatomy_and_physiology

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					Dr.S.Nishan Silva
     (MBBS)
What are the subjects you will
        be learning?
       What do they mean?
Introduction
     to
  Anatomy
             Anatomy
• from the Greek word anatomia,
• from ana: separate, apart from,
•  and temnein, to cut up, cut open
• It is the study of the structure of living
  things.
• “What living things are made of (and
  how)”
Why do you learn Anatomy
    and Physiology?
History of
Anatomy
       History of Anatomy
• Drawings on Papyruses from 1600 BC
• Records from ancient Greece 5th century
  BC
• Dissections by Aristotal 400 BC
Who is this?
  Vitruvian Man
From 1487 AD



By Leonardo    Da Vinci

The drawing is based on the
correlations of ideal human
 proportions with geometry
  described by the ancient
Roman architect Vitruvius in
 Book III of his treatise De
       Architectura.
The anatomy lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp byRembrandt shows an anatomy lesson
                     taking place in Amsterdam in 1632.
                  Anatomy
•   Introduction and background
•   Branches of Anatomy
•   Structural organization of the body
•   Body planes
•   Anatomical relationships
•   Anatomical descriptions
     Structural organization from
      simplest to most complex
• Chemical
• Cellular

• Tissue – group of cells similar in structure and
  function

• Organ – 2 or more tissue types performing
  specific function

• Organ system – group of organs acting together
  to perform specific function

• Human organism
  How can we STUDY this
Anatomical organization of an
      Organism????
              Anatomy
Organisation of the body into regions

     Regional anatomy
Head & Neck
Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis
Upper limb
Lower limb
                   Anatomy
• Organisation of the body into functional
  systems
     •   Integumentary
     •   Skeletal
     •   Muscular
     •   Nervous
     •   Endocrine
     •   Cardiovascular
     •   Lymphatic/immune
     •   Respiratory
     •   Digestive
     •   Urinary
     •   Reproductive
Organization of an
  Organ System

  How are these organized?
Ex: Gastrointestinal system
           Organs of a system
•   Oral cavity
•   Salivary glands
•   Oesophagus
•   Stomach
•   Small & large intestines
•   Rectum & anal canal
•   Liver, gall bladder & pancreas
              Basic tissues
•   Epithelia
•   Connective tissue
•   Muscle tissue
•   Nerve tissue
Basic functional unit

       Cell
Cell Organelles
• Branches of anatomy
  – Gross anatomy
  – Microscopic anatomy
    • Cytology
    • Histology
  – Developmental anatomy
    • Embryology
    • Genetics?
Example : The   Heart
Show me your heart….
Show me your heart….

 (Surface Anatomy)
Where is the heart?
   (Anatomical relations)
Anatomy of the heart
Dissections – “Look in to my heart” :P
Inside of the heart….
Heart more closer…….
Layers of the heart

 (Histology)
Light Microscopic View
     (X10-X2000)
Zoom in to my heart….
Zoom further in to my
     heart….
     (Cytology)
Electron microscopic view
  (even 10,000,000x !)
The heart still goes on and on..
The development of
   the HEART?

  Embryology
    (How is it made???)
Genetics
             Gross Anatomy
•   Terminology
•   Body planes
•   Anatomical relations
•   Movements
•   Surface Anatomy
     The Anatomical Position
• The standard reference
  position
• Body erect
• Head, eyes, toes directed
  forward
• Limbs at sides of body
• Palms directed forward
  Body planes
Median plane

Sagittal plane

Coronal plane

Horizontal plane
Body planes and sections
- cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane



        (also called coronal)




                                                   (also called XS – cross section)
  Body Sections (cuts, planes)
1.Sagittal cut: divides the body into right
  and left portions.
  midsagittal (median) = equal right and left
  portions.

