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1a Anatomy Terminology and Tissues

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1a Anatomy Terminology and Tissues Powered By Docstoc
					Anatomy Terminology
Body Regions

                  Axial Region (down midline of body)
                  Appendicular Region (limbs)
REGIONS OF THE BODY

   1. Axial Region (Goes down midline of the body)
     – a) Head
     – b) Neck
     – c) Trunk (has 3 parts)
           1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.
               – Pectoral Region (chest)
               – Costal ( rib) margin
           2) Abdomen (not called the stomach!). Contains the digestive organs
                    Lumbar region (low back)
•                   Gluteal region (buttocks)
          3) Pelvis (area that would be covered by brief underwear) Contains urinary and
          reproductive organs
                    Inguinal region (Groin)
REGIONS OF THE BODY

   2. Appendicular Region (limbs)
       a) Upper Limbs
          1) Axilla (armpit)
          2) Arm (Brachium): shoulder to elbow
                     Antecubital fossa (inside of elbow, where blood is drawn)
          3) Forearm (elbow to wrist). Don’t confuse with arm!
          4) Wrist
          5) Hand: 4 fingers with 3 phalanges each; thumb with 2 phalanges;
                     Pollicis: Thumb
                     Palmar surface: Palm
REGIONS OF THE BODY
   2. Appendicular Region (limbs)
       b) Lower Limbs
          1) Thigh (hip to knee). Don’t confuse with leg!
          2) Leg (knee to ankle).
                    Calf (back of the leg)
                    Popliteal region (behind knee)
                    Genu: the knee itself
          3) Ankle
          4) Foot: 5 digits
                    Hallux: big toe
                    Plantar surface: sole of foot
Body Cavities




                Figure 1.8a
Body Cavities




                Figure 1.8b
    Regional Terms
(not on the quiz or test)




                            Figure 1.4a
    Regional Terms
(not on the quiz or test)




                            Figure 1.4b
Anatomical Position

   The body standing erect, facing forward, feet
    together, toes pointed anteriorly, hands at
    one’s side, fingers pointing inferiorly, and
    palms facing forward.
   Once the body is in this position (or imagined
    to be in this position,) the positional terms
    can be used correctly.
  Anatomical
   Position

Anatomical Position
The person is standing up straight
The palms face anteriorly
The knees, elbow, and neck are
straight (not bent)
The toes point anteriorly, but the
fingers point inferiorly




Left and Right: yours or the patient’s?



                                          Figure 1.3
Positional Terms

   These are terms used to describe the position of
    certain structures on the body.

   Note: These are “relative terms.” This means that
    these words are usually used in relating the position of
    one body structure to another. You can’t say, “He is
    shorter”. You have to say, “He is shorter than John”.

   Incorrect: the nose is medial
   Correct: the nose is medial to the ears
Positional Terms

                       Superficial
  Anterior (Ventral)   Deep
  Posterior (Dorsal)
                       Proximal
  Superior             Distal
  Inferior
                       Supine
  Medial               Prone
  Lateral
Positional Terminology

   Anterior/Ventral: towards the front of the body (includes palms
    and soles)
   Posterior/Dorsal: towards the back of the body
   Superior: towards the head
   Inferior: towards the feet
   Medial (NOT MIDDLE): towards the midline of body
   Lateral: away from midline
   Varus: inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or
    joint.
   Valgus: outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or
    joint.
Positional Terminology

   Superficial: Toward the external environment
   Deep: Towards the inner body
   Proximal: towards the heart
   Distal: away from the heart
   Supine: Laying on one’s back
   Prone: Laying on one’s stomach
Positional Terms
         Positional Terms




(Skip)
Positional Terms
  Body Planes                    Para-
                                 Sagittal
                                 plane

• Frontal (Coronal)
• Sagittal            Sagittal
• Transverse          plane
      Body Planes and Sections
• Frontal (coronal) plane
   – Lies vertically and divides body or organ into anterior and
      posterior parts
• Sagittal plane
   – Divides right from left side of body or organ
        • Midsagittal (median) plane
             – Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline
               and divides body into EQUAL right and left sides
        • Parasagittal plane
             – Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline
               and divides body into UNEQUAL right and left sides
• Transverse plane
        • Divides body or organ into superior-inferior parts
Body Planes and Sections




