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					F. Hammer, H. Flores & M. Puech
              GEPI
        Obs. Paris-Meudon
FLAMES/GIRAFFE on the UT2



                   3 modes
                MEDUSE,
                132 mono-fibers, 1”.2

                IFU, 15 x 3’’x2’’arrays
                (20 sq. lenses, 0’’.52)

                ARGUS, 11”x7” array
                (300 sq. lenses)
    The multi-IFU mode of GIRAFFE

   15 x

15 IFUs deployable
over a 20 arcmin FoV

R= 11000 / 22000

No cross-talk between
fibers on the CCD
    Preliminary program (GTO, Paris)
6 nights on distant galaxies (PI: H. Flores)
VF of distant galaxies using OII3726,3729: the doublet can be resolved !
35 galaxies with 0.4 < z < 0.75 and W0(OII)> 15Å: Tint from 8 to 13hrs
32 VF with good S/N ( only pixels with S/N(OII) > 19)

      CFRS03.0488, z=0.46, (3’’x2’’)                         Velocity field
                     4                                        4
                     3
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                     2                                        2
                     1                                        1
                                                5x5 linear interpolation

                                                All but 6 galaxies show a
         R> 13000 at rest
                                                well resolved OII doublet.
          [OII] doublet
              Also sigma maps…
Provided by: the absence of cross-talk between individual spectra.

Sigma maps of rotating disks do show a peak at the center !




                              from Blais-Ouellete, Amram et al, 2002
                                      (Fabry-Perot/Halpha)
    And we find rotating disks at z ~ 0.6
        HST/F814W         Velocity field                                      sigma map

                                              QuickTime™ et u n
                                         décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                                  sont requis pour visionner cette image .




                                               QuickTime™ et u n
                                          décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                                   sont requis pour visionner cette image .




Maps from Puech et al (2005a) & Flores et al (2005), A&A submitted (sept. 05)
      but also « perturbed » rotations
        HST/F814W        Velocity field                                     sigma map




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Maps from Puech et al (2005a) & Flores et al (2005), A&A submitted (sept. 05)
     and much complex kinematics
  HST/F814W                Velocity field           sigma map




Maps from Puech et al (2005a) & Flores et al (2005), A&A submitted (sept. 05)
Could we have missed rotating disks at z~ 0.6 ?

Completness:
ALL available galaxies (with redshift) with IAB< 22.5 and
W0(OII)>15A have been observed within the GIRAFFE field
==> no bias expected

Spatial resolution:
Almost half of galaxies have rhalf < 0.5 arcsec in the continuum,
i.e. the size of the GIRAFFE pixel

But within the ionised gas region (OII):

they have 11 GIRAFFE pixels (median value) with
enough S/N(OII) (> 19) to be mapped (Puech et al, 2005a)
   « Compact » galaxies in the sample
HST/F814W                                                    OII hot pixels HST/F814W                                                                   OII hot pixels                                    HST/F814W                                     OII hot pixels




                              QuickTime™ et u n                               QuickTime™ et u n
                         décompresseur TIFF (LZW)                        décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                  sont requis pour visio nner cette image.        sont requis pour visio nner cette image.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          QuickTime™ et un                              QuickTime™ et un
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     décompresseur TIFF (LZW)                      décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              sont requis pour visionner cette image.       sont requis pour visionner cette image.




                                                                                                                         QuickTime™ et u n                                 QuickTime™ et u n
                                                                                                                    décompresseur TIFF (LZW)                          décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                                                                                                             sont requis pour visio nner cette image.          sont requis pour visio nner cette image.




   sont requis pour visionner cette image.                                   QuickTime™ et u n
          décompresseur TIFF (LZW)                                      décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
               QuickTime™ et u n                                 sont requis pour visio nner cette image.




                                                                                                                                                                                                            Puech et al (2005a)


Only 3 galaxies among 35 were too compact to be mapped
  Comparison to local (Fabry-Perot)




        FP velocity field            Simulated Giraffe IFU observation
 ESO 400-G43 (Ostlin et al, 2001)    (degraded spatial resolution)

FP observations of 20 GHASP galaxies (Amram et al, 2002)
                            ==> simulations of 60 data-cubes at different z
                            ==> rotating disks are recovered

          No artificial features;
          Perturbed/complex VFs are real!!
     For 1.2 to 3’’ galaxy sizes  Vmax recovered (correction= 1.2)
           A simple classification scheme
3’’x 2’’


                                     Rotating disks     ●
                                        (37 %)

                                   Perturbed rotation   █
                                          (16%)




                                   Complex kinematics   ▲
                                         (47%)



 Combined to photometric data: MB & MK

                 Tully-Fischer relation
Tully-Fischer relation at z ~ 0.6 (K band)




                Conselice et al (2005)




                                         VLT/GIRAFFE-IFUs
    KECK/LRIS (long slit)
                                         Flores et al (2005, A&A,
    Conselice et al (2005)
                                         submitted)
                                                   ▲ Complex VF
                                                   █ Perturbed VF
                                                   ● Disk-like VF




            Conselice et al (2005)




                                     VLT/GIRAFFE-IFUs
KECK/LRIS (long slit)
                                     Flores et al (2005, A&A,
Conselice et al (2005)
                                     submitted)
Scatter is related to interlopers (non relaxed kinematics)




               Conselice et al (2005)




                                        VLT/GIRAFFE-IFUs
   KECK/LRIS (long slit)
                                        Flores et al (2005, A&A,
   Conselice et al (2005)
                                        submitted)
    Tully-Fischer not evolving ?