2.Transverse Cut: (or horizontal): divides
  the body into superior and inferior portions

3.Coronal Cut: (or frontal): divides the body
  into anterior and posterior portions.
Transverse
plane           Coronal
                plane




Coronal plane
4.      Cross-section: cut at 90 degrees to
     long axis of the object
Anterior – Near
to the front


Posterior –
Near to the
back

Superior – Near to the head

Inferior – Near to feet
Medial – Nearer to the
median plane
Lateral – Farther from
the median plane

Proximal – near to the
point of origin

Distal – Farther from
the point of origin

Superficial – Nearer to the
surface

Deep – Farther from the
surface
Ipsilateral = same side;
Contralateral = other side

Epi = above

Hypo = below

Sub = Under
Movements

Flexion - Bending

Extension -
Straightening

Abduction – Moving
away from the median
plane

Adduction – Moving
toward the median plane
Movements

Medial rotation –
Moving internally around
the long axis

Lateral rotation –
Moving externally
around the long axis

Circumduction –
Circular movement
combining flexon,
extension, abuction &
adduction
Movements

Supination –
Rotating the
forearm & hand
laterally

Pronation –
Rotating the
forearm & hand
medially
Movements
Eversion – Moving
the sole of the
foot away from
the median plane


Inversion –
Moving the sole
of the foot
toward the
median plane
      Anterior Body Landmarks

• Abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to
  ribs
• Acromial: point of shoulder
• Antecubital: anterior surface of elbow
• Axillary: armpit
• Brachial: arm
• Buccal: cheek area
•  Carpal: wrist
•  Cervical: neck region
•  Coxal: hip
•  Crural: leg
•  Digital: fingers, toes
•   Femoral: thigh
•  Fibular: lateral part of leg
•  Inguinal: area where thigh meets body
  trunk; groin
• Nasal: nose area
•   Oral: mouth
•   Orbital: eye area
•   Patellar: anterior knee
•   Pelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
•   Pubic: genital region
•   Sternal: breastbone area
•   Tarsal: ankle region
•   Thoracic: chest
•   Umbilical: navel
    Posterior Body Landmarks
• Calcaneal: heel of foot
• Cephalic: head
• Deltoid: curve of shoulder formed by large
  deltoid muscle
• Femoral: thigh
• Gluteal: buttock
• Lumbar: area of back between ribs and
  hips
• Occipital: posterior surface of head
• Olecranal: posterior surface of elbow
• Popliteal: posterior knee area
• Sacral: area between hips
• Scapular: shoulder blade region
• Sural: posterior surface of lower leg; the
  calf
• Vertebral: area of spine
• Plantar Region is the sole of the foot
      INTRODUCTION

    PHYSIOLOGY IS THE STUDY
OF THE BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF
        ORGANS AND THEIR
      INTERRELATIONSHIPS.
   INTRODUCTION

TO ACCOMPLISH THIS GOAL,
    WE WILL USE THE
     MANY LEVELS OF
      ORGANIZATION
   OF THE HUMAN BODY.
Look more deeply into the heart..
The heart’s role in a process…
The heart on its own…
Individual processes of the heart
Function at tissue level..
At cellular and sub-cellular levels
Body Systems
Body Systems
       History
    THE SCIENCE OF PHYSIOLOGY
         BEGIN BEFORE THE
    BIRTH OF CHRIST. HOWEVER,
THE FATHER OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY
   IS THE FRENCH PHYSIOLOGIST
    CLAUDE BERNARD (1813-1878).
     INTRODUCTION

 BERNARD OBSERVED THAT THE
    INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
REMAINS REMARKABLY CONSTANT
 DESPITE CHANGING CONDITIONS
IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
     INTRODUCTION