                    Figure 1.5
Banana Sectioned into Planes


                               Transverse plane




                               Sagittal plane




     Frontal (coronal) plane
Movement Terms

   Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint
   Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to
    anatomical position
   Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position

   In the foot, there are special terms used instead of
    flexion/extension:
            Dorsiflexion: flexion of the ankle joint; to raise the toes up in
             the air. When you stand on your heels with your toes up in the
             air, you are dorsiflexing your ankle joints.
            Plantarflexion: extension of the ankle joint; to point the toes
             downward. When you stand on your toes, you are
             plantarflexing your ankle joints.
Flexion and Extension

                Flexion: to decrease
                the angle of a joint
                Extension: to
                increase the angle of a
                joint, returning it to
                anatomical position
                Hyperextension:
                extension beyond
                anatomical position
Flexion and Extension


                 Flexion: to decrease
                 the angle of a joint
                 Extension: to
                 increase the angle of a
                 joint, returning it to
                 anatomical position
                 Hyperextension:
                 extension beyond
                 anatomical position
Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension

                                Hyperextension
                    Extension
Movement Terminology

   Internal Rotation (or medial rotation): to rotate in the
    transverse plane toward the midline of the body
   External Rotation (or Lateral Rotation): to rotate in the
    transverse plane away from the midline of the body.

   These two terms are usually used to describe motions
    of the shoulder or hips.
Internal Rotation   External Rotation
Movement Terms

   Abduction: to move a body part away from the midline of the body in
    the frontal plane
   Adduction: to move a body part toward the midline of the body in the
    frontal plane


   Circumduction: to move a body part in a circle
   Rotation: to pivot a body part around an axis, as in shaking the head “no”
Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction
Movement Terminology

   Inversion: to rotate in the frontal plane toward the
    midline of the body. Inversion puts the body part into
    the varus position.
   Eversion: to rotate in the frontal plane away from the
    midline of the body. Eversion puts the body part into
    the valgus position.

   You invert and evert your hands, but the bones of the
    ankle don’t move in a single plane. Rather, they move
    in three planes, so that motion is more properly called
    supination and pronation.
Movements of the
Hand or Foot Only

Supination and Pronation are movements in three planes.

   Supination (tri-plane movement)
    –   Inversion
    –   Adduction
    –   Dorsiflexion (or Flexion in hands)

   Pronation (tri-plane movement)
    –   Eversion
    –   Abduction
    –   Plantarflexion (or Extension in hands)
Pronation   Supination
             Pronation and Supination




Supination          Pronation
Gliding Motion
Common Confusion of
POSITIONS vs. MOVEMENTS

   Prone: a POSITION, not a movement; body is lying face down.
   Pronation: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned downward (in
    Anatomical Position, the palm will face posterior). The foot can also
    be pronated; the sole turns laterally away from the body. Pronation
    of the foot is a tri-plane movement of plantarflexion, abduction, and
    eversion.



   Supine: a POSITION, not a movement; body is laying on the back.
   Supination: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned upward, like
    holding a bowl of soup (in Anatomical Position, the palm will face
    anterior). The foot can also be supinated; the sole turns medially
    towards the body. Supination of the foot is a tri-plane movement of
    dorsiflexion, adduction, and inversion.
Movement Terms

   Protraction – to project a body part anteriorly
    in the transverse plane, such as the
    shoulders or jaw
   Retraction – to pull a body part posteriorly
Movement Terms

   Elevation – lifting a body part superiorly,
    such as shoulders or jaw.
   Depression – lowering a body part inferiorly
Movement Terms

   Opposition – movement of the thumb to
    touch the tips of other fingers
Regional Terminology

   Thorax                 Upper Extremity
    –   Pectoral Region     Arm (Brachium)