Local TF (Verjeinhen 2001)   TF at z=0.6 (Flores et al, 2005)

                                We need statistics !!!
   TF relation at z ~ 0.6 (B band)                                 ▲ Complex VF
                                                                   █ Perturbed VF
                                                                   ● Disk-like VF




                               FDF



   Studies with slits                                    GIRAFFE-3D study

•Vogt et al, (1997) 0.1< z <1.0            MB~0.5    1/3 of spirals show MB~1
•Simard & Pritchet al (1998)                MB~2.0
• Barden et al. (2003) 19 Sp. (0.6<z<1.5)  MB~1.1
                                                       No evidence for slope change
• Ziegler et al, 2003 77 gal (0.1< z< 1.0)  MB~1.0
Preliminary conclusion on galaxy kinematics at z ~0.6
complete sample: 35 galaxies with IAB  22.5 ; W0(OII) > 15A and 0.4  z  0.75
==> representative of emission line galaxies at z= 0.6 (2/3 of MB < -19.5 galaxies)


   Simple classification using VF+sigma+ HST morphology.
    Rotating disks :             34%
    Perturbed rotation:          14%
                                               Only 1/3 are        rotating disks !
    Complex VF :                  43%
    Too compact (but detected) : 9%

    Tully-Fischer relation in B and K at z ~ 0.6
         almost all the scatter is related to interlopers (non relaxed galaxies)
         no evolution in K band (or stellar mass)
         1/3 of rotating disks show 1 mag brightening in B band (star formation ?)


         GIRAFFE/multiple IFUs: a unique tool to study the VF of distant galaxies

To be tested:
Perturbed rotation ==> minor mergers
Complex velocity fields ==> major mergers (with Cox, Dekel & Primack models)
           Immediate prospective
~ 250 velocity fields of galaxies with 0.4<z<0.9 and MJ < -20.5

                                             Intermediate
                                              Mass
                                              Galaxy
                                               Evolution
                                                Sequence


                  International collaboration at VLT:
               (France, Germany, Italy, China, & India)

   VIMOS                GIRAFFE                     FORS2
   Redshifts         VF+dispersion maps          (mass) of E/S0
                                            Integrated SFR, Av, O/H
                Further prospects …
                                                       Puech, et al 2005b,
          An outflow with high electronic density      (A&A submitted)




3’’x2’’         VF                                        Ne

          A region with similar electronic density than Orion…
          detected at z=0.6 in a rotating disk producing 75
          solar mass per year
                 Further prospects …
 Combining GIRAFFE & SINFONI (coll. M. Lehnert) at VLT :
 VF+sigma maps
 + 2D maps of electron density (OII doublet), extinction (H/H),
 SFR(H corrected) and O/H ((OII+OIII)/H)
 ==> physics of the galaxy formation up to z=2-2.5


2008:
X-SHOOTER IFU could do it in a single shot

Spectral resolution = 7000 - 12000

All the way from UV to near IR (2.4 microns)

Single IFU: image slicer (size= 4x1.8 arcsec2)   X-shooter IFU (slicer)
                                                 implementation
      A solid scientific case for the ELTs:
  galaxy physics from multi-3D spectroscopy
Spectroscopy to mAB ~ 26-27

   Assembly of dark & visible matter
   (z=5 to z=0, galaxies & satellites)



  The physics of galaxies near the re-
                                                              QuickTime™ et un
  ionisation (z=6-9)                                    décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
                                                 sont requis pour vis ionner cette image.




    The search for the first galaxies (z >> 6)
    Extragalactic requirements for ELT
 3D: to sample the complex galaxy physics

 R > 5000-10000: at z > 5, velocity width < few 10 km/s (+OH sky)

 Field of view: at least 25 arcmin2, goal = 100 arcmin2
                (source density from 0.1 to 5 per arcmin2)

 Multiplex: from 5 to 100

Spatial resolution: at z > 6 rhalf ~ 0.15 arcsec         From UDF

==> concentrate light within 0’’.05 to 0’’.1

Warning: this is in the continuum

      Adaptive optics is mandatory
           Investigating AO solutions
      Natural seeing:           Ground Layer A.O.:
      0.7 arcsec FWHM           0.3-0.35 arcsec FWHM
                                (averaged correction on few arcmin2)




FALCON-type :
0.1-0.15 arcsec FWHM
(distributed adaptive optics)

Multiple laser guide stars:
0.05 arcsec FWHM
(questions of stability
& diffusion)
A future spectrograph: MOMFIS/OWL ?




  AO/FALCON/+LGS

  30 IFUs, 30 tons, 30 spectrographs & 30 M Euros …

  (a collaboration Marseille/Paris/Lyon)
                         Conclusion
   European skills on 3D is unique in the world


        The “devenir” of 3D with AO is unique in optical astronomy

This contribution is part of the:

                      (PI M. Roth) in the frame of OPTICON

Paris node of Euro 3D (resp. H. Flores) is participating to:
-FLAMES/GIRAFFE (multiple IFUs & ARGUS)
-X-SHOOTER (IFU)
-FALCON (IFU & AO)
-MOMFIS/OWL
-3D-NTT

				
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posted:8/23/2012
language:English
pages:26