     IN 1932 THE AMERICAN
PHYSIOLOGIST WALTER CANNON
 (1871-1945), COINED THE TERM
          HOMEOSTASIS
   TO DESCRIBE THIS STABLE
   INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
       Definition of Homeostasis
• homeo = same; stasis = standing
• Homeostasis is the term we use to
  describe the constant state of the internal
  environment.
• Homeostasis is a state of
  balance in the body.
• The processes and activities
  that help to maintain homeostasis are
  referred to as homeostatic mechanisms.
    Examples of Homeostasis
• Body Temperature
• Water Balance
• Chemistry Balance of Blood
  BASIC COMPONENTS OF A
    FEEDBACK SYSTEM
1. A RECEPTOR :DETECTS
CHANGES (STIMULI) IN THE BODY.
2. A CONTROL CENTER :
DETERMINES A SET POINT FOR A
NORMAL RANGE.
3. AN EFFECTOR : CAUSES THE
RESPONSE DETERMINED BY THE
CONTROL CENTER.
 A Temperature Control System
• To help us understand homeostasis in
  living organisms, let us first look at a non-
  living system. We will use a temperature
  control system for a room which has many
  similar features to homeostatic
  mechanisms….
  Click on the thermostat.
                A Review

• Example: thermostatic heating system in a
  home

Components of an automatic control system

• Variable is the characteristic of the internal
  environment that is controlled by this
  mechanism (internal temp in this example).

• Sensor (receptor) detects changes in variable
  and feeds that information back to the integrator
  (control center) (thermometer in this example).
        Example Continued

• Integrator (control center) integrates (puts
  together) data from sensor and stored "setpoint"
  data (thermostat in this example).

• Set point is the "ideal" or "normal" value of the
  variable that is previously "set" or "stored" in
  memory.

• Effector is the mechanism (furnace in this
  example) that has an "effect" on the variable
  (internal temperature in this example).
• Homeostasis is continually being
  challenged by
   – External stimuli
    • heat, cold, lack of oxygen, pathogens,
      toxins
  – Internal stimuli
    • Body temperature
    • Blood pressure
    • Concentration of water, glucose, salts,
      oxygen, etc.
    • Physical and psychological distresses
 Homeostatic Control Systems
• Feedforward - term used for responses
  made in anticipation of a change
• Feedback - refers to responses made after
  change has been detected
  – Types of feedback systems
    • Negative
    • Positive
         Feedback System
• A feedback system must have 3 parts:

1. Something to sense the environment—a
  sensor or the receptor
2. Analyzes the input, determines the
  appropriate response – a control center /
  integrator
3. A response mechanism that responds to
  the control center – a effector
• The 2 types of responses are known as:

 1. Negative feedback

  2. Positive feedback
  NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

  A REGULATORY MECHANISM IN
WHICH A CHANGE IN A CONTROLLED
 VARIABLE TRIGGERS A RESPONSE
   THAT OPPOSES THE CHANGE.
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
             Negative Feedback Loop
• Negative feed back loop consists of:
• Receptor - structures that monitor a controlled condition and detect
  changes




• Control center - determines next action




• Effector
    – receives directions from the control center
    – produces a response that restores the controlled condition
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
   POSITIVE FEEDBACK

  A REGULATORY MECHANISM IN
    WHICH THE RESPONSE TO A
 STIMULUS, IN A CONTROL SYSTEM,
CAUSES THE CONTROLLED VARIABLE
   TO MOVE FARTHER FROM THE
            SET POINT.
   POSITIVE FEEDBACK

   POSITIVE FEEDBACK USUALLY
DOES NOT MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS.
  IT IS CHARACTERIZES BY BEING
      SHORT IN DURATION, AND
           INFREQUENT.
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
       Hire-wire Artist Model


Variable: position of body
Setpoint: directly over the wire
Sensors: nerve receptors (eyes,
   inner ears, muscle stretch
   receptors, etc.)
Integrator: brain
Effectors: skeletal muscles

   High-wire artist uses negative
   feedback to maintain relatively
   constant position on wire.
          Next time……
• Cells and Tissues – Histology
  (Structure and function at the
  cellular level)

• Body Fluids
Thank You



Inquiries : Dr.Nishan Silva
 sunlord_n@hotmail.com

				
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