    –   Costal = rib           Antecubital fossa
                            Forearm
   Abdomen
                            Hand
   Pelvis                     Palmar surface of hand
    –   Inguinal (Groin)   Lower Extremity
                            Thigh
   Lumbar region           Leg (Calf in back)
   Gluteal region             Popliteal region (behind
                                 knee)
   Axilla (armpit)            Genu: the knee itself
                            Foot
                               Plantar surface of foot
Joint Abbreviations

   MPJ: Metacarpal (or metatarsal) phalangeal
    joint
Joint Abbreviations

    IPJ: Interphalangeal joint
      –   DIPJ is the distal IPJ
                                               DIPJ
      –   PIPJ is the proximal IPJ
                                              PIPJ

    NOTE: The joint at the tip of the
    thumb is just called the IPJ



                                        IPJ
Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)

   X-ray beam passes
    from anterior to
    posterior.
Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)

   X-ray beam passes
    from anterior to
    posterior.
Lateral X-ray (Lat view)

   X-ray beam passes
    from medial to lateral
Lateral X-ray (Lat view)

   X-ray beam passes
    from medial to lateral
Oblique X-ray

   Beam enters at
    45° angle; good
    for identifying
    fractures.
Long Bones


  Spongy (cancellous) Bone

  Compact Bone
Long Bones Contain Spongy and
Compact Bone.
Histology

   Histology is the study of normal tissues under
    a microscope.
   Be able to recognize a description of all the
    structures seen in compact bone under a
    microscope:
    –   Lacunae, perforating canal, osteon (functional unit
        of compact bone), central canal, canaliculi,
        lamellae, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts,
        periosteum, hydroxyapatite.
Compact
Bone
Compact Bone Structures
   Osteon: functional unit of compact bone.
   hydroxyapatite The crystalline structure of calcium and
    phosphate that make up bone matrix
   lamellae The circular and concentric layers of collagen fibers
   lacunae The pockets or cavities in which the cells are trapped
   Haversian (or central) canal The large channels containing a
    blood vessel which run longitudinally down the center of each
    unit
   canaliculi The “tiny channels” which run transversely through
    the layers of bone and allow for diffusion of nutrients and
    wastes to the cells
   perforating canal: connects one Haversian canal to another
   osteocytes The mature bone cells which are trapped in the
    matrix and help to maintain it
   Osteoblasts: bone cells that lay down new bone
   Osteoclasts: bone cells that reabsorb bone
Bone Terms to Know

   Periosteum (secured to the bone by Sharpey’s fibers)
   Sharpey’s fibers (anchor the outer wrapping to the bony
    matrix below it)
   Articular Cartilage (cap around long bone)
   Tendon (attaches muscle to bone)
   Ligament (attaches bone-to-bone)
   Aponeurosis (modified tendon)
   Epiphysis (ends of long bones)
   Diaphysis (shaft of long bone)
   Medullary Cavity (hollow area inside long bone)
   Spongy (cancellous) Bone (contains trabeculae instead of
    osteons and lamellae)
   Trabeculae (appearance of a sponge)
Spongy Bone

   Instead of osteons,
    spongy bone has
    trebeculae.
Bone Cells

   Osteoblast (makes bone)
   Osteocyte (mature bone cell)
   Osteoclast (reabsorbs bone)
Histology

   Tendons and ligaments are made from what
    type of connective tissue?
    –   Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Tendon: dense reg. CT
Bones Lab
The Axial Skeleton
   Skull
   Sternum
   Vertebrae
    –   7 Cervical
    –   12 thoracic
    –   5 lumbar
    –   5 sacral
    –   5 fused coccygeal
   Ribs
Appendicular Skeleton


    Humerus                       Pelvic Girdles
                                    Os Coxae (Innominate bone)
    Radius
                                       – Ilium
    Ulna
                                       – Ischium
    Carpals                           – Pubis
      – Metacarpals
      – Phalanges (pollicis is thumb)
    Femur                         Pectoral Girdles
    Patella
                                    Clavicle
    Tibia
    Fibula                         Scapula
    Tarsals
      – Metatarsals
      – Phalanges (hallux is big toe)

				